Climate of Niger

Continent Africa
Subregion Western Africa
Geographic coordinates 16°00′N 08°00′E / 16.000°N 8.000°E / 16.000; 8.000

 - total
 - water
Ranked 22nd
1,266,700 km²
300 km²
Coastline 0 km (landlocked)
Land boundaries 5,697 km
Countries bordered Algeria 956 km
Benin 266 km
Burkina Faso 628 km
Chad 1,175 km
Libya 354 km
Mali 821 km
Nigeria 1,497 km
Highest point Mont Idoukal-n-Taghès, 2,022 m
Lowest point Niger River, 200 m
Land use
 - Arable land

 - Permanent

 - Other

11.79 %

0.05 %

88.16 % (2011)
Irrigated land 736.6 km² (2005)
Total renewable water resources 33.65 km3 (2011)
Climate: desert to tropical
Terrain: mostly desert plains and sand dunes, hills in the north
Natural resources uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates, gold, molybdenum, gypsum, salt, petroleum
Natural hazards recurring droughts
Environmental issues overgrazing, soil erosion, deforestation, poaching

Niger is a landlocked nation in West Africa located along the border between the Sahara and Sub-Saharan regions. Its geographic coordinates are longitude 16°N and latitude 8°E. Its area is 1.267 million square kilometers, of which 1 266 700 km² is land and 300 km² water, making Niger slightly less than twice the size of the U.S. state of Texas.

Political geography

Surrounded by seven other countries, Niger has a total of 5,697 km of borders. The longest border is with Nigeria to the south, at 1,497 km. This is followed by Chad to the east (1,175 km), Algeria to the north-northwest (956 km), and Mali to the west (821 km). Niger also has short borders in its far southwest frontier (Burkina Faso at 628 km and Benin at 266 km) and to the north-northeast (Libya at 354 km).

Physical geography


Niger's climate is largely hot and dry, with much desert area. In the extreme south, there is a tropical climate on the edges of the Niger River Basin. The terrain is predominantly desert plains and sand dunes, with flat to rolling plains in the south and hills in the north. Lake Chad at the southeast corner of the country is shared between Niger, Nigeria, Chad and Cameroon.

Extreme points

Natural resources

Main article: Mining in Niger

Niger possesses the following natural resources:

Agricultural geography

Main article: Agriculture in Niger

Land in Niger is used as arable land (660 km² of land in Niger is irrigated) and as pasture. There are some forests and woodland. The table below describes the land use in Niger, as of 2011.

Land use
Use Percentage of Area
arable land 11.79[3]
permanent crops 0.05[3]
other 88.16[3]


Natural hazards

Main article: Sahel drought

Recurring droughts are a hazard in Niger.[4][5] The 2012 Sahel drought, along with failed crops, insect plagues, high food prices and conflicts is currently effecting Niger causing a hunger crisis.[6] Many families in Niger, still recovering from the 2010 Sahel famine, are being effect by the 2012 Sahel drought.[5]

Current issues

Current environmental issues in Niger include: overgrazing, soil erosion, deforestation, desertification and endangered wildlife populations (such as elephant, hippopotamus, giraffe, and lion), which are threatened because of poaching and habitat destruction.

International agreements

Niger is a party to the following agreements:

Niger has signed, but not ratified the Kyoto Protocol and Law of the Sea.[7][8]

See also

Geography portal
Niger portal


Further reading

  • L. Herrmann, K. Stahr and K. Vennemann. Atlas of Natural and Agronomic Resources of Niger and Benin, "Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft" (German Research Foundation), the University of Hohenheim. (No date). Accessed 2008-02-22.
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