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European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System

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Title: European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System  
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Subject: Bologna Process, Higher education in Ukraine, Centrale Graduate School, Maastricht Science Programme, École centrale de Lille
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European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System

European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System (ECTS) is a standard for comparing the study attainment and performance of students of higher education across the European Union and other collaborating European countries. For successfully completed studies, ECTS credits are awarded. One academic year corresponds to 60 ECTS credits that are equivalent to 1500–1800 hours of study in all countries respective of standard or qualification type and is used to facilitate transfer and progression throughout the Union.

The ECTS will be complemented by the European credit transfer system for vocational education and training (ECVET) which the ministers are responsible for vocational training in 32 European countries agreed to develop in the Maastricht Communiqué of 14 December 2004.

ECTS also includes a standard ECTS grading scale, intended to be shown in addition to local (i.e. national) standard grades:[1]


  • Current systems 1
  • Obsolete systems 2
  • See also 3
  • External links 4
  • References 5

Current systems

List of credits given in one year in European countries
Country Credit Points per year Hours per Credit Point Credit point name

1 "()"s.

European Union (EU) 60 25-30 ECTS-credits
EU Member States
Austria 60 25 ECTS (also ECTS-Punkte, ECTS credits)
Belgium 60 25-30 ECTS (also studiepunten, ECTS)
Bulgaria 60 25-30 кредити
Croatia 60 25-30 ECTS bodovi
Cyprus 60 30 ECTS
Czech Republic 60 ~26 kredity
Denmark 60 ~28 ECTS-point
England, Wales and Northern Ireland 120 ~15 credits (Open University – points). Two England/Wales/Northern Ireland credits are equivalent to one ECTS credit.[2]
Estonia 60 26 ainepunkt (EAP). Currently because many students are still used to the older system the longer name 'euroopa ainepunkt' is more often used for clarity's sake
Finland 60 27 opintopiste (op) / studiepoäng (Swedish)
France 60 29 crédits ECTS
Germany 60 25-30 ECTS, Leistungspunkte (LP), Kreditpunkte (KP), Credit Points (CP) or Credits
Greece 60 30 ECTS, Credit Points (CP), Μονάδες Φόρτου Εργασίας (Διδακτικές Μονάδες - Δ.Μ) or Credits
Hungary 60 30 kredit(pont)
Ireland 60 ECTS
Italy 60 25 crediti formativi universitari (CFU)
Latvia 40 40 kredītpunkts (KP)
Lithuania 60 40 kreditai
Luxembourg 60 ECTS
Malta 60 25 ECTS-credits
The Netherlands 60 28 studiepunten (ECTS or EC)
Poland 60 punkty ECTS
Portugal 60 28 créditos
Romania 60 30 credite (SECTS)
Scotland 120 SCOTCAT credit points
Slovakia 60 kredity
Slovenia 60 kreditne točke
Spain 60 25 créditos ECTS
Sweden 60 26.667 högskolepoäng (Used from July 2007)
EFTA Member States
Iceland 60 25-30 einingar (units)
Norway 60 25-30 studiepoeng
Switzerland 60 30 ECTS-credits
Other European Countries
Bosnia and Herzegovina 60 25 ECTS bodovi
Georgia 60-65 30 კრედიტი (krediti)
Macedonia 60 кредити (ECTS)
Montenegro 60 ECTS-krediti
Serbia 60 ЕСПБ бодови
Ukraine 60 30 кредити
Turkey 60 25-30 AKTS-Kredisi
  • Note: some Bulgarian universities have put a lesser standard for their students, although there is a particular ordinance by the Ministry of Education and Science.[3] In such universities the hours per credit are ≈13[4][5]

Obsolete systems

List of credits previously given in one year in European countries
Country CP/a Abbreviation (unit)
Austria (old system) ~40 Semesterwochenstunden (SSt)
Denmark 1 Studenterårsværk (STÅ) (slowly phased out in Danish legislation since 2000)
Estonia (old system) 40 ainepunkt (AP)
Finland (old system) 40 opintoviikko
Germany (old system) ~40 Semesterwochenstunden (SWS)
The Netherlands 42 studiepunten
Norway 20 vekttall
Sweden 40 poäng (used until July 2007)
Sweden 2 betyg (used until late 1960s/early 1970s)

See also

External links

  • European Commission ECTS information
  • The Official Bologna Process Website 2010-2020
  • Erasmus
  • European Commission ECVET information
  • ECTS/DS - Users' Guide and forms


  1. ^ EUROPA - Education and Training - Socrates programme - ECTS - European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System
  2. ^ "Erasmus Mundus credits". University of Salford. Retrieved 20 May 2012. 
  3. ^ "Ordinance 21/30 September 2004 for Application of Credit Transfer and Accumulation System in Higher education institutions, Ministry of education and science, Bulgaria". Retrieved 15 April 2014.  ([1])
  4. ^ "Academic calendar, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Sofia University". Retrieved 15 December 2012.  (3105 hours = 240 credits)
  5. ^ "Sofia University - Business Administration (English) - Curriculum". Retrieved 15 December 2012. 
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