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Hepatocyte growth factor

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Title: Hepatocyte growth factor  
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Subject: C-Met, Myogenesis, Ganglionic eminence, Growth factors, Growth factor
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Hepatocyte growth factor

Hepatocyte growth factor (hepapoietin A; scatter factor)
PDB rendering based on 1bht.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols  ; DFNB39; F-TCF; HGFB; HPTA; SF
External IDs ChEMBL: GeneCards:
RNA expression pattern
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)
RefSeq (protein)
Location (UCSC)
PubMed search

Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) is a

External links

  • Michalopoulos GK, Zarnegar R (1992). "Hepatocyte Growth Factor". Hepatology 15 (1): 149–54.  
  • Nakamura T (1992). "Structure and function of hepatocyte growth factor". Progress in Growth Factor Research 3 (1): 67–85.  
  • Ware LB, Matthay MA (May 2002). "Keratinocyte and hepatocyte growth factors in the lung: roles in lung development, inflammation, and repair". American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology 282 (5): L924–40.  
  • Funakoshi H, Nakamura T (Jan 2003). "Hepatocyte growth factor: from diagnosis to clinical applications". Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry 327 (1-2): 1–23.  
  • Skibinski G (2004). "The role of hepatocyte growth factor/c-met interactions in the immune system". Archivum Immunologiae Et Therapiae Experimentalis 51 (5): 277–82.  
  • Kalluri R, Neilson EG (Dec 2003). "Epithelial-mesenchymal transition and its implications for fibrosis". The Journal of Clinical Investigation 112 (12): 1776–84.  
  • Hurle RA, Davies G, Parr C, Mason MD, Jenkins SA, Kynaston HG, Jiang WG (Oct 2005). "Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor and prostate cancer: a review". Histology and Histopathology 20 (4): 1339–49.  
  • Kemp LE, Mulloy B, Gherardi E (Jun 2006). "Signalling by HGF/SF and Met: the role of heparan sulphate co-receptors". Biochemical Society Transactions 34 (Pt 3): 414–7.  

Further reading

  1. ^ Gallagher, J.T., Lyon, M. (2000). "Molecular structure of Heparan Sulfate and interactions with growth factors and morphogens". In Iozzo, M, V. Proteoglycans: structure, biology and molecular interactions. Marcel Dekker Inc. New York, New York. pp. 27–59. 
  2. ^ a b Bottaro DP, Rubin JS, Faletto DL, Chan AM, Kmiecik TE, Vande Woude GF, Aaronson SA (Feb 1991). "Identification of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor as the c-met proto-oncogene product". Science 251 (4995): 802–4.  
  3. ^ Johnson M, Koukoulis G, Matsumoto K, Nakamura T, Iyer A (Jun 1993). "Hepatocyte growth factor induces proliferation and morphogenesis in nonparenchymal epithelial liver cells". Hepatology 17 (6): 1052–61.  
  4. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: HGF hepatocyte growth factor (hepapoietin A; scatter factor)". 
  5. ^ Yang ZJ, Zhang YR, Chen B, Zhang SL, Jia EZ, Wang LS, Zhu TB, Li CJ, Wang H, Huang J, Cao KJ, Ma WZ, Wu B, Wang LS, Wu CT (Jul 2009). "Phase I clinical trial on intracoronary administration of Ad-hHGF treating severe coronary artery disease". Molecular Biology Reports 36 (6): 1323–9.  
  6. ^ Hahn W, Pyun WB, Kim DS, Yoo WS, Lee SD, Won JH, Shin GJ, Kim JM, Kim S (Oct 2011). "Enhanced cardioprotective effects by coexpression of two isoforms of hepatocyte growth factor from naked plasmid DNA in a rat ischemic heart disease model". The Journal of Gene Medicine 13 (10): 549–55.  
  7. ^ Chow A, Her Z, Ong EK, Chen JM, Dimatatac F, Kwek DJ, Barkham T, Yang H, Rénia L, Leo YS, Ng LF (Jan 2011). "Persistent arthralgia induced by Chikungunya virus infection is associated with interleukin-6 and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor". The Journal of Infectious Diseases 203 (2): 149–57.  
  8. ^ Zhong A, Wang G, Yang J, Xu Q, Yuan Q, Yang Y, Xia Y, Guo K, Horch RE, Sun J (Jul 2014). "Stromal-epithelial cell interactions and alteration of branching morphogenesis in macromastic mammary glands". Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 18 (7): 1257–66.  
  9. ^ Niranjan B, Buluwela L, Yant J, Perusinghe N, Atherton A, Phippard D, et al. (1995). "HGF/SF: a potent cytokine for mammary growth, morphogenesis and development". Development 121 (9): 2897–908.  
  10. ^ Kamalati T, Niranjan B, Yant J, Buluwela L (1999). "HGF/SF in mammary epithelial growth and morphogenesis: in vitro and in vivo models". J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 4 (1): 69–77.  
  11. ^ Thomas R. Ziegler; Glenn F. Pierce; David N. Herndon (6 December 2012). Growth Factors and Wound Healing: Basic Science and Potential Clinical Applications. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 311–.  
  12. ^ Sheen-Chen SM, Liu YW, Eng HL, Chou FF (2005). "Serum levels of hepatocyte growth factor in patients with breast cancer". Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 14 (3): 715–7.  
  13. ^ El-Attar HA, Sheta MI (2011). "Hepatocyte growth factor profile with breast cancer". Indian J Pathol Microbiol 54 (3): 509–13.  
  14. ^ Richter, Bernhard; Koller, Lorenz; Hohensinner, Philipp J.; Zorn, Gerlinde; Brekalo, Mira; Berger, Rudolf; Mörtl, Deddo; Maurer, Gerald; Pacher, Richard (2013-09-30). "A multi-biomarker risk score improves prediction of long-term mortality in patients with advanced heart failure". International Journal of Cardiology 168 (2): 1251–1257.  
  15. ^ Rychli, Kathrin; Richter, Bernhard; Hohensinner, Philipp J.; Kariem Mahdy, Ali; Neuhold, Stephanie; Zorn, Gerlinde; Berger, Rudolf; Mörtl, Deddo; Huber, Kurt (2011-07-01). "Hepatocyte growth factor is a strong predictor of mortality in patients with advanced heart failure". Heart (British Cardiac Society) 97 (14): 1158–1163.  
  16. ^ Nakamura, S.; Morishita, R.; Moriguchi, A.; Yo, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Hayashi, S.; Matsumoto, K.; Matsumoto, K.; Nakamura, T. (1998-12-01). "Hepatocyte growth factor as a potential index of complication in diabetes mellitus". Journal of Hypertension 16 (12 Pt 2): 2019–2026.  
  17. ^ Morishita, Ryuichi; Moriguchi, Atsushi; Higaki, Jitsuo; Ogihara, Toshio (1999-01-01). "Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) as a Potential Index of Severity of Hypertension". Hypertension Research 22 (3): 161–167.  
  18. ^ Sorour, Ashraf E.; Lönn, Johanna; Nakka, Sravya Sowdamini; Nayeri, Tayeb; Nayeri, Fariba (2015-01-01). "Evaluation of hepatocyte growth factor as a local acute phase response marker in the bowel: the clinical impact of a rapid diagnostic test for immediate identification of acute bowel inflammation". Cytokine 71 (1): 8–15.  
  19. ^ Comoglio PM (1993). "Structure, biosynthesis and biochemical properties of the HGF receptor in normal and malignant cells". Exs 65: 131–65.  
  20. ^ Naldini L, Weidner KM, Vigna E, Gaudino G, Bardelli A, Ponzetto C, Narsimhan RP, Hartmann G, Zarnegar R, Michalopoulos GK (Oct 1991). "Scatter factor and hepatocyte growth factor are indistinguishable ligands for the MET receptor". The EMBO Journal 10 (10): 2867–78.  
  21. ^ Johnson M, Koukoulis G, Kochhar K, Kubo C, Nakamura T, Iyer A (Sep 1995). "Selective tumorigenesis in non-parenchymal liver epithelial cell lines by hepatocyte growth factor transfection". Cancer Letters 96 (1): 37–48.  
  22. ^ Kochhar KS, Johnson ME, Volpert O, Iyer AP (1995). "Evidence for autocrine basis of transformation in NIH-3T3 cells transfected with met/HGF receptor gene". Growth Factors 12 (4): 303–13.  


