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Flag desecration

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Title: Flag desecration  
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Subject: United States v. Eichman, Texas v. Johnson, Islam/Selected article/27, Flag Protection Act, Flags
Collection: Civil Disobedience, Flag Controversies, Protest Tactics
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Flag desecration

A non-standard Flag of Israel being burned

Flag desecration is a term applied to the desecration of flags or flag protocol, a various set of acts that intentionally destroy, damage or mutilate a flag in public. Often, in case of a national flag, such action is intended to make a political point against a country or its policies. Some countries have laws forbidding methods of destruction (such as burning in public) or forbidding particular uses (such as for commercial purposes); such laws may distinguish between desecration of the country's own national flag and flags of other countries.


  • Background 1
  • Flag desecration by country 2
    • Algeria 2.1
    • Argentina 2.2
    • Australia 2.3
    • Austria 2.4
    • Brazil 2.5
    • Belgium 2.6
    • Canada 2.7
    • China 2.8
    • Croatia 2.9
    • Denmark 2.10
    • Faroe Islands 2.11
    • Finland 2.12
    • France 2.13
    • Germany 2.14
      • Nazi flag 2.14.1
    • Hong Kong 2.15
    • Hungary 2.16
    • India 2.17
    • Iraq 2.18
    • Ireland 2.19
    • Israel 2.20
    • Italy 2.21
    • Japan 2.22
    • South Korea 2.23
    • Mexico 2.24
    • New Zealand 2.25
    • Norway 2.26
    • Pakistan 2.27
    • Panama 2.28
    • Peru 2.29
    • Philippines 2.30
    • Portugal 2.31
    • Romania 2.32
    • Saudi Arabia 2.33
    • Soviet Union 2.34
    • Serbia 2.35
    • Sweden 2.36
    • Switzerland 2.37
    • Turkey 2.38
    • United Kingdom 2.39
      • Northern Ireland 2.39.1
      • British military colours 2.39.2
    • United States 2.40
      • Flag burning 2.40.1
      • Flying an American flag upside down 2.40.2
      • Confederate flag 2.40.3
    • Venezuela 2.41
    • United Nations 2.42
  • See also 3
  • Notes 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6


Actions that may be treated as flag desecration include burning it,[1] urinating or defecating on it, defacing it with slogans,[1] stepping upon it, damaging it with stones or guns, cutting or ripping it,[1] or dragging it on the ground.

Flag desecration may be undertaken for a variety of reasons. It may be a protest against a country's foreign policy, including one's own, or the nature of the government in power there. It may be a protest against nationalism, or a deliberate and symbolic insult to the people of the country represented by the flag. It may also be a protest at the very laws prohibiting the act of desecrating a flag.

Burning or defacing a flag is a crime in some countries. In countries where it is not, the act may still be prosecuted as disorderly conduct, arson or theft if conducted against someone else's property.

Using a flag unconventionally, such as hanging it upside down or reversed, may be regarded as desecration,[1] and flying a flag at half-mast is considered desecration in Saudi Arabia.[2] In some countries, however, flying a flag upside-down is conventional protocol to indicate an emergency or problem, or to indicate a state of war. Moreover, many flags (such as the flag of Austria) when hung upside down and/or reversed look the same because they are vertically and/or horizontally symmetrical.

Some countries regard it as desecration to make toilet paper, napkins, doormats, and other such items bearing the image of the flag, so that the flag's image will be destroyed or soiled in the course of everyday activities. It is, however, increasingly common to see clothing with the image of the flags forming a substantial part of the piece. Views vary as to whether some of this is an act of national pride or disrespect.

Flag desecration by country


In Algeria, flag desecration is a crime. According to article 160 bis of the Algerian penal code, the intentional and public shredding, distortion, or desecration of the national flag is punishable by 5 to 10 years of imprisonment.

In 2010, an Algerian court convicted 17 people of flag desecration and punished them by up to 6 years of imprisonment and 10 thousand dollars in fines after protests for jobs and housing.


The Penal Code (Código Penal) on its Article 222 criminalizes the public desecration of the national flag, coat of arms, national anthem, or any provincial symbol, imposing from 1 to 4 years of imprisonment[3]


Flag desecration is not illegal in Australia.[4]

During the 2005 Cronulla riots, a Lebanese-Australian youth, whose name has been kept secret, climbed an RSL club building and tore down its flag before setting it on fire. The youth was sentenced to 12 months probation for the destruction of the RSL's property.[5] In October of that year the youth accepted an invitation from the RSL to carry the Australian flag along with war veterans in the Anzac Day march the following year.[6] However, the RSL was forced to withdraw this invitation as it received phone calls from people threatening to pelt the youth with missiles on the day.[7] The head of the New South Wales RSL was quoted as saying that "the people who made these threats ought to be bloody ashamed of themselves".[6]

In 2006, Australian contemporary artist Azlan McLennan burnt an Australian flag and displayed it on a billboard outside the Trocadero artspace in Footscray, Victoria. He called the artpiece Proudly UnAustralian.[8]

The socialist youth group Resistance marketed "flag-burning kits"—inspired by, and to protest, the censorship of Azlan McLennan's art—to university students.[9]

Tasmanian Aboriginal Centre worker Adam Thompson burned the Australian flag on the week of Australia Day (2008) celebrations in Launceston's City Park to the cheers of about 100 people, who were rallying against what they call "Invasion Day".[10]

