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First Group

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First Group

FirstGroup plc


FirstGroup operates bus, coach, rail & tram services in the United Kingdom, Denmark, United States, Canada & Ireland (Denmark & Ireland not represented)
Owner Publicly owned (Template:Lse)

  • United Kingdom United Kingdom
  • United States United States
  • Canada Canada
  • Republic of Ireland Ireland
  • Denmark Denmark
Transit type bus, coach, rail, tram & yellow school bus
Chief executive Tim O'Toole (CEO)
Martin Gilbert (Chairman)
Headquarters Aberdeen, Scotland
Began operation September 1986
Operator(s) See below
FirstGroup plc
Type Public company
Traded as Template:Lse
Founded September 1986
Revenue £6,901 million (March 2013)[1]
Operating income £335 million (March 2013)[1]
Net income £172 million (March 2013)[1]
Employees 120,000 (March 2013)[1]

FirstGroup[2] (Template:Lse) is a British transport group, registered and operating in the United Kingdom. The company also operate transport services in Ireland, Denmark, Canada and the United States. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange and is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index.[3]


FirstGroup originated from the deregulation of bus services in the United Kingdom, whereby private companies purchased nationalised and municipal bus operators.

In September 1986 the Somerset based services of the Bristol Omnibus Company that were rebranded in 1985 as Badgerline were purchased by a management buyout. As Badgerline Group, it expanded through acquisition purchasing 12 other formerly nationalised bus companies in England and Wales. Badgerline Group became a public limited company in November 1993.

In January 1989 Grampian Regional Transport, the Aberdeen City Council owned bus operator, was purchased in a management buyout led by its then general manager Moir Lockhead.[4] As GRT Bus Group, it expanded through acquisition purchasing six former nationalised bus companies in England and Scotland. GRT Bus Group became a public limited company in April 1994.

In April 1995 FirstBus was formed through the merger of the Badgerline and GRT Bus Groups, with fleets in England, Wales and Scotland. Aberdeen was selected as the headquarters.[5]

At the time of the merger, FirstBus had 5,600 buses, 4,000 of which came from Badgerline.[6] Badgerline's Trevor Smallwood became chairman of FirstBus, while GRT head Moir Lockhead became deputy chairman and chief executive.[6]

FirstBus continued the policy of growth by acquisition acquiring former council owned operations and companies formerly owned by English, Welsh and Scottish nationalised operators. FirstBus went on to acquire larger urban metropolitan operators by taking advantage of the privatisation of the PTE bus operations and the privatisation of London bus services. FirstBus acquired GM Buses North in Manchester and Strathclyde Buses in Glasgow in 1996, Mainline in South Yorkshire and CentreWest in London in 1997, and Capital Citybus in London in 1998.[6]

FirstBus began applying a standard corporate typeface to its fleet names with a stylised f logo. A new corporate white, pink and blue livery was adopted, nicknamed Barbie, for application to new buses, while further bus company acquisitions continued. Inherited bus fleets were initially left in their original colours with First fleet names, with the intention that the Barbie scheme would stand for a set service quality. Later older buses received a modified Barbie 2 livery.

The company was renamed FirstGroup in December 1997[2] after the company moved into railways in February 1996 with the Privatisation of British Rail, through a 24.5% shareholding in Great Western Holdings that won the Great Western and North Western franchises, and a 100% shareholding in First Great Eastern that ran the Great Eastern franchise from January 1997. In March 1998 FirstGroup purchased the 75.5% shares in Great Western Holdings it did not already own and rebranded the franchises First Great Western and First North Western.[7][8][9]

In September 1998 FirstGroup made its first overseas foray when New World First Bus commenced operating bus services in Hong Kong formerly operated by China Motor Bus. FirstGroup had a 26% shareholding in the joint venture.[10] In May 2000 FirstGroup sold its shares to joint venture partner New World Development.[11]

In September 1999 FirstGroup purchased Ryder Public Transport Services, a provider of school bus transportation in the United States.[12]

In May 2000 FirstGroup began operating the Croydon Tramlink concession under contract to Transport for London.[13]

In August 2003 FirstGroup purchased GB Railways which owned Anglia Railways and GB Railfreight and held 80% of the shares in Hull Trains.[14] Having not been shortlisted for the Greater Anglia Rail Franchise, this gave FirstGroup another chance to bid. However it was unsuccessful and the franchise was awarded to National Express from April 2004 including the services operated by First Great Eastern.

