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Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ beta 1
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: RCSB
RNA expression pattern

Major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ beta 1, also known as HLA-DQB1, is a human gene and also denotes the genetic locus that contains this gene.[1] The protein encoded by this gene is one of two proteins that are required to form the DQ heterodimer, a cell surface receptor essential to the function of the immune system.


HLA-DQB1 belongs to the HLA class II beta chain paralogues. This class II molecule is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha (DQA) and a beta chain (DQB), both anchored in the membrane. It plays a central role in the immune system by presenting peptides derived from extracellular proteins. Class II molecules are expressed in antigen-presenting cells (APC: B lymphocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages).[1]

Gene structure and polymorphisms

The beta chain is approximately 26-28 kDa and it contains 5 exons. Exon one encodes the leader peptide, exons 2 and 3 encode the two extracellular protein domains, exon 4 encodes the transmembrane domain, and exon 5 encodes the cytoplasmic tail. Within the DQ molecule, both the alpha chain and the beta chain contain the polymorphisms specifying the peptide binding specificities, resulting in up to 4 different molecules. Typing for these polymorphisms is routinely done for bone marrow transplantation.[1][2]

Disease association


Several alleles of HLA-DQB1 are associated with an increased risk of developing type 1 diabetes.[3][4][5] The locus also has the genetic name IDDM1 as it is the highest genetic risk for type 1 diabetes. Again the DQB1*0201 and DQB1*0302 alleles, particularly the phenotype DQB1*0201/*0302 has a high risk of late onset type 1 diabetes. The risk is partially shared with the HLA-DR locus (DR3 and DR4 serotypes).

Celiac disease

Celiac1 is a genetic name for DQB1, the HLA DQB1*0201, *0202, and *0302 encode genes that mediate the autoimmune coeliac disease. Homozygotes of DQB1*0201 have a higher risk of developing the celiac disease, relative to any other genetic locus.[6]

Multiple sclerosis

Certain HLA-DQB1 alleles are also linked to a modest increased risk of multiple sclerosis.[7][8]


Other HLA-DQB1 alleles are associated with a predisposition to narcolepsy.[9]


HLA-DQB1 alleles
Serotype DQB1 allele
DQ2 *0201
DQ4 *0401
DQ5 *0501
DQ6 *0601
DQ7 *0301
DQ8 *0302
DQ9 *0303

See also


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