Tent embassy activists burned the Australian flag on 27 January 2012 at the entrance to Canberra's Parliament House as they called for Aboriginal sovereignty over Australia.[11]


In Austria flag desecration is illegal under §248

  • The Flag Burning Page
  • USA Flag Burning Archive
  • Flag amendment fails by one vote
  • Flag burning online
  • Citizen's Flag alliance; reports of flag burning in 2006
  • The Pros and Cons of Flag Burning

External links

  1. ^ a b c d Charney, Evan (2009). Roger Chapman, ed. Culture Wars: An Encyclopedia of Issues, Voices, and Viewpoints (Vol 1 ed.). M.E. Sharpe. p. 180.  
  2. ^ Goldstein, Robert Justin (2006). Burning the Flag: The Great 1989–1990 American Flag Desecration Controversy. Kent State University Press. p. 293.  
  3. ^
  4. ^ "Push to make flag burning illegal". Australia: 25 June 2003. Retrieved 8 March 2013. 
  5. ^ "'"Flag burner 'should be jailed. The Sydney Morning Herald. 23 August 2006. 
  6. ^ a b Mulvey, Paul (11 October 2006). "No Anzac march for flag burner". AAP. 
  7. ^ "RSL rethinks flag idea after threats". The Sydney Morning Herald. 12 October 2006. 
  8. ^ "7.30 Report – 06/02/2006: Art prompts call for flag-burning law change". Australia: ABC. Retrieved 1 September 2010. 
  9. ^ Name: * (22 February 2006). "Flag-burning kits for sale | Green Left Weekly". Retrieved 1 September 2010. 
  10. ^ PM called on to outlaw flag-burning, ABC News
  11. ^ Tent Embassy protesters march on Parliament, ABC News
  12. ^
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  14. ^
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  16. ^ See this article in french-speaking La Libre Belgique
  17. ^ Criminal Law of the People's Republic of China
  18. ^ Croatian law NN 110/97 article 151 (in Croatian)
  19. ^ "History and Debate of Flag Burning". Retrieved 1 August 2014. 
  20. ^ "Danmarks-samfundet | Gamle faner". Retrieved 1 September 2010. 
  21. ^ "Danmarks-samfundet | Flagstangen og flaget". Retrieved 1 September 2010. 
  22. ^ Løgtingslóg nr. 42 frá 17. juli 1959 um flaggið, sum broytt við løgtingslóg nr. 109 frá 29. desember 1998
  23. ^ Loi n°2003-239 du 18 mars 2003 pour la sécurité intérieure De l'outrage
  24. ^ Proceedings of the French national assembly, second sitting of 23 January 2003
  25. ^ Report from the mixed National Assembly/Senate commission
  26. ^ The Constitutional Council considered that the events regulated by public authorities consist in public events of a sportive, recreative or cultural character organized in enclosures that law and regulations submit to health and safety rules because of their size. See Decision 2003-467 DC, section 104.
  27. ^ Ruling of 14 June 2006 by the Court of Appeal of Riom
  28. ^ Décret n° 2010-835 du 21 juillet 2010 relatif à l'incrimination de l'outrage au drapeau tricolore
  29. ^ Le MondeUn Algérien condamné pour outrage au drapeau français, , 12 December 2010
  30. ^ Guibernau, Montserrat (26 July 2013). Belonging: Solidarity and Division in Modern Societies. Polity Press. p. 95.  
  31. ^ Information pamphlet by the Foundation for the Reappraisal of the SED Dictatorship. Retrieved on 9 March 2008.
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  35. ^ WAR & PEACE: Liberty Cabbage, Time Magazine, 27 January 1941
  36. ^ German Protest Over Flag Incident is Made Public, St. Petersburg Times, 22 January 1941
  37. ^ Pardoned Sailer Reassigned to Ship, Milwaukee Journal, 22 December 1941
  38. ^
  39. ^
  40. ^ "HKSAR v. NG KUNG SIU AND ANOTHER – [1999] HKCFI 310; HCMA000563/1998, 23 March 1999". Retrieved 1 September 2010. 
  41. ^ "HKSAR v. NG KUNG SIU AND ANOTHER – [1999] HKCFA 91; [1999] 2 HKCFAR 442; [1999] 3 HKLRD 907; [2000] 1 HKC 117; FACC000004/1999, 15 December 1999". Retrieved 1 September 2010. 
  42. ^ Heller, Andor (1957). No More Comrades. Chicago: Henry Regnery Company. pp. 9–84. ASIN B0007DOQP0. 
  43. ^ "Hungary – 1956 Uprising Flags". Retrieved 1 September 2010. 
  44. ^ "Flag code of India". Government of India. Retrieved 9 June 2011. 
  45. ^ "Indians burn Australian flag in protest after Sydney fashion show models wears swimsuit bearing Hindu goddess". Daily Mail (London). 9 May 2011. 
  46. ^ a b Protocol Section. "Practices to avoid" (PDF). An Bhratach Náisiúnta / The National Flag. Department of the Taoiseach. p. 14. Retrieved 28 March 2011. 
  47. ^ Wolff, Alexander (13 June 1994). "Here Come The Lads". Sports Illustrated. 
  48. ^ Byrne, Nicola (4 November 2001). "'There are times when your team needs you...'". The Observer (London). Retrieved 28 March 2011. 
  49. ^ Bray, Allison (6 June 2009). "Hello again...Davy Keogh still flying the flag".  
  50. ^ a b Barry, Pat (18 June 2002). "Letters: In defence of Guinness".  
  51. ^ Dáil debates Vol.553 No.4 p.5 20 June 2002
  52. ^ Watt, Stephen; Morgan, Eileen M.; Mustafa, Shakir M. (2000). A century of Irish drama: widening the stage. Indiana University Press. p. 108.  
  53. ^ a b c Dwyer, T. Ryle (1988). Strained relations: Ireland at peace and the USA at war, 1941–45. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 163.  
  54. ^ McDowell, Robert Brendan; Webb, David Allardice (1 January 2004). Trinity College Dublin, 1592–1952: an academic history. Trinity College Dublin Press, in association with Environmental Publications. p. 464.  
  55. ^ 'Satanist' teens allegedly burn flag, Jerusalem Post, 30 January 2007
  56. ^ "Art. 292 codice penale - Vilipendio o danneggiamento alla bandiera o ad altro emblema dello Stato". Archived from the original on 15 February 2015. 
  57. ^ Russia calls for probe into provocative actions of Japanese extremists
  58. ^ Wundunn, Sheryl. Yomitan Journal: A Pacifist Landlord Makes War on Okinawa Bases. The New York Times. 1995-11-11 [Retrieved 2008-03-11].
  59. ^ Smits, Gregory. Penn State University. Okinawa in Postwar Japanese Politics and the Economy; 2000 [Retrieved 2008-10-28].
  60. ^ Befu 2001, pp. 92–95
  61. ^ It's Not the Koreans Who Do Not Understand, Washington Post, 1 October 1988
  62. ^ "Law Coat of Arms, Anthem and National Flag" (PDF). 
  63. ^ Avilés, Carlos (8 May 2008). "Juez da 'escarmiento' por ofensa a Bandera" [Judge issues 'slap' for Flag offense].  
  64. ^ "Court throws out flag burning charge".  
  65. ^ "Peru wants jail for nude woman who used flag as saddle". Lima: Reuters. 24 July 2008. 
  66. ^ "Las polémicas fotos de Leysi Suárez causan revuelo" [Controversial Leysi Suárez's pictures cause commotion].  
  67. ^ "Piden archivar proceso a Leysi Suárez por posar desnuda sobre bandera" [The case against Leysi Suárez for posing node over the flag is being asked to be closed].  
  68. ^ Republic Act No. 8491, the Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines, February 12, 1998, Chan Robles Law Library.
  69. ^ República Portuguesa, Código Penal
  70. ^ Romanian Penal Code (2008)
  71. ^ Agenţia de Monitorizare a Presei – Academia Caţavencu, "Programul FreeEx – Libertatea presei în România în anul 2003", March 2004
  72. ^ Paul A. Herbig, Handbook of Cross-Cultural Marketing, pg. 20
  73. ^ Protest against Czech invasions mounts in capitals of the world, UPI, 22 August 1968
  74. ^ Afghans Protest Soviet Presence, New York Times, 22 March 1985
  75. ^ Swiss Penal Code , SR/RS 311.0 (E·D·F·I), art. 270 (E·D·F·I)
  76. ^ Macaskill, Jamie. A BURNING FURY Daily Record Glasgow (UK) 27 May 1998
  77. ^ Evening News Edinburgh (UK) Burning flag socialists fined GBP 450 13 October 1999
  78. ^ The Times Conviction for defacing flag is incompatible 21 January 2002
  79. ^ Joshi Eichner Herrmann. Cambridge students mark Duke's wedding by burning Union flag: Protest The Daily Telegraph 2 May 2011
  80. ^ Walker, Jonathan. Burning issue for MPs Birmingham Mail 1 December 2006
  81. ^ Forget Flag Burning, Time, 25 June 2006
  82. ^ "18 U.S. Code § 700 - Desecration of the flag of the United States; penalties". Congress of the United States. Retrieved 2 June 2015. 
  83. ^ Hulse, Carl; Holusha, John (27 June 2006). "Amendment on Flag Burning Fails by One Vote in Senate". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 May 2010. 
  84. ^ "Flag Rules and Regulations". Retrieved 1 September 2010. 
  85. ^ 36  
  86. ^ Counter-protest in Reno by right-wing Jews angers ADL, J., 21 July 2000.
  87. ^ Florida Statute Chapter 256.051
  88. ^ Georgia Code Ann. Section 50-3-9
  89. ^ Louisiana Revised Statutes 14:116 and 14:117
  90. ^ Mississippi Statutes 97-7-39
  91. ^ South Carolina Code 16-17-210 and 16-17-220
  92. ^ Official Venezuelan propaganda criticizing flag turning, with notice of protest prepended by Globovisión
  93. ^ Voter apathy plays part in Pflugerville runoff, KVUE, 8 April 2006
  94. ^ Tax Protesters Gather, Jackson Hole Daily, 16 April 2009


