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Title: Il1b  
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Subject: Canakinumab, Interleukin, Outline of immunology, Virokine, Huwentoxin
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Interleukin 1, beta
PDB rendering based on 31bi.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols  ; IL-1; IL1-BETA; IL1F2
External IDs GeneCards:
RNA expression pattern
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)
RefSeq (protein)
Location (UCSC)
PubMed search

Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) also known as '"leukocytic pyrogen"', "'leukocytic endogenous mediator'", "'mononuclear cell factor'", "'lymphocyte activating factor'" and other names, is a cytokine protein that in humans is encoded by the IL1B gene.[1][2][3][4] There are two genes for Interleukin-1 (IL-1): IL-1 alpha and IL-1 beta (this gene). IL-1β precursor is cleaved by cytosolic caspase 1 (interleukin 1 beta convertase) to form mature IL-1β.


  • Function 1
  • Properties 2
  • Clinical significance 3
    • Therapies that target IL1B 3.1
  • Orthographic note 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • Further reading 7
  • External links 8


The fever-producing property of human leukocytic pyrogen (Interleukin 1) was purified by Dinarello in 1977 (PNAS) with a specific activity of 10-20 nanograms/kg. In 1979, Dinarello reported that purified human leukocytic pyrogen was the same molecule that was described by Igal Gery in 1972.[5][6][7] He named it lymphocyte-activating factor (LAF) because it was a lymphocyte mitogen. It was not until 1984 that interleukin 1 was discovered to consist of two distinct proteins, now called interleukin-1 alpha and interleukin-1 beta.[2]

IL-1β is a member of the interleukin 1 family of cytokines. This cytokine is produced by activated macrophages as a proprotein, which is proteolytically processed to its active form by caspase 1 (CASP1/ICE). This cytokine is an important mediator of the inflammatory response, and is involved in a variety of cellular activities, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. The induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (PTGS2/COX2) by this cytokine in the central nervous system (CNS) is found to contribute to inflammatory pain hypersensitivity. This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2.[8]


The molecular weight of the proteolytically processed IL1B is 17.5 kDa. IL1B has the following amino acid sequence:


The physiological activity determined from the dose dependent proliferation of murine D10S cells is 2.5 x 108 to 7.1 x 108 units/mg.

Clinical significance

Increased production of IL-1B causes a number of different autoinflammatory syndromes, most notably the monogenic conditions referred to as CAPS, due to mutations in the inflammasome receptor NLRP3 which triggers processing of IL-1B.[9]

Therapies that target IL1B

Canakinumab is a human monoclonal antibody targeted at IL-1B, and approved in many countries for treatment of cryopyrin-associated periodic syndromes.

Orthographic note

Because many authors of scientific manuscripts make the minor error of using a homoglyph, sharp s (ß), instead of beta (β), mentions of "IL-1ß" [sic] often become "IL-1ss" [sic] upon automated transcoding (because ß transcodes to ss). This is why so many mentions of the latter appear in web search results.

See also


  1. ^ Auron PE, Webb AC, Rosenwasser LJ, Mucci SF, Rich A, Wolff SM, Dinarello CA (1984). "Nucleotide sequence of human monocyte interleukin 1 precursor cDNA". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 81 (24): 7907–11.  
  2. ^ a b "Catabolin" is the name given by Jeremy Saklatvala for IL-1 alpha. March CJ, Mosley B, Larsen A, Cerretti DP, Braedt G, Price V, Gillis S, Henney CS, Kronheim SR, Grabstein K (1985). "Cloning, sequence and expression of two distinct human interleukin-1 complementary DNAs". Nature 315 (6021): 641–7.  
  3. ^ Clark BD, Collins KL, Gandy MS, Webb AC, Auron PE (1986). "Genomic sequence for human prointerleukin 1 beta: possible evolution from a reverse transcribed prointerleukin 1 alpha gene". Nucleic Acids Res 14 (20): 7897–1914.  
  4. ^ Bensi G, Raugei G, Palla E, Carinci V, Tornese Buonamassa D, Melli M (1987). "Human interleukin-1 beta gene". Gene 52 (1): 95–101.  
  5. ^ Gery I, Gershon RK, Waksman BH (1972). "Potentiation of the T-lymphocyte response to mitogens. I. The responding cell". J. Exp. Med. 136 (1): 128–142.  
  6. ^ Gery I, Waksman BH (1972). "Potentiation of the T-lymphocyte response to mitogens. II. The cellular source of potentiating mediator(s)". J. Exp. Med. 136 (1): 143–155.  
  7. ^ Gery I, Handschumacher RE (1974). "Potentiation of the T lymphocyte response to mitogens. III. Properties of the mediator(s) from adherent cells". Cell. Immunol. 11 (1-3): 162–9.  
  8. ^ "Entrez Gene: IL1B interleukin 1, beta". 
  9. ^ Masters SL, Simon A, Aksentijevich I, Kastner DL (2009). "Horror autoinflammaticus: the molecular pathophysiology of autoinflammatory disease (*)". Annu. Rev. Immunol. 27: 621–68.  

Further reading

  • Smirnova MG, Kiselev SL, Gnuchev NV, Birchall JP, Pearson JP (2003). "Role of the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in the pathogenesis of the otitis media with effusion". Eur. Cytokine Netw. 13 (2): 161–72.  
  • Griffin WS, Mrak RE (2002). "Interleukin-1 in the genesis and progression of and risk for development of neuronal degeneration in Alzheimer's disease". J. Leukoc. Biol. 72 (2): 233–8.  
  • Arend WP (2003). "The balance between IL-1 and IL-1Ra in disease". Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 13 (4-5): 323–40.  
  • Chakravorty M, Ghosh A, Choudhury A, Santra A, Hembrum J, Roychoudhury S (2004). "Ethnic differences in allele distribution for the IL8 and IL1B genes in populations from eastern India". Hum. Biol. 76 (1): 153–9.  
  • Joseph AM, Kumar M, Mitra D (2005). "Nef: "necessary and enforcing factor" in HIV infection". Curr. HIV Res. 3 (1): 87–94.  
  • Maruyama Y, Stenvinkel P, Lindholm B (2005). "Role of interleukin-1beta in the development of malnutrition in chronic renal failure patients". Blood Purif. 23 (4): 275–81.  
  • Roy D, Sarkar S, Felty Q (2006). "Levels of IL-1 beta control stimulatory/inhibitory growth of cancer cells". Front. Biosci. 11: 889–98.  
  • Copeland KF (2005). "Modulation of HIV-1 transcription by cytokines and chemokines". Mini Rev Med Chem 5 (12): 1093–101.  
  • Prinz C, Schwendy S, Voland P (2006). "H pylori and gastric cancer: shifting the global burden". World J. Gastroenterol. 12 (34): 5458–64.  
  • Kamangar F, Cheng C, Abnet CC, Rabkin CS (2006). "Interleukin-1B polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk--a meta-analysis". Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev. 15 (10): 1920–8.  

External links

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