World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

High anion gap metabolic acidosis

Article Id: WHEBN0020551992
Reproduction Date:

Title: High anion gap metabolic acidosis  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Medicine, Respiratory alkalosis, Biochemistry, Diabetic ketoacidosis
Collection: Biochemistry, Kidney Diseases, Medicine, Metabolic Disorders, Mnemonics
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

High anion gap metabolic acidosis

High anion gap metabolic acidosis
Classification and external resources
ICD-10 E87.2
ICD-9 276.2
DiseasesDB 15112

High anion gap metabolic acidosis is a form of metabolic acidosis characterized by a high anion gap, which might be considered to be > 11 mEq/L.

The list of agents that cause high anion gap metabolic acidosis is similar to but broader than the list of agents that cause a serum osmolal gap.

High Anion Gap Metabolic acidosis is caused generally by the body producing too much acid or not producing enough bicarbonate. This is often an increase in lactic acid or ketoacids, or a sign of kidney failure, and more rarely may be caused by ingesting methanol or overdosing on aspirin.[1][2] The delta ratio is a formula that can be used to assess elevated anion gap metabolic acidosis and to evaluate whether mixed acid base disorder (metabolic acidosis) is present.

Contents

  • Causes 1
    • Other 1.1
  • See also 2
  • References 3

Causes

Causes include:

The newest mnemonic was proposed in The Lancet reflecting current causes of anion gap metabolic acidosis: [3]

The mnemonic MUDPILES is commonly used to remember the causes of increased anion gap metabolic acidosis.[4][5]

Another frequently used mnemonic is KARMEL.

Another frequently used mnemonic is KUPIN.

The mnemonic for the [rare, in comparison] toxins is ACE GIFTs: Aspirin, Cyanide, Ethanolic ketosis, Glycols [ ethylene and propylene ], Isoniazid, Ferrous iron, Toluene. Most of these cause a lactic acidosis.[6]

Other

See also

References

  1. ^ "Anion Gap (Blood)". University of Rochester Medical Center. Retrieved 2014-02-18. 
  2. ^ Sabatini, S; Kurtzman, NA (2009). "Bicarbonate Therapy in Severe Metabolic Acidosis". Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 20 (4): 692–695.  
  3. ^ Mehta, Ankit. "GOLD MARK: an anion gap mnemonic for the 21st century". Lancet 372 (9642): 892.  
  4. ^ MedicalMnemonics.com: 1203 3255
  5. ^ Anion Gap: Acid Base Tutorial, University of Connecticut Health Center
  6. ^ Reid, Hugh. "Dr". unpublished. Retrieved 28 November 2013. 
  7. ^ Chang CT, Chen YC, Fang JT, Huang CC (September 2002). "High anion gap metabolic acidosis in suicide: don't forget metformin intoxication--two patients' experiences". Ren Fail 24 (5): 671–5.  
  8. ^ "Metabolic Acidosis: Acid-Base Regulation and Disorders: Merck Manual Professional". Retrieved 2008-12-04. 


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.