  1. ^ "Richard the Lionheart", by J. Gillingham, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, 1978, p. 176.
  2. ^ "The RUC: A Force Under Fire", by Chris Ryder, London: Mandarin, 1992, p. 82
  3. ^ BBC: A motion calling for the Union Flag to be flown on Parliament Buildings every day the Northern Ireland Assembly meets has been defeated 6 June 2000
  4. ^ Finnish flag law in finlex
    • Flagging concern: the controversy over flags and emblems by Robin Wilson, Democratic Dialogue July 2000
    • ".DOC" format: Flags Regulations


See also

In 2006 a United Nations flag was burned during a political campaign in Austin, Texas, USA in protest against United Nations policy. The other candidate later claimed that it was an American flag that was burned.[93] In 2009 a UN flag was dragged on the ground to show disrespect in a Tea Party protest in Jackson Hole, Wyoming.[94]

United Nations

Since the demonstrations against the refusal by the government to renew the broadcasting license of RCTV (a major TV network), the upside-down flag of Venezuela has been adopted as a symbol of protest for this and other alleged threats to civil liberties. Demonstrators claim that it is a sign of distress and a call for help. However, government and ruling-party officials insist that these demonstrators are desecrating the flag, manipulated by the enemies of the people. An official video sharply criticizing this practice as disrespectful and traitorous was produced.[92] Globovisión prepended to the video a statement denouncing the message as violative of the Law on Social Responsibility on Radio and Television, "for constituting anonymous official propaganda".


