World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Endothelin receptor

Article Id: WHEBN0005827346
Reproduction Date:

Title: Endothelin receptor  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Endothelin, Bradykinin receptor, Parathyroid hormone receptor, Glucagon receptor, Luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor
Collection: G Protein Coupled Receptors
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Endothelin receptor

endothelin receptor type A
Symbol EDNRA
Entrez 1909
HUGO 3179
OMIM 131243
RefSeq NM_001957
UniProt P25101
Other data
Locus Chr. 4 q31.2
endothelin receptor type B
Symbol EDNRB
Alt. symbols HSCR2, HSCR
Entrez 1910
HUGO 3180
OMIM 131244
RefSeq NM_000115
UniProt P24530
Other data
Locus Chr. 13 q22

There are at least four known endothelin receptors, ETA, ETB1, ETB2 and ETC,[1] all of which are G protein-coupled receptors whose activation result in elevation of intracellular-free calcium,[2] which constricts the smooth muscles of the blood vessels, raising blood pressure, or relaxes the smooth muscles of the blood vessels, lowering blood pressure, among other functions.


  • Physiological functions 1
    • Brain and nerves 1.1
  • Clinical significance 2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Physiological functions

  • ETA is a subtype for vasoconstriction[1] These receptors are found in the smooth muscle tissue of blood vessels, and binding of endothelin to ETA increases vasoconstriction (contraction of the blood vessel walls) and the retention of sodium, leading to increased blood pressure.[3]
  • ETB1 mediates vasodilation,[1] When endothelin binds to ETB1 receptors, this leads to the release of nitric oxide (also called endothelium-derived relaxing factor), natriuresis and diuresis (the production and elimination of urine) and mechanisms that lower blood pressure.
  • ETB2 mediates vasoconstriction[1]
  • ETC has yet no clearly defined function.[1]
  • ET receptor are also found in the nervous system where they may mediate neurotransmission and vascular functions.[4]

Brain and nerves

Widely distributed in the body, receptors for endothelin are present in blood vessels and cells of the brain, choroid plexus and peripheral nerves. When applied directly to the brain of rats in picomolar quantities as an experimental model of stroke, endothelin-1 caused severe metabolic stimulation and seizures with substantial decreases in blood flow to the same brain regions, both effects mediated by calcium channels.[5]

A similar strong vasoconstrictor action of endothelin-1 was demonstrated in a peripheral neuropathy model in rats.[6]

Clinical significance

Mutations in the EDNRB gene are associated with ABCD syndrome[7] and some forms of Waardenburg syndrome.[8]

See also


  1. ^ a b c d e Medical physiology a cellular and molecular approach (2nd ed., International ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders/Elsevier. 2009. p. 480.  
  2. ^ Davenport AP (2002). "International Union of Pharmacology. XXIX. Update on endothelin receptor nomenclature". Pharmacol. Rev. 54 (2): 219–26.  
  3. ^ Hynynen MM, Khalil RA; Khalil (January 2006). "The vascular endothelin system in hypertension--recent patents and discoveries". Recent Pat Cardiovasc Drug Discov 1 (1): 95–108.  
  4. ^ Barnes K, Turner AJ; Turner (August 1997). "The endothelin system and endothelin-converting enzyme in the brain: molecular and cellular studies". Neurochem. Res. 22 (8): 1033–40.  
  5. ^ Gross PM, Zochodne DW, Wainman DS, Ho LT, Espinosa FJ, Weaver DF; Zochodne; Wainman; Ho; Espinosa; Weaver (July 1992). "Intraventricular endothelin-1 uncouples the blood flow: metabolism relationship in periventricular structures of the rat brain: involvement of L-type calcium channels". Neuropeptides 22 (3): 155–65.  
  6. ^ Zochodne DW, Ho LT, Gross PM; Ho; Gross (December 1992). "Acute endoneurial ischemia induced by epineurial endothelin in the rat sciatic nerve". Am. J. Physiol. 263 (6 Pt 2): H1806–10.  
  7. ^ Verheij JB, Kunze J, Osinga J, van Essen AJ, Hofstra RM; Kunze; Osinga; Van Essen; Hofstra (2002). "ABCD syndrome is caused by a homozygous mutation in the EDNRB gene". Am. J. Med. Genet. 108 (3): 223–5.  
  8. ^ Read AP, Newton VE; Newton (1997). "Waardenburg syndrome". J. Med. Genet. 34 (8): 656–65.  

External links

  • "Endothelin Receptors". IUPHAR Database of Receptors and Ion Channels. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. 
  • Endothelin receptor at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH)
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.