World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article




Адыгэ Хэку

c. 1500–1864

Flag of Circassia

Circassia in 1750.
Capital Sochi
Languages Adyghe, Kabardian
Religion Islam, Christianity, Traditional
Government Confederation
 •  Established c. 1500
 •  Russian–Circassian War 1763 – 1864
 •  Disestablished 1864

Circassia (

  • Bullough, Oliver. Let Our Fame Be Great: Journeys Among the Defiant People of the Caucasus. Allen Lane, 2010. ISBN 978-1846141416
  • Jaimoukha, Amjad. The Circassians: A Handbook, London: Routledge, New York: Routledge & Palgrave, 2001. ISBN 978-0700706440
  • Jaimoukha, Amjad. Circassian Culture and Folklore: Hospitality, Traditions, Cuisine, Festivals and Music. Bennett & Bloom, 2010. ISBN 978-1898948407
  • Richmond, Walter. The Circassian Genocide, Rutgers University Press, 2013. ISBN 9780813560694
  • Caucasian highlanders (Повседневная жизнь горцев Cеверного Кавказа в XIX в.). Everyday life of the Caucasian highlanders. The 19th century (In the co-authorship with I. Karpeev). Moscow: Molodaya Gvardiy, 2003. ISBN 5-235-02585-7
  • Journal of a residence in Circassia during the years 1837, 1838, and 1839 - Bell, James Stanislaus (English)


  1. ^ (Russian)
  2. ^ (Arabic)
  3. ^ Latham, R. G. Descriptive Ethnology. London, J. Van Voorst, 1859. P. 50.
  4. ^ Latham, R. G. Elements of Comparative Philology. London, Walton and Maberly, 1862. P. 279.
  5. ^ Taitbout, De Marigny. Three Voyages in the Black Sea to the Coast of Circassia. London, 1837. Pp. 5-6.
  6. ^ Guthrie, William, James Ferguson, and John Knox. A New Geographical, Historical and Commercial Grammar and Present State of the Several Kingdoms of the World ... Philadelphia, Johnson & Warner, 1815. P. 549.
  7. ^ Biblioteca Italiana.Vita de' Zichi chiamati Ciarcassi di G. Interiano (Latin)
  8. ^ Home thoughts from abroad: Circassians mourn the past—and organise for the future. The Economist. 2012-05-26.
  9. ^ Spelen zijn op massagraven. Nederlandse Omroep Stichting 2014-02-03[
  10. ^ Рашид ад-Дин. Сборник летописей. М.-Л., 1952. Т. 2. С. 39
  11. ^ Колли Л. Кафа в период владения ею банком св. Георгия (1454—1475) // Известия Таврической Ученой Архивной комиссии. № 47. Симферополь, 1912. С. 86
  12. ^ Kressel R. Ph. The Administration of Caffa under the Uffizio di San Giorgio. University of Wisconsin, 1966. P. 396
  13. ^ "World: Europe Circassians flee Kosovo conflict". BBC News. 1998-08-02. Retrieved 2008-07-06. 
  14. ^ "N.J. Circassians join international group to protest Winter Olympics in Russia". 


See also

Under Russian and Soviet rule, ethnic and tribal divisions between Circassians (and other peoples) were promoted, resulting in several different statistical names being used for various parts of the Circassian people (Adyghes, Cherkess, Kabardins, Shapsugs). Consequently, there is an effort among Circassians to unite under the name Circassian (Adyghe) in Russian Censuses to reflect and revive the concept of the Circassian nation. The majority of the diaspora already tends to call itself "Circassian".


Conquest by Russia

  • 1237 - Historian Rashid-ad-Din in the Persian Chronicles, wrote that the Circassian king Tukar was killed in battle against the Mongols.[10]
  • 1333 - In his letter, Pope John XXII (to the king Zichia (Circassia) Verzacht ["Верзахта" in Cyrillic script]), the Rome (Avignon) Pontiff thanks the Governor of Circassians for his assistance in implementing the Christian faith among the Adygs (Circassians).[11] Verzacht's power and status was so high that his example was followed by the rest of the Circassian princes: They took the Roman Catholic faith.
  • 1471 - A contract was signed between the ruler of Circassia and the ruler of Caffa, naming another ruler Zichia - "Petrezok, the paramount lord of Zichia".[12] Under the contract, Zichia would supply large quantities of grain in the Cаffа.
  • The region was famed for its beautiful women, many of whom were married to the Ottoman sultan and Persian Shahs and had influential positions in the Imperial Harem.
  • Most of the population was expelled from their country in the late 19th century after the Russian–Circassian War in what amounted to ethnic cleansing of Circassians. Today, the Circassians are found in various areas of the old Ottoman Empire and its neighbours, including Turkey, Jordan, Iraq, Iran, Syria, Lebanon, Serbia,[13] Egypt and Israel (in the villages of Kfar Kama and Rehaniya, since 1880), and even as far afield as New Jersey and California in the US, Germany, Australia and the Netherlands.[14]
  • Circassian nationalism has only recently developed and calls for a restoration of the native homelands.


Sochi is considered by many Circassians as their traditional capital city.[8] According to Circassians, the 2014 Winter Olympic village is built in an area of mass graves of Circassians after their defeat by the Russians in 1864.[9]

Circassia’s historical great range extended from the Taman Peninsula in the west, to the town of Mozdok in today’s North Ossetia–Alania in the east. Historically, Circassia covered the southern half of today’s Krasnodar Krai, the Republic of Adygea, Karachay-Cherkessia, Kabardino-Balkaria, and parts of North Ossetia–Alania and Stavropol Krai, bounded by the Kuban River on the north which separated it from the Russian Empire.

Circassia is located at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. Before the Russian conquest of the Caucasus (1763–1864), it covered the entire fertile plateau and the steppe of the northwestern region of the Caucasus, with an estimated population of between 3 to 4 million.

Map of the expulsion of Circassians to the Ottoman Empire.


[7] At the end of the 15th century a detailed description of Circassia and of its inhabitants was made by Genoese traveler and ethnographer

Another historical name for the country was Zyx or the Zygii. The Zygii have been described by the ancient Greek intellectual Strabo as a nation to the north of Colchis.

The name Circassia is a Latinisation of Cherkess (modern Turkish: Çerkes), the Turkic name for the Adyghe people, and originated in the 15th century with medieval Genoese merchants and travellers to Circassia.[3][4] The name Cherkess is traditionally applied to the Adyghe by neighbouring Turkic peoples (principally Crimean Tatars[5] and Ottoman Turks[6]).



  • Name 1
  • Geography 2
  • History 3
  • Conquest by Russia 4
  • Population 5
  • See also 6
  • References 7
  • Bibliography 8

. Circassian people of the homeland. It is the ancestral Black Sea and along the northeast shore of the North Caucasus in the historical country) is a region and [2]شيركاسيا: Arabic, ჩერქეზეთი

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.