The CSA flag is given the same protection from burning and desecration as the U.S. flag in six U.S. states: Florida,[87] Georgia,[88] Louisiana,[89] Mississippi,[90] South Carolina and Arizona.[91]

The battle flag of the Confederate States of America (CSA) has sometimes been burned in protest. In 2000, protesters from the Jewish Defense League burned Confederate and Nazi flags to protest an arson attempt against a Reno, Nevada synagogue. This was criticized by a representative of the Anti-Defamation League who said that it was more effective to work with the police and other authorities rather than to engage in "tactics which inflame and exacerbate situations."[86]

Confederate flag

Flying an American flag upside down is not necessarily meant as political protest. The practice has its origin in a distress signal; displaying a flag in this manner is "a signal of dire distress in instances of extreme danger to life or property";[85] it has been used by extension to make a statement about distress in civic, political, or other areas. On the April 13, 1996 episode of Saturday Night Live, musical guests Rage Against the Machine made a statement about the host, billionaire Steve Forbes, by hanging two upside-down American flags from their amplifiers.

Flying an American flag upside down

In common usage, the phrase 'flag burning' refers only to burning a flag as an act of protest. However the United States Flag Code states that "the flag, when it is in such condition that it is no longer a fitting emblem for display (for example, the flag being faded or torn), should be destroyed in a dignified way, preferably by burning".[84]

Rage Against the Machine burning the American flag at Woodstock 1999

Flag burning

After the Johnson decision, the Flag Protection Act was passed protecting flags from anyone who "mutilates, defaces, physically defiles, burns, maintains on the floor or ground, or tramples upon any flag".[82] This decision was later struck down in the Eichman decision. After that case, several flag burning amendments to the Constitution were proposed. On June 22, 2005, a Flag Desecration Amendment was passed by the House with the needed two-thirds majority. On June 27, 2006, another attempt to pass a ban on flag burning was rejected by the Senate in a close vote of 66 in favor, 34 opposed, one vote short of the two-thirds majority needed to send the amendment to be voted on by the states.[83]

During the United States involvement in the Vietnam War American flags were sometimes burned during war protest demonstrations.[81]

"Shoot, if you must, this old gray head,
But spare your country's flag," she said.

In 1862, during the Union army's occupation of New Orleans in the American Civil War, the military governor, Benjamin Franklin Butler, sentenced William B. Mumford to death for removing an American flag. In 1864 John Greenleaf Whittier wrote the poem Barbara Frietchie, which told of a (probably fictional) incident in which Confederate soldiers were deterred from defacing an American flag. The poem contains the famous lines:

The flag of the United States is sometimes symbolically burned, often in protest of the policies of the American government, both within the country and abroad. The United States Supreme Court in Texas v. Johnson, 491 U.S. 397 (1989), and reaffirmed in U.S. v. Eichman, 496 U.S. 310 (1990), has ruled that due to the First Amendment to the United States Constitution, it is unconstitutional for a government (whether federal, state, or municipality) to prohibit the desecration of a flag, due to its status as "symbolic speech." However, content-neutral restrictions may still be imposed to regulate the time, place, and manner of such expression.

A protester burning a New Hampshire state flag.

United States

In the British armed forces, it is usual for flag-bearers to lower flags and standards, even Queen's and Regimental Colours, so that they are draped on the ground, as part of a Royal Salute or during the two-minute silence on Remembrance Sunday. This mark of respect, known as vailing, is not considered to be a desecration of the colours.

The Queen's Colours and Regimental Colours are a very important symbol for a British Army regiment and for many regiments in the Commonwealth which have inherited the British Army's traditions. In a Line Regiment the Colour stand consists of these two flags, and damage to such a symbol would be a considered a great insult to the regiment by its members.

British military colours

Unlike the rest of the United Kingdom, the law in Northern Ireland has varied since its foundation in 1921. The Union Flag of the United Kingdom, the former Flag of Northern Ireland, and the tricolour of the Republic of Ireland are often defaced or burnt in Northern Ireland as a political provocation or as a protest.

Northern Ireland

In 2006, to allow greater police control over extremist protesters, 17 MPs signed a House of Commons motion calling for burning of the Union Flag to be made a criminal offence.[80]

In 2011, a republican core of c. 20/30 King's College, Cambridge students influenced the burning of a large Union flag, the centrepiece of the Student Union's decorations to celebrate the royal wedding. KCSU condemned the action as a "needlessly divisive and violent way to make a political point...[the] Union flag is a symbol and therefore can mean different things to different people in different contexts".[79]

In May 1998, in a protest by 2000 ex-PoWs, a Burma Railway veteran torched the Rising Sun banner before both Emperor Akihito and Queen Elizabeth. Police were moved by the crowd not to arrest him.[76] A year later, two "committed socialists" threw a burning Union flag in the direction of the Queen's motor vehicle. They were arrested under breach of the peace, subsequently pleaded guilty and were fined a total £450.[77] In 2001 at RAF Feltwell, home of United States Air Force's 5th Space Surveillance Squadron, a protestor defaced the US Flag with the words "Stop Star Wars" before stepping in front of a vehicle and stamping on the flag. Her conviction under S5 Public Order Act 1986, was overturned as incompatible with article 10 of the European Convention on Human Rights.[78]

Neither the law of England and Wales nor the law of Scotland has a concept of "flag desecration."

