World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Cathedral of Oviedo

Article Id: WHEBN0010405187
Reproduction Date:

Title: Cathedral of Oviedo  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Asturian architecture, Spanish architecture, Spanish Gothic architecture, Gaita asturiana, Monastery of San Pelayo, Agate Casket of Oviedo, Cámara Santa
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Cathedral of Oviedo

Template:Blacklisted-links

Cathedral of the Holy Saviour
Catedral de San Salvador (Spanish)

Façade of the cathedral.

Basic information
Location Oviedo, Spain
Geographic coordinates 43°21′45.30″N 5°50′35.09″W / 43.3625833°N 5.8430806°W / 43.3625833; -5.8430806Coordinates: 43°21′45.30″N 5°50′35.09″W / 43.3625833°N 5.8430806°W / 43.3625833; -5.8430806

Affiliation Roman Catholic
Ecclesiastical or organizational status Cathedral, Minor basilica
Heritage designation World Heritage Site
Leadership Archbishop Jesús Sanz Montes[1]
Website Official Website
Architectural description
Architect(s) Rodrigo Gil de Hontañón
Architectural type Church
Architectural style Gothic
Direction of façade O
Groundbreaking 9th century
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Monuments of Oviedo and the Kingdom of the Asturias
Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iv, vi
Reference UNESCO region Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 1985 (9th Session)
Extensions 1998

The Metropolitan Cathedral Basilica of the Holy Saviour or Cathedral of San Salvador (Spanish: Catedral Metropolitana Basílica de San Salvador, Latin: Sancta Ovetensis) is a Roman Catholic cathedral and minor basilica in the centre of Oviedo, in the Asturias region of northern Spain.

The Cathedral of San Salvador of Oviedo today displays an array of architectural styles, from Pre-Romanesque to Baroque, including Romanesque, Gothic and Renaissance parts. It began as a large Pre-Romanesque basilica in the present location of the Gothic cathedral, but nothing more is known about that first building, built by order of King Alfonso II of Asturias.

History

The Cathedral was founded by King Fruela I of Asturias in 781 AD, and enlarged in 802 by his son Alfonso II of Asturias known as Alfonso the Chaste, who made Oviedo the capital of Kingdom of Asturias, and resided in Oviedo with his court. He created the See of Oviedo in 810. The present edifice was begun by Bishop Gutierre of Toledo in 1388, and the tower added by Cardinal Francisco Mendoza de Bobadilla in 1528.

The Cathedral was restored in the 12th century by Archbishop Pelagius of Oviedo, the chronicler. Bishop Fernando Alfonso (1296–1301) undertook another restoration of the chapter-house, and his successor, Fernando Alvarez (1302–1321), began the cloister. At the end of the 13th century Gutierre de Toledo began the new Gothic basilica, the principal chapel bearing his arms, though it was completed by his successor Guillén. Diego Ramirez de Guzmán (1421–41) built the two chapels of the south transept (now replaced by the sacristy), the old entrance to the church, and the gallery of the cloister adjoining the chapter-house. Alonzo de Palenzuela (1470–85) completed the other part of the transept. Juan Arias (1487–97) left his cognizance, the fleur-de-lys and four scallops, on the nave. Juan Daza (1497–1503) erected the grille of the choir; Valerano (1508–12) added the stained-glass windows. Diego de Muros, founder of the great college at Salamanca known as the Oviedo, had the crestings of the porch wrought by Pedro de Bunyeres and Juan de Cerecedo, while Giralte de Bruselas and Juan de Balmaseda completed in the years 1512 to 1517 the carving of the precious altarpiece ordered by Valeriano Órdoñez de Villaquirán. Cristóbal de Rojas (1546–56) affixed his coat-of-arms to the completed tower, with its octagonal pyramid, one of the marvels of Gothic architecture.

Building

Some Romanesque features remain, such as the Southern Tower, or the upper part of the Holy Chamber, which includes a fantastic collection of Romanesque column-statues. The cathedral of San Salvador is mainly a fine Gothic building, which was built between 14th and 16th centuries in a Classic and Flamboyant Style. The Chapter Room, whose construction was started in 1388, was the first part of the new Gothic cathedral to be finished: built in a classic Gothic fashion (including a great eight-sided dome), it was followed by the cloister and the choir (ca. 1400). The naves were built once the choir was finished, all through the 15th century. We can admire the progression of the constructive stages, taking as an example the tracery of windows and tryphorium. The sanctuary is still a classical-Gothic work, whereas the naves present typical flame-like elements typical of a late-Gothic style.

The latest medieval part, the narthex, was designed by Juan de Badajoz, whose original project included a double-towered facade (though due to financial issues, only a tower was built). This western tower, one of the best examples of Flamboyant Gothic in Spain, was finished by architect Gil de Hontañón, who added to the structure an openwork spire in a modern Renaissance style. The altarpiece at the end of the choir, is also a great work of sculpture and painting in Renaissance, perhaps one of the best of Spain in its kind.

Baroque elements include some lateral private chapels (Capilla de los Vigiles), the Pantheon of Asturian Kings and the ambulatory. There are some altarpieces in a profuse baroque fashion as well.

The major restoration of the cathedral complex was initiated with preliminary studies in 1995 at the request of the Principality of Asturias.[2] Under the sponsorship of the Spanish National Plan for Cathedrals (Spanish: Plan National de Catedrales), the complex was restored from 1998-2002 for a total budget of €764,623.55.[3]

Cámara Santa

Main article: Cámara Santa, Oviedo

The cathedral was also called Sancta Ovetensis;[4] owing to quantity and quality of relics contained in the Cámara Santa (English: Holy Chamber). The Holy Chamber is the only surviving portion of the ancient high-medieval complex. It was built to keep such relics and treasures associated with the Asturian Monarchy as the Cross of the Angels, Victory Cross, and the Agate Box or Agate Casket.

The chief feature of the cathedral is the "Camara Santa", with its venerable relics. Bishop Pelagius relates that the Agate Box, a coffer made by the disciples of the Apostles and containing the most precious relics of the Holy City, was taken from Jerusalem to Africa, and after residing in several locations was finally placed at Oviedo by Alfonso II. In the 16th century, Bishop Cristóbal de Sandoval y Rojas wished to open it, but could not, being overcome with religious fear.

Burials

See also

Notes

References

  • -logo.svg 
  •  

External links

  • Spanish Pre-Romanesque Art Guide; Holy Chamber of Oviedo

Template:Cathedrals in Spain

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.