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Title: Globin  
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Subject: Hemoglobin, Cytoglobin, HBB, Globular protein, Hemoglobin Barts
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Globin family
the Structure of deoxyhemoglobin Rothschild 37 beta Trp----Arg: a mutation that creates an intersubunit chloride-binding site.[1]
Symbol Globin
Pfam PF00042
Pfam clan CL0090
InterPro IPR000971
SCOP 1hba
CDD cd01067
crystal structure of "truncated" hemoglobin n (hbn) from mycobacterium tuberculosis, soaked with xe atoms
Symbol Bac_globin
Pfam PF01152
Pfam clan CL0090
InterPro IPR001486
SCOP 1dlw

The globins are a family of globular proteins, which are thought to share a common ancestor. These proteins all incorporate the globin fold, a series of eight alpha helical segments. Two prominent members of this family include myoglobin and hemoglobin, which both bind the heme (also haem) prosthetic group. Both of these proteins are reversible oxygen binders.

Globins are [2]


Globins evolved from a common ancestor and can be divided into three groups: single-domain globins, and two types of chimeric globins, flavohaemoglobins and globin-coupled sensors. Bacteria have all three types of globins, while archaea lack flavohaemoglobins, and eukaryotes lack globin-coupled sensors.[3] Several functionally different haemoglobins can coexist in the same species.

Eight globins are known to occur in vertebrates: androglobin, cytoglobin, globin E, globin X, globin Y, haemoglobin, myoglobin and neuroglobin.



Human genes encoding globin proteins include:

The globins include:

  • Flavohaemoglobins (FHb): chimeric, with an N-terminal globin domain and a C-terminal ferredoxin reductase-like NAD/FAD-binding domain. FHb provides protection against nitric oxide via its C-terminal domain, which transfers electrons to haem in the globin.[7]
  • Globin E: a globin responsible for storing and delivering oxygen to the retina in birds[8]
  • Protoglobin: a single domain globin found in archaea that is related to the N-terminal domain of globin-coupled sensors.[11]
  • Truncated 2/2 globin: lack the first helix, giving them a 2-over-2 instead of the canonical 3-over-3 alpha-helical sandwich fold. Can be divided into three main groups (I, II and II) based on structural features.
  • HbN (or GlbN): a truncated haemoglobin-like protein that binds oxygen cooperatively with a very high affinity and a slow dissociation rate, which may exclude it from oxygen transport. It appears to be involved in bacterial nitric oxide detoxification and in nitrosative stress.[12]
  • Cyanoglobin (or GlbN): a truncated haemoprotein found in cyanobacteria that has high oxygen affinity, and which appears to serve as part of a terminal oxidase, rather than as a respiratory pigment.[13]
  • HbO (or GlbO): a truncated haemoglobin-like protein with a lower oxygen affinity than HbN. HbO associates with the bacterial cell membrane, where it significantly increases oxygen uptake over membranes lacking this protein. HbO appears to interact with a terminal oxidase, and could participate in an oxygen/electron-transfer process that facilitates oxygen transfer during aerobic metabolism.[14]
  • Glb3: a nuclear-encoded truncated haemoglobin from plants that appears more closely related to HbO than HbN. Glb3 from Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress) exhibits an unusual concentration-independent binding of oxygen and carbon dioxide.[15]

See also


  1. ^ Kavanaugh JS, Rogers PH, Case DA, Arnone A (April 1992). "High-resolution X-ray study of deoxyhemoglobin Rothschild 37 beta Trp----Arg: a mutation that creates an intersubunit chloride-binding site". Biochemistry 31 (16): 4111–21.  
  2. ^ Vinogradov SN, Hoogewijs D, Bailly X, Mizuguchi K, Dewilde S, Moens L, Vanfleteren JR (August 2007). "A model of globin evolution". Gene 398 (1-2): 132–42.  
  3. ^ Vinogradov SN, Hoogewijs D, Bailly X, Arredondo-Peter R, Gough J, Dewilde S, Moens L, Vanfleteren JR (2006). "A phylogenomic profile of globins". BMC Evol. Biol. 6: 31.  
  4. ^ Pesce A, Dewilde S, Nardini M, Moens L, Ascenzi P, Hankeln T, Burmester T, Bolognesi M (September 2003). "Human brain neuroglobin structure reveals a distinct mode of controlling oxygen affinity". Structure 11 (9): 1087–95.  
  5. ^ Fago A, Hundahl C, Malte H, Weber RE (2004). "Functional properties of neuroglobin and cytoglobin. Insights into the ancestral physiological roles of globins". IUBMB Life 56 (11-12): 689–96.  
  6. ^ Royer WE, Omartian MN, Knapp JE (January 2007). "Low resolution crystal structure of Arenicola erythrocruorin: influence of coiled coils on the architecture of a megadalton respiratory protein". J. Mol. Biol. 365 (1): 226–36.  
  7. ^ Mukai M, Mills CE, Poole RK, Yeh SR (March 2001). "Flavohemoglobin, a globin with a peroxidase-like catalytic site". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (10): 7272–7.  
  8. ^ Blank M, Kiger L, Thielebein A, Gerlach F, Hankeln T, Marden MC, Burmeister T (2011). "Oxygen supply from the bird's eye perspective: Globin E is a respiratory protein in the chicken retina". J. Biol. Chem. 286 (30): 26507–15.  
  9. ^ Hou S, Freitas T, Larsen RW, Piatibratov M, Sivozhelezov V, Yamamoto A, Meleshkevitch EA, Zimmer M, Ordal GW, Alam M (July 2001). "Globin-coupled sensors: a class of heme-containing sensors in Archaea and Bacteria". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (16): 9353–8.  
  10. ^ Freitas TA, Saito JA, Hou S, Alam M (January 2005). "Globin-coupled sensors, protoglobins, and the last universal common ancestor". J. Inorg. Biochem. 99 (1): 23–33.  
  11. ^ Freitas TA, Hou S, Dioum EM, Saito JA, Newhouse J, Gonzalez G, Gilles-Gonzalez MA, Alam M (April 2004). "Ancestral hemoglobins in Archaea". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 101 (17): 6675–80.  
  12. ^ Lama A, Pawaria S, Dikshit KL (July 2006). "Oxygen binding and NO scavenging properties of truncated hemoglobin, HbN, of Mycobacterium smegmatis". FEBS Lett. 580 (17): 4031–41.  
  13. ^ Yeh DC, Thorsteinsson MV, Bevan DR, Potts M, La Mar GN (February 2000). "Solution 1H NMR study of the heme cavity and folding topology of the abbreviated chain 118-residue globin from the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune". Biochemistry 39 (6): 1389–99.  
  14. ^ Pathania R, Navani NK, Rajamohan G, Dikshit KL (May 2002). "Mycobacterium tuberculosis hemoglobin HbO associates with membranes and stimulates cellular respiration of recombinant Escherichia coli". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (18): 15293–302.  
  15. ^ Watts RA, Hunt PW, Hvitved AN, Hargrove MS, Peacock WJ, Dennis ES (August 2001). "A hemoglobin from plants homologous to truncated hemoglobins of microorganisms". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98 (18): 10119–24.  

This article incorporates text from the public domain Pfam and InterPro IPR001486

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