Ulster loyalists prepare to burn the Irish tricolour on a bonfire on the eve of The Twelfth in Belfast

United Kingdom

The flag of Turkey bears the star and crescent over a red field that represents the blood of martyrs which is considered sacred. Under the 1983 Turkish flag law, burning the flag is strictly forbidden, punishable by a prison sentence of three years. Displaying or pulling a torn or discolored flag to flagpole is also illegal. Taking down the flag is prohibited and punishable by a prison sentence of eighteen years.


Destruction, removal or desecration of national emblems installed by a public authority (i.e., the Swiss flag, the Swiss coat of arms, the cantonal or municipal flags and coats of arms) is punishable by a monetary penalty or imprisonment of up to three years according to the Swiss federal penal code.[75] The destruction or desecration of privately owned flags or coats of arms is legal.


The desecration of national symbols is not specifically criminal, but flag desecration is prosecuted under the more general clauses against disorderly conduct.


In Serbia, flag desecration is illegal and on 20 May 2009 secretary general of the International Workers' Association Ratibor Trivunac was arrested and punished with 10 days in prison for burning an American flag during the visit of the US Vice President Joe Biden. Due to the mass demonstrations and protests, he was freed from prison two days later.


The flag of the Soviet Union has been burned many times by protestors against its government's policies, for instance in Brazil by those protesting the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia of 1968,[73] and in New York City in 1985 by protesters against the Soviet War in Afghanistan.[74]

Soviet Union

The flag of Saudi Arabia bears the shahada or Islamic declaration of faith. Because the shahada is considered holy, Saudi Arabia's flag code is extremely strict and even the slightest violation amounts to desecration not only of the flag but is also blasphemous to Islam. This has led to several incidents of controversy. In 1994, McDonald's printed carry-out bags bearing the flags of all nations participating in the FIFA World Cup (with a green flag with Saudi Arabia's coat of arms superimposed, rather than the Saudi flag), while Coca-Cola did the same on cans of soda. Because of Saudi outrage, the companies stopped producing those items.[72] Also during the FIFA World Cup, in 2002, Saudi officials protested against printing the flag on a soccer ball on the belief that kicking the creed with the foot was totally unacceptable.

Saudi Arabia

During the Romanian Revolution, the Communist era flag was flown with a hole on the coat of arms.

This law has been seen in a report of the Press Monitoring Agency, a project financed by the Open Society Institute, as being a potential danger to the freedom of expression because of its vague terms, because it can incriminate opinions.[71]

In Romania, according to the article 236 of the penal code, any manifestation which expresses contempt for the Romanian symbols (according to the constitution, these are the flag, national day, anthem and coat-of-arms) is punished by imprisonment, from 6 months to 3 years, while the contempt for the symbols of Romanian authorities is also punished by imprisonment, from 3 months to 1-year, or by fine.[70]


On 5 October 2012, Cavaco Silva, the Portuguese President, during the celebration of the 102 years of the Portuguese Republic, flew the national flag upside down, which generated much controversy, with the Portuguese people regarding it as a "joke" and as a sign of disrespect.

The Portuguese Penal Code (article 323) also forbids the desecration of foreign symbols: "Who publicly, by means of words, gestures or print publication, or by other means of public communication, insults the official flag or other symbol of sovereignty of a foreign State or of an international organization of which Portugal is a member shall be punished with up to one year imprisonment or a fine of up to 120 days." This article applies under two conditions (article 324): that Portugal maintains diplomatic relations with the insulted country, and that there is reciprocity (i.e., that the insulted country would also punish any insult against Portuguese symbols of sovereignty, should they occur there).

Currently, according to article 332 of the Penal Code,[69] "Who publicly, by means of words, gestures or print publication, or by other means of public communication, insults the Republic, the Flag or the National Anthem, the coats of arms or the symbols of Portuguese sovereignty, or fails to show the respect they are entitled to, shall be punished with up to two years imprisonment or a fine of up to 240 days". In the case of the regional symbols, the person shall be punished with up to one year imprisonment or a fine of up to 120 days (fines are calculated based on the defendant's income).


Section 34a the Flag and Heraldic Code of the Philippines declares that it is a prohibited act "[t]o mutilate, deface, defile, trample on or cast contempt or commit any act or omission casting dishonor or ridicule upon the flag or over its surface;[68]"


The precise law in Peru is unclear, but such acts are clearly capable of causing outrage. In 2008 the dancer, model and actress Leysi Suárez appeared naked photographed using Peru's flag as a saddle while mounted on a horse. The country's defence minister said she would face charges that could put her in jail for up to four years for offending patriotic symbols".[65][66] However the case was closed in 2010.[67]


On 9 January 1964 a discussion broke out between Panamanian students and Americans living in the Panama Canal Zone over the right of the flag of Panama to be raised next to the flag of the United States, as the Canal Zone was then a disputed territory between the two nations. During the scuffle a Panamanian flag carried by Panamanian students was torn. This sparked four days of riots that ended with 22 Panamanians and four Americans dead and with Panama breaking diplomatic relations with the United States. This event is considered very important in the decision to negotiate and sign the Torrijos-Carter Treaties, by whose terms the Panama Canal administration was handed over to the Panamanian Government on 31 December 1999. 9 January is known as Martyrs' Day and is commemorated in Panama as a day of mourning.


