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Hybrid warfare

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Title: Hybrid warfare  
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Subject: United States Marine Corps
Collection: Warfare by Type, Warfare Post-1945
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Hybrid warfare

Hybrid warfare is a military strategy that blends conventional warfare, irregular warfare and cyberwarfare.[1] In addition, hybrid warfare is used to describe attacks by nuclear, biological and chemical weapons, improvised explosive devices and information warfare.[2] This approach to conflicts, is a potent, complex variation of warfare.[3] Hybrid warfare can be used to describe the flexible and complex dynamics of the battlespace requiring a highly adaptable and resilient response.[1][2]


  • Other definitions 1
  • Similar examples of Hybrid warfare in history 2
  • See also 3
  • Further reading 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Other definitions

United States Marine Corps Lt. Col. Bill Nemeth’s defined hybrid warfare as “the contemporary form of guerrilla warfare” that “employs both modern technology and modern mobilization methods.”[4]

Nathan Freier of the Center for Strategic and International Studies was one of key people that originally defined hybrid warfare involving four threats: (1) traditional; (2) irregular; (3) catastrophic terrorism; and (4) disruptive, which exploit technology to counteract military superiority.[4]

Retired United States Army Col. Jack McCuen defines hybrid warfare as the focus of activity of asymmetric warfare, fought on three decisive battlegrounds: (1) within the conflict zone population; (2) home front population; and (3) international community.[4]

David Kilcullen author of the book “The Accidental Guerrilla” states hybrid warfare is the best explanation for modern conflicts, but highlights that it includes a combination of irregular warfare, civil war, insurgency and terrorism.[4]

The journalist Frank G. Hoffman defines a hybrid warfare as any enemy that uses simultaneous and adaptive employment of a complex combination of conventional weapons, irregular warfare, terrorism and criminal behaviour in the battlespace to achieve political objectives.[4]

In November 2005, USMC Lieutenant General James N. Mattis, and USMCR Lieutenant Colonel Frank G. Hoffman, (Ret.) called "Hybrid Wars" an extension of the Three Block War to a Four Block War.[5]

Undersecretary of the Navy Robert O. Work has said that hostile forces would use “hybrid warriors” hidden in civilian populations.[6]

Note: As of September 2012, the term Hybrid Warfare is not found in any official Joint Doctrine Publications. This non-doctrinal term is not accepted by military planners.

Similar examples of Hybrid warfare in history

Probably the most recent example of hybrid warfare would be that of the performance of Hezbollah in the 2006 Lebanon War. During this conflict, Hezbollah fought the Israeli military to a standstill by engaging them from either concealed, fixed positions and underground tunnel complexes (emulating the Viet Cong) or by conventional infantry combat maneuvers in Lebanese villages. The outcome of these tactics were that the Israel Defense Forces failed to conquer a single village along by the Israel-Lebanon border, in the time of its two-week ground assault on Hezbollah. Israel's greatest strengths, namely having a modern and capable armoured corps and air force, were nullified by Hezbollah fighters utilizing hardened bunkers and modern Russian ATGMs, capable of destroying any known type of armoured vehicle. At one point, Hezbollah utilized an anti-shipping cruise missile, C-802, to severely damage the corvette INS Hanit and kill four Israeli sailors on board.

This was combined by Hezbollah succeeding in hacking into Israeli communication and Israeli soldiers' mobile phones to receive first-hand knowledge about enemy troop movements, communications and casualties.

According to a Russian researcher Vladimir Voronov, the concept of "hybrid war", that became again popular with the outbreak of war in Donbass, was already employed by USSR in 20's and 30's. He gives examples of Soviet-inspired military activity with Poland, Chinese Eastern Railway and Korea.[7]

See also

Further reading

  • Bond, Margaret S. (2007). Hybrid War: A New Paradigm for Stability Operations in Failing States. Carlisle Barracks, Pa: USAWC Strategy Research Project. U.S. Army War College. 
  • Cuomo, Scott A.; Brian J. Donlon (February 2008: 50). "Training a 'Hybrid' Warrior". Marine Corps Gazette. 
  • Fleming, Brian P. (2011). The Hybrid Threat Concept: Contemporary War, Military Planning and the Advent of Unrestricted Operational Art. Fort Leavenworth, KS: U.S. Army School of Advanced Military Studies (SAMS), U.S. Army Command & General Staff College. 
  • Glenn, Russell W. "Thoughts on Hybrid Conflict". Small Wars Journal. 
  • Grant, Greg (May 1, 2008). Hybrid Wars. Government Executive. Retrieved 7 October 2010. 
  • Hoffman, Frank G. "Future Thoughts on Hybrid Threats". Small Wars Journal. 
  • Hoffman, Frank G. (March 2006). "How Marines are preparing for hybrid wars". Armed Forces Journal. 
  • Hoffman, Frank G. (1st Quarter 2009). Hybrid warfare and challenges. JFQ: Joint Force Quarterly. pp. 34–48. 
  • Hoffman, Frank G; Mattis, James N. (November 2005). Future Warfare: The Rise of Hybrid Wars Proceedings. pp. 18–19. 
  • Killebrew, Robert (June 2008). "Good advice: Hybrid warfare demands an indirect approach". Armed Forces Journal. 


  1. ^ a b "Defense lacks doctrine to guide it through cyberwarfare". 
  2. ^ a b "Auditors Find DoD Hasn't Defined Cyber Warfare". Information Week Government. 
  3. ^ "War on Terrorism: Defining hybrid warfare". Canada Free Press. 
  4. ^ a b c d e "Hybrid vs. compound war". 
  5. ^ "Future Warfare: The Rise of Hybrid Wars". 
  6. ^ Navy undersecretary speaks at warfare conference
  7. ^ Paul Goble (2014-11-05). "Stalin Invented Hybrid War, Not Vladimir Putin, Archival Record Shows". The Interpreter Magazine. Retrieved 2014-11-06. 

External links

  • Defense Aerospace: Hybrid Warfare
  • U.S. GAO - Hybrid Warfare
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