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