Except for a few occasions during 1971 Liberation War between then East and West Pakistan. The Bengali Separatists (Muktibahini) and their associated groups burned several flags as well as the flags of the armed forces of Pakistan. No incident of National Flag burning has been witnessed.

Pakistan's flag comes under the strict protection of various constitutional clauses. However, the statutes governing the topic consist only of Pakistan Flag Protocols and are unclear as with regards to legal status of the offender and the punishment under the Pakistan Penal Code.


Comedian Otto Jespersen burned a US flag during a satirical TV show in 2003. During the Jyllands-Posten Muhammad cartoons controversy, Norwegian flags were burned in demonstrations in various Muslim countries.

Desecration of foreign countries' flags or national coats of arms was previously banned according to the General Civil Penal Code §95. The ban had however rarely been practiced, and was eventually lifted in 2008.


In 2011 the New Zealand Supreme Court ruled that burning the flag at an ANZAC day dawn service was not offensive behaviour.[64]

In New Zealand, under the Flags, Emblems and Names Protection Act 1981 it is illegal to destroy the New Zealand flag with the intent of dishonouring it. In 2003, Paul Hopkinson, a Wellington schoolteacher, burned the Flag of New Zealand as part of a protest in Parliament grounds at the New Zealand Government's hosting of the Prime Minister of Australia, against the background of Australia's support of the United States in its war in Iraq. Hopkinson was initially convicted under Flags, Emblems and Names Protection Act 1981 of destroying a New Zealand flag with intent to dishonour it, but appealed against his conviction. On appeal, his conviction was overturned on the grounds that the law had to be read consistently with the right to freedom of expression under the Bill of Rights. This meant that his actions were not unlawful because the word dishonour in the Flags, Emblems and Names Protection Act had many shades of meaning, and when the least restrictive meaning of that word was adopted Hopkinson's actions did not meet that standard. This somewhat unusual result was due in part to the fact that the Bill of Rights does not overrule other laws (Hopkinson v Police).

New Zealand

The use of the National Symbols (Coat of Arms, Anthem and National Flag) in Mexico is protected by law [62] In México the desecration of the flag is illegal. Although punishment is not sought often and are usually not harsh, there are a few instances; for example, in 2008 a federal judge convicted an individual for 'desecrating the flag' in a poem. The ministry that oversees the use of national symbols requested four years in jail, but the judge only issued a small fine and a public warning.[63] 2


During the 1988 Olympics some South Koreans expressed anger at T-shirts worn by United States journalists which were seen as defacing the flag of South Korea.[61]

South Korea

On October 26, 1987, an Okinawan supermarket owner burned the Hinomaru, before the start of the National Sports Festival of Japan.[58] The flag burner, Shōichi Chibana, burned the Hinomaru not only to show opposition to atrocities committed by the Japanese army and the continued presence of U.S. forces, but also to prevent it from being displayed in public.[59] Other incidents in Okinawa included the flag being torn down during school ceremonies and students refusing to honor the flag as it was being raised to the sounds of Kimigayo.[60]

However, there has never been a law explicitly prohibiting desecration of the Japanese flag, the Hinomaru. Absent such law, the act of desecration is implicitly protected by Article 21 covering freedom of speech in the Constitution of Japan.

In May 1958, the flag of the People's Republic of China at a postage stamp convention was pulled down and damaged, but as Japan did not recognize the PRC at the time, the law was not applied. In February 2011, Japanese ultra-rightists held a protest over the Kuril islands dispute outside of the Russian embassy in Tokyo, during which they dragged a Russian flag on the ground; Russian foreign minister Sergei Lavrov stated that his ministry had asked the Japanese government to launch a criminal case over the incident.[57]

In Japan, under Chapter 4, Article 92 of the Criminal Code, any desecration of a recognized foreign nation's national flag and symbol to dishonour that particular nation is prohibited and punishable by fine or penal labour, but only on complaint by the foreign government.


In Italy, desecration of any Italian or foreign nation's national flag (vilipendio alla bandiera) is prohibited by law (Article 292 of the Italian Penal Code) and punished with fines (between 1,000 and 10,000 euros) for verbal desecration and with reclusion (up to two years) for physical damage or destruction.[56]


In 2007 six teenagers in the South Tel Aviv suburb of Bat Yam were arrested for burning an Israeli flag. This incident was considered serious by the police and others since the youths were suspected in other acts of vandalism and claimed to be Satanists.[55]


[52] On 7 May 1945, the day before V-E Day, celebrating unionist students in Trinity College Dublin raised the flags of the victorious Allies over the college; when onlookers in College Green began jeering, some took down the flag of neutral Ireland, set fire to it and tossed it away, provoking a small riot.[53][54] In response, nationalist students from University College Dublin, including future Taoiseach Charles Haughey, burned the British flag in Grafton Street.[53] The Provost of Trinity College apologised for the incident, which was not reported in Irish newspapers owing to wartime censorship.[53]

