World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Germanium

Article Id: WHEBN0000012242
Reproduction Date:

Title: Germanium  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Transistor, Periodic table, Silicon, Tin, Dopant
Collection: Chemical Elements, Germanium, Infrared Sensor Materials, Metalloids, Optical Materials, Semiconductor Materials
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Germanium

  • ^ Broadwith, Phillip (25 March 2012). "Germanium-oxygen double bond takes centre stage". Chemistry World. Retrieved 2014-05-15. 
  • ^ a b c Audi, G.; Bersillon, O.; Blachot, J.; Wapstra, A.H. (2003). "Nubase2003 Evaluation of Nuclear and Decay Properties". Nuclear Physics A (Atomic Mass Data Center) 729 (1): 3–128.  
  • ^ a b Perreault, Bruce A. "Alpha Fusion Electrical Energy Valve", US Patent 7800286, issued September 21, 2010. PDF copy at the Wayback Machine (archived October 12, 2007).
  • ^ Sterling, N. C.; Dinerstein, Harriet L.; Bowers, Charles W. (2002). "Discovery of Enhanced Germanium Abundances in Planetary Nebulae with the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer". The Astrophysical Journal Letters 578 (1): L55–L58.  
  • ^ Kunde, V.; Hanel, R.; Maguire, W.; Gautier, D.; Baluteau, J. P.; Marten, A.; Chedin, A.; Husson, N.; Scott, N. (1982). "The tropospheric gas composition of Jupiter's north equatorial belt /NH3, PH3, CH3D, GeH4, H2O/ and the Jovian D/H isotopic ratio". Astrophysical Journal 263: 443–467.  
  • ^ Cowan, John (2003-05-01). "Astronomy: Elements of surprise". Nature 423 (29): 29.  
  • ^ a b c d e Höll, R.; Kling, M.; Schroll, E. (2007). "Metallogenesis of germanium—A review". Ore Geology Reviews 30 (3–4): 145–180.  
  • ^ Lifton, Jack (2007-04-26). "Byproducts II: Another Germanium Rush?". Resource Investor.com. Retrieved 2008-09-09. 
  • ^ a b Goldschmidt, V. M. (1930). "Ueber das Vorkommen des Germaniums in Steinkohlen und Steinkohlenprodukten". Nachrichten von der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Mathematisch-Physikalische Klasse: 141–167. 
  • ^ a b Goldschmidt, V. M.; Peters, Cl. (1933). "Zur Geochemie des Germaniums". Nachrichten von der Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Göttingen, Mathematisch-Physikalische Klasse: 141–167. 
  • ^ Bernstein, L (1985). "Germanium geochemistry and mineralogy". Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 49 (11): 2409.  
  • ^ a b c Naumov, A. V. (2007). "World market of germanium and its prospects". Russian Journal of Non-Ferrous Metals 48 (4): 265–272.  
  • ^ R.N. Soar (1977). "USGS Minerals Information". U.S. Geological Survey Mineral Commodity Summaries (U.S. Geological Survey). January 2003, January 2004, January 2005, January 2006, January 2007,January 2010.  
  • ^ a b Moskalyk, R. R. (2004). "Review of germanium processing worldwide". Minerals Engineering 17 (3): 393–402.  
  • ^ Rieke, G.H. (2007). "Infrared Detector Arrays for Astronomy". Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics 45 (1): 77.  
  • ^ a b c Brown, Jr., Robert D. (2000). "Germanium" (PDF). U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 2008-09-22. 
  • ^ "Chapter III: Optical Fiber For Communications". Stanford Research Institute. Retrieved 2008-08-22. 
  • ^ "Understanding Recordable & Rewritable DVD First Edition" (PDF). Optical Storage Technology Association (OSTA). Archived from the original on 2009-04-19. Retrieved 2008-09-22. 
  • ^ Lettington, Alan H. (1998). "Applications of diamond-like carbon thin films". Carbon 36 (5–6): 555–560.  
  • ^ Gardos, Michael N.; Bonnie L. Soriano; Steven H. Propst (1990). Feldman, Albert; Holly, Sandor, eds. "Study on correlating rain erosion resistance with sliding abrasion resistance of DLC on germanium". Proc. SPIE. SPIE Proceedings 1325 (Mechanical Properties): 99.  
  • ^ Washio, K. (2003). "SiGe HBT and BiCMOS technologies for optical transmission and wireless communication systems". IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices 50 (3): 656.  
  • ^ Bailey, Sheila G.; Raffaelle, Ryne; Emery, Keith (2002). "Space and terrestrial photovoltaics: synergy and diversity". Progress in Photovoltaics Research and Applications 10 (6): 399.  
  • ^ Crisp, D.; Pathare, A.; Ewell, R. C. (2004). "The performance of gallium arsenide/germanium solar cells at the Martian surface". Acta Astronautica 54 (2): 83–101.  
  • ^ Szweda, Roy (2005). "Germanium phoenix".  
  • ^ a b Thiele, Ulrich K. (2001). "The Current Status of Catalysis and Catalyst Development for the Industrial Process of Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Polycondensation". International Journal of Polymeric Materials 50 (3): 387–394.  
  • ^ Fang, Li; Kulkarni, Sameer; Alhooshani, Khalid; Malik, Abdul (2007). "Germania-Based, Sol-Gel Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Coatings for Capillary Microextraction and Gas Chromatography". Anal. Chem. 79 (24): 9441–9451.  
  • ^ Keyser, Ronald; Twomey, Timothy; Upp, Daniel. "Performance of Light-Weight, Battery-Operated, High Purity Germanium Detectors for Field Use" (PDF). Oak Ridge Technical Enterprise Corporation (ORTEC). Archived from the original on October 26, 2007. Retrieved 2008-09-06. 
  • ^ Ahmed, F. U.; Yunus, S.M.; Kamal, I.; Begum, S.; Khan, Aysha A.; Ahsan, M.H.; Ahmad, A.A.Z. (1996). "Optimization of Germanium for Neutron Diffractometers". International Journal of Modern Physics E 5 (1): 131.  
  • ^ Diehl, R.; Prantzos, N; Vonballmoos, P (2006). "Astrophysical constraints from gamma-ray spectroscopy". Nuclear Physics A 777: 70.  
  • ^ a b Gerber, G.B.; Léonard, A. (1997). "Mutagenicity, carcinogenicity and teratogenicity of germanium compounds". Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 387 (3): 141–146.  
  • ^ a b Brown Jr., Robert D. (PDF). Commodity Survey:Germanium (Report). US Geological Surveys. http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/germanium/220798.pdf. Retrieved 2008-09-09.
  • ^ "Germanium". American Cancer Society. Retrieved 2008-08-31. 
  • ^ Slavik, Milan; Blanc, Oscar; Davis, Joan (1983). "Spirogermanium: A new investigational drug of novel structure and lack of bone marrow toxicity". Investigational New Drugs 1 (3): 225–234.  
  • ^ Baselt, R. (2008). Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man (8 ed.). Foster City, CA: Biomedical Publications. pp. 693–694. 
  • This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
     
    Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
     
    By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
     


    Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
    a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.