In November 2003 FirstGroup purchased a 90% shareholding in Irish coach operator Aircoach.[15] The remaining 10% was purchased in 2005.

In February 2004 FirstGroup's joint venture with Keolis commenced operating the First TransPennine Express rail franchise, FirstGroup having a 55% shareholding.[16][17] In April 2004 FirstGroup commenced operating the First Great Western Link franchise[18] and in October 2004 the First ScotRail franchise.[19] In December 2004 the remainder of First North Western passed to Northern Rail, some services having already been transferred to Arriva Trains Wales and FirstTranspennine Express.

In April 2006 FirstGroup commenced operating the First Capital Connect franchise[20] and a renewed First Great Western franchise that had been expanded to include the Thames Trains and Wessex Trains franchises.[21][22]

In February 2007 FirstGroup agreed to buy the US-based firm Laidlaw, an operator of inter-city coaches and yellow school buses across North America, for £1.9 billion (US$3.7 billion). This also gave it a controlling stake in Greyhound Lines, the largest bus operator in North America. The Greyhound name and the names of Canadian subsidiaries of Greyhound Canada were retained, and all other Laidlaw-owned services in the United States and Canada were rebranded under the First or Greyhound names, except for Voyageur Colonial and Grey Goose in Canada.[23]

In May 2007 FirstGroup purchased some bus services in the Rhine-Neckar region of Germany.

In January 2009 DSBFirst, FirstGroup's joint venture with Danish State Railways commenced operating the Oresundtrain rail franchise from Helsingør and Nivå in Denmark along the Kystbanen line and over the Øresund Bridge to Malmö, Växjö, Kalmar, Karlskrona and Gothenburg in Sweden. FirstGroup had a 25% shareholding in the Danish business and 20% in the Swedish business.[24] By March 2011 this was 30%.[25]

In June 2009 FirstGroup made a takeover offer for fellow transport operator National Express Group, which was struggling with debt at the time and was struggling to hold onto its National Express East Coast rail franchise. This was rejected, National Express saying it did not "consider it appropriate" at the time to discuss a takeover. FirstGroup believed that there was "significant industrial and commercial logic" for a merger, but National Express wished to focus on its own initiatives.[26]

In June 2010 FirstGroup sold its railfreight business First GBRf to the Eurotunnel Group for £31 million,[27][28] ending the group's involvement in rail freight transport.[29]

In September 2010 former London Underground managing director Tim O'Toole, already a board member since May 2009 and Chief Operating Officer and Deputy Chief Executive since June 2010, was announced as the successor to retiring group Chief Executive Officer Moir Lockhead with effect from 31 March 2011.[30][31]

In September 2011 FirstGroup's German bus operations were sold to Marwyn European Transport.[32]

In December 2011 DSBFirst ceased operating the Swedish part of the operation after difficulties encountered by Danish State Railways over cross subsidies.[33][34][35]

In July 2012 FirstGroup provided bus and coach services for the London 2012 Olympic Games. This involved the provision of venue shuttle and park and ride services, services connecting peripheral park and ride sites on the M25 with the Olympic Park and Ebbsfleet, and a nationwide network of express coaches to the Olympic Park and the Weymouth and Portland sailing venue. The services required around 900 vehicles in total, although some were sub-contracted.[36]

In June 2013 most of the First London bus operations were sold to Go-Ahead London, Metroline and Tower Transit.[37] Operations ceased in September 2013 when the remaining contracts expired.


