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Concrete poetry

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Title: Concrete poetry  
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Subject: Zang Tumb Tumb, Barrie Phillip Nichol, Ian Hamilton Finlay, Visual poetry, András Petőcz
Collection: Graphic Poetry, Latin American Literature, Poetry Movements
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Concrete poetry

Easter Wings", printed in 1633 on two facing pages (one stanza per page), sideways, so that the lines would call to mind birds flying up with outstretched wings.

Concrete, pattern, or shape poetry is poetry in which the typographical arrangement of words is as important in conveying the intended effect as the conventional elements of the poem, such as meaning of words, rhythm, rhyme, and so on.

It is sometimes referred to as visual poetry, a term that has come to have distinct meaning of its own, but which shares the distinction of being poetry in which the visual elements are as important as the text.


  • Development 1
  • See also 2
  • Further reading 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5


The term "concrete poetry" was coined in 1956, when an international exhibition of concrete poetry was shown in São Paulo, Brazil, by the group Noigandres (Augusto and Haroldo de Campos, Décio Pignatari and Ronaldo Azeredo) with poets Ferreira Gullar and Wlademir Dias Pino. Two years later, a Brazilian concrete poetry manifesto was published. One of the earliest Brazilian pioneers, Augusto de Campos, has assembled a Web site of old and new work (see external links below), including the manifesto. Its principal tenet is that using words as part of a specifically visual work enables the words themselves to become part of the poetry, rather than just unseen vehicles for ideas. The original manifesto says:

Concrete poetry begins by assuming a total responsibility before language: accepting the premise of the historical idiom as the indispensable nucleus of communication, it refuses to absorb words as mere indifferent vehicles, without life, without personality without history — taboo-tombs in which convention insists on burying the idea.:

The term "concrete poetry" is modern, but the idea itself is quite old, using letter arrangements to enhance the meaning of a poem. This style of poetry originated in Greek Alexandria during the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC. Some were designed as decoration for religious art-works, including wing-, axe-, and altar-shaped poems. Only a handful of examples survive, which are collected together in the Greek Anthology. They include poems by Simias and Theocritus.


An early example from 510 is the Gerechtigkeitsspirale (German: "spiral of justice"), a relief carving of a poem at the pilgrimage church of St. Valentin in Kiedrich, in Hesse, Germany. The text is carved in the form of a spiral on the front of one of the pews for the congregation, creating possibly the earliest known shape poem in the German language.[1] The carving is one of several decorative designs on the pews in the church, and was created in 1510 by master carpenter Erhart Falckener.

"How well her name an Army doth present,
In whom the Lord of hosts did pitch his tent!".
"Anagram" from the 1633 edition of . A few well-known concrete poets outside the English language are András Petöcz in the Hungarian language and Joan Brossa in the Catalan language. Several important concrete poets have also been significant sound poets, among them Henri Chopin, Ernst Jandl, and Bob Cobbing.

Another precursor to concrete poetry is idolatry. The technique is now used by both religious and secular artists and reportedly is also used by Arabic writer-artists.

See also

Further reading

  • Rasula, Jed and McCaffery, Steve: "Imagining Language: An Anthology." The MIT Press, 2001
  • Higgins, Dick: Pattern Poetry: Guide to an Unknown Literature. State University of New York, 1987
  • Robert G. Warnock and Roland Folter: "The German Pattern Poem", in: Festschrift Detlev Schumann', Munich 1970, pp. 40–73
  • Medium-Art, Selection of Hungarian Experimental Poetry, editors Zoltan Frater and Andras Petocz, published by Magveto, 1990, Budapest, ISBN 963-14-1680-1
  • Solt, Mary Ellen: "Concrete Poetry: A World View" Indiana University Press, 1970


  1. ^ Higgins, Dick (1997). Pattern Poetry: Guide to an Unknown Literature (in German) 4. Rheingau Forum. p. 71.  

External links

  • Walker, John. "Concrete Poetry". Glossary of Art, Architecture & Design since 1945, 3rd. ed
  • Concrete Poetry: A World View by Mary Ellen Solt on UbuWeb, which hosts a large amount of concrete poetry (Visual Poetry)
  • Ancient Greek pattern poems
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