See also

Hepatocyte growth factor has been shown to interact with the protein product of the C-Met oncogene, identified as the HGF receptor (HGFR).[2][19][20] Both overexpression of the Met/HGFR receptor protein and autocrine activation of Met/HGFR by simultaneous expression of the hepatocyte growth factor ligand have been implicated in oncogenesis.[21][22]


Plasma from patients with advanced heart failure presents increased levels of HGF, which correlates with a negative prognosis and a high risk of mortality. [14][15] Circulating HGF has been also identified as a prognostic marker of severity in patients suffering from hypertension. [16][17] Circulating HGF has been also suggested as a precocious biomarker for the acute phase of bowel inflammation. [18]

Circulating plasma levels

HGF has been implicated in a variety of cancers, including of the lungs, pancreas, thyroid, colon, and breast.[11][12][13]

Excessive local expression of HGF, along with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) to a lesser extent, in the breasts has been associated with macromastia.[8] HGF is also importantly involved in normal mammary gland development.[9][10]

HGF may further play a role as an indicator for prognosis of chronicity for Chikungunya virus induced arthralgia. High HGF levels correlate with high rates of recovery.[7]

Human HGF plasmid DNA therapy of cardiomyocytes is being examined as a potential treatment for coronary artery disease as well as treatment for the damage that occurs to the heart after myocardial infarction.[5][6]

Clinical significance

It is secreted as a single inactive polypeptide and is cleaved by serine proteases into a 69-kDa alpha-chain and 34-kDa beta-chain. A disulfide bond between the alpha and beta chains produces the active, heterodimeric molecule. The protein belongs to the plasminogen subfamily of S1 peptidases but has no detectable protease activity.[4]


Hepatocyte growth factor regulates cell growth, cell motility, and morphogenesis by activating a tyrosine kinase signaling cascade after binding to the proto-oncogenic c-Met receptor.[2][3] Hepatocyte growth factor is secreted by mesenchymal cells and acts as a multi-functional cytokine on cells of mainly epithelial origin. Its ability to stimulate mitogenesis, cell motility, and matrix invasion gives it a central role in angiogenesis, tumorogenesis, and tissue regeneration.[4]



  • Function 1
  • Structure 2
  • Clinical significance 3
    • Circulating plasma levels 3.1
  • Interactions 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • Further reading 7
  • External links 8


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