FirstGroup plc is Britain's largest bus operator, running more than 20% of all local bus services. A fleet of nearly 9,000 buses carries some 2.9 million passengers a day in more than 40 major towns and cities. FirstGroup also runs passenger rail services in the UK. Passenger rail franchises consist of First Great Western, First Capital Connect, First TransPennine Express and ScotRail. It also operates First Hull Trains (80% shareholding), a non-franchised open access passenger train service. FirstGroup operates tram services on the London Croydon Tramlink network carrying approximately 24 million passengers a year on behalf of Transport for London.[38]

In North America, FirstGroup has several divisions: First Student, which runs school bus routes;[39] First Transit, which holds many city and county public transport contracts;[40] and First Vehicle Services, which maintains vehicles for many corporations, organisations and local governments, including the other First divisions and Greyhound lines.[41] Canadian operations are provided through its First Canada subsidiary, which operates school buses and fulfills public transport contracts.

FirstGroup has always had a consistent brand and most of the names of its operations begin with the word First, such as First Aberdeen, First Glasgow, First Great Western etc. The company had removed all local branding for its local bus services, buses simply carrying the fleet name 'First' throughout the UK, although each company still operated independently. Its corporate colours were white, pink and blue, and most of its buses and trains are now liveried in a variant of these colours. In 2012 FirstGroup introduced a new purple, white and lilac livery and once again local branding is being introduced.[42]

Buses, trains and trams not in corporate livery are:

  • Transport for London tendered services painted red per Transport for London requirements
  • Croydon Tramlink painted in white, green and blue per Transport for London requirement
  • ScotRail rail services in Scotland operated by First ScotRail (including those operated by First ScotRail for the Strathclyde Partnership for Transport), are being painted in a blue livery with white Saltire markings on the carriage ends, as mandated by the Scottish Government's transport agency Transport Scotland.[43] The blue Saltire livery is being introduced gradually and as of 2011, much of the ScotRail rolling stock still carries legacy First Scotrail or Strathclyde Partnership for Transport livery.
  • Greyhound UK - services in the United Kingdom painted in the same navy blue and grey livery introduced to the American Greyhound fleet in 2009.

Similarly, in North America, all owned and operated services are operated under the First or Greyhound brands except in the Canadian provinces of Quebec and Manitoba for regulatory reasons, and vehicles operated under contract to public agencies, which carry the branding of the agency that owns the particular bus. All American subsidiaries of Greyhound Lines are now operated under the Greyhound name.[44]

FirstGroup owns and operates the Aircoach service in Dublin,[45] linking Dublin Airport with the city centre, the south side of Dublin, Greystones and Bray as well as long-distance express services runs to Cork and Belfast. Aircoach also operates car park shuttles at Dublin Airport. Until 2009 Aircoach did not carry corporate branding, although recently drivers had begun to receive standard FirstGroup uniforms with additional Aircoach branding. Buses introduced since January 2009 on Aircoach carry a revised livery, still predominantly blue, but with a pink and white stripe and FirstGroup logo alongside the Aircoach logo.

Current operating companies

Bus & coach services

United Kingdom

  • First Rail Support provide emergency and planned rail replacement transport to train operating companies using First and non First Transport through its 24 hour control room in Simonstone, Lancashire..
  • Greyhound UK coach services between Cardiff, Swansea, Newport, Bristol and Bristol Airport



United States

Rail services

United Kingdom

Denmark & Sweden

Services formerly operated

Bus & coach services


  • FirstGroup Rhein-Neckar sold September 2011 to Marwyn European Transport

Hong Kong

United Kingdom

  • First London from March 1997 until September 2013, most operations sold to Go-Ahead London, Metroline and Tower Transit, remainder ceased upon expiry of contracts in September 2013

Rail services

United Kingdom


External links

Companies portal
  • FirstGroup official web site
  • Wikinvest:FGP-LN
  • Template:OpenCorp
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