The Department of the Taoiseach's guide to the flag of Ireland includes a list of "practices to avoid".[46] This states in part "The National Flag should never be defaced by placing slogans, logos, lettering or pictures of any kind on it, for example at sporting events."[46] A tricolour inscribed "Davy Keogh says hello" waved continually since 1981 has given its eponymous bearer a modicum of fame among Republic of Ireland soccer supporters.[47][48][49] Guinness ran a promotion before the 2002 FIFA World Cup distributing Irish flags to supporters in pubs, on which the tricolour's white band was defaced with Guinness's harp logo.[50] Guinness apologised after public criticism.[50] Cecilia Keaveney said in a subsequent Dáil debate, "It may not be possible to address defacing the flag through legislation, but the House must issue a strong message that this is unacceptable."[51]


In 2004, many copies of the proposed new flag for Iraq were burnt (see Flag of Iraq). There were no such examples of burning the current Iraqi national flags, even by political opponents, as both contain the words Allahu Akbar (God is great), so this would be seen as a religious insult.


In 2011 Indian protesters burnt the Australian flag after a fashion show depicted the Hindu deity Lakshmi on swimsuits.[45]

The Indian Flag Code was often criticized for being too rigid and prevented ordinary citizens from displaying the flag on homes and other buildings. For many years, only government officials and other government buildings could unfurl the flag. That changed in 2001 when Naveen Jindal won a court case in the Supreme Court of India to give Indians the right to unfurl the flag publicly. The Indian cricket batsman Sachin Tendulkar was accused of sporting the flag on his cricket helmet below the BCCI emblem. He later changed it and placed the flag above BCCI emblem. The flag code was updated in 2005; some new provisions include that the flag cannot be worn under the waist or on undergarments.[44]

Violation of the code may invite severe punishments and penalties. The code was written in 2002 and merged the following acts: provisions of the Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act, 1950 (No.12 of 1950) and the Prevention of Insults to National Honour Act, 1971 (No. 69 of 1971).

The Indian Flag Code is a set of laws that govern the usage of the Flag of India. The Bureau of Indian Standards is in charge of the enforcement of the manufacture of the flag according to the guidelines.


During a demonstration at the beginning of the Hungarian revolution of 1956 someone in the crowd cut out the communist coat of arms from the Hungarian flag, leaving a distinctive hole and others quickly followed suit. The "flag with a hole" became a symbol of the Hungarian resistance.[42][43]

1956 Revolution Flag flying in front of the Hungarian Parliament Building


In the judgement, Chief Justice Andrew Li said although the Basic Law of Hong Kong guarantees freedom of speech, flag desecration is not legal because there are other protest methods.

They were bound over to keep the peace on their own recognisance of $2,000 for 12 months for each of the two charges.

In 1999, two individuals were convicted for desecration of the Regional Flag of Hong Kong and the Chinese flag. They were found guilty by a magistrate, had the conviction overturned in the High Court[40] but the convictions were restored by the Court of Final Appeal.[41]

The Chinese law about flag desecration were incorporated into Hong Kong law as the National Flag and National Emblem Ordinance in 1997 as required by Annex III of the territory's constitution. The Regional Flag and Regional Emblem Ordinance is the equivalent statute in respect of the Hong Kong flag. Both ordinances ban desecration of the Chinese flag and Hong Kong flag, respectively.

Hong Kong

Today Nazism and Nazi symbols are rejected by Germany and Austria and, according to the German criminal code Strafgesetzbuch section 86a, the public use or dissemination of Nazi symbols including the flag is illegal in Germany. Similar laws exist in Austria (Verbotsgesetz 1947[38], Abzeichengesetz 1960[39]).

In January 1941, the Flag of Nazi Germany flying from the German consulate in San Francisco was slashed and torn down by two United States Navy sailors. They were arrested, tried and convicted of malicious mischief.[35] The German government protested the incident and the United States Department of State expressed their regrets.[36] Later that year, after Germany declared war on the United States, one of the sailors, Harold Sturtevant, reenlisted in the Navy after having been dismissed because of the incident.[37]

On 26 July 1935 in New York a group of demonstrators boarded the SS Bremen, tore the Nazi party flag from the jackstaff and threw it into the Hudson River. The German ambassador sharply protested, but the protest was resent claiming only a party symbol was harmed and the national flag was not affected. On 15 September 1935 the Reichsflaggengesetz (Reichs flag law) (RGBl. I S. 1145) came into effect, declaring the Nazi flag to be the exclusive national flag of Germany in response to this incident, removing the status of the black-white-red tricolor flag of the German Empire as co-national flag.

Nazi flag

During the 2006 World Cup the anti-German German musician Torsun (half of the group Egotronic) recorded a techno cover of the song "Ten German Bombers". The song and its accompanying YouTube video (featuring footage of German planes being shot down, the Wembley goal, a burning German flag, etc.) attracted media attention in Germany, as well as from the British tabloid News of the World. The song was eventually included in the World Cup themed compilation Weltmeister Hits 2006.[32][33][34]

After the fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989, many East Germans cut out the coat of arms from their national flag in support for a reunified, democratic Germany. This flag is now used by the Federal Foundation for the Reappraisal of the SED Dictatorship.[30][31]

As for flags of foreign countries, it is illegal to damage or revile them, if they are shown publicly by tradition, event or routinely by representatives of the foreign entity (§104 StGB). On the other hand it is not illegal to desecrate such flags that serve no official purpose (especially including any the one willing to desecrate them brings by himself for that purpose).

Under German criminal code (§90a Strafgesetzbuch (StGB)) it is illegal to revile or damage the German federal flag as well as any flags of its states in public. Offenders can be fined or sentenced for a maximum of three years in prison. Offenders can be fined or sentenced for a maximum of five years in prison if the act was intentionally used to support the eradication of the Federal Republic of Germany or to violate constitutional rights. Actual convictions because of a violation of the criminal code need to be balanced against the constitutional right of the freedom of expressions, as ruled multiple times by Germany's constitutional court.

German flags being burned during a protest in Nuremberg, 2006.


A July 2010 law makes it a crime to desecrate the French national flag in a public place, but also to distribute images of a flag desecration, even when done in a private setting.[28] On 22 December 2010, an Algerian national was the first person to be convicted under the new status, and ordered to pay a €750 after breaking the pole of a flag hung in the Alpes-Maritimes prefecture a day prior.[29]

[27] In 2006, a man who had publicly burnt a French flag stolen from the façade of the city hall of

[26] This clause was added as an amendment to a large bill dealing with internal security, in reaction to a

According to French law,[23] outraging the French national anthem or the French flag during an event organized or regulated by public authorities is liable for a fine of €7,500 (and six months' imprisonment if performed in a gathering). The law targets "outrageous behaviour" during public ceremonies and major sports events.


According to the Finnish flag law it is illegal to desecrate the flag, treat it in disrespecting manner or remove it from a public place without permission.


According to the Faroese flag law the Faroese flag, Merkið, may not be desecrated, "neither by words or by deeds".[22]

Faroe Islands

According to Danish tradition, burning is actually the proper way to dispose of a worn flag.[20] According to tradition, care must be observed to ensure that a flag never touches the ground, i.e., even when being disposed of, it should be placed on top of a fire. Flying the flag after sundown is also inappropriate behaviour.[21]

In Denmark, it is illegal to desecrate the flags of foreign countries but legal to burn the Dannebrog, Denmark's national flag, according to section 110(e) of the Danish penal code[19] because Parliament had decided that burning other countries' flags was a matter of foreign policy, as it could be construed as a threat.


Croatian history recalls the burning of the flag of the Kingdom of Hungary during the 1895 visit of Emperor Franz Joseph to Zagreb. Two people involved in the incident, Stjepan Radić and Vladimir Vidrić, later happened to pursue notable careers in politics and literature, respectively. In modern Croatia it is illegal to desecrate or to treat any flag in a disrespecting manner. Offenders are punished with up to 3 years of imprisonment.[18]


Flag desecration is prohibited in China. The penal code[17] provides for an imprisonment up to three years, criminal detention, public surveillance, or deprivation of political rights for anyone who "desecrate[s] the National Flag or the National Emblem of the People's Republic of China by intentionally burning, mutilating, scrawling on, defiling or trampling upon it in public".


In 1999, members of the Westboro Baptist Church from the United States staged a burning of the Canadian Flag outside of the Supreme Court of Canada in Ottawa, Ontario. This was to protest legalization of same-sex marriage which was being adjudicated by the Canadian court.

In 1990, during heated political times around the Meech Lake Accord, the flag of Quebec was desecrated by protestors in Brockville, Ontario opposed to Quebec's language laws after the Canadian flag had been burnt in protests in Quebec. Televised images of individuals stepping on the Quebec flag were played in Quebec and contributed to the deterioration in relations between Quebec and English Canada. The incident, seen as a metaphor of Canada's perceived rejection of Quebec (and of Quebec's distinctiveness in the demise of the Meech Lake Accord) was invoked by Quebec nationalists during the run-up to the 1995 referendum on Quebec independence and is still remembered today.

Canada has no laws prohibiting flag desecration. Acts of this nature are forms of expression protected by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.


Flag desecration is not forbidden by Belgian law. Flemish nationalists have burned Belgian flags on at least one occasion.[16]


According to this same law's article 35, the act of a civilian breaking this law is considered a misdemeanor, punished with a fine of one to four times the highest reference value active in the Country, and doubled in repeated infringement cases; in the Brazilian Armed Forces' Military Penal Code,[15] article 161, the soldier, airman or seaman that disrespect any national symbol is punished with one to two years of detention, and the officer may be declared incompatible with the officership.

Article 33 rules that may not be any foreign flag in its right side, in same size and in a highlight position over the Brazilian flag, when inside Brazilian territory, except when at diplomatic missions, such as embassies and consulates.

Article 32 says that the flags in bad condition must be sent to the nearest military unit, for incineration in the Flag's Day, following the ceremonial procedures.

Also, in the article 30, caput, it is stated that, when in march or parade, such at the execution of National Anthem, all people must take a respectful attitude, standing and in silence, with the male civilians without any head cover and the military personnel in the salute or present arms stance, following each corporation internal regulations.

  • I - Being presented or flying it in a poor condition;
  • II - Changing the proportions, colors, shape, label or add any other inscriptions;
  • III - Using it as a clothing piece, mouthpiece, drapery, table cloth or napkin, table trim, podium coating, or as a cover for objects that are to be inaugurated; and
  • IV - Using it as a label or wrapping for products at sale.

Brazilian law number 5700,[14] from 1971, article 31, point out the forms of disrespect as the following:


As former part of Nazi Germany, use of the Nazi flag in Austria today is illegal (see section Germany - Nazi flag below).

Keina Farrington and Alex Mendoza were famously arrested in Austria for defacing the country's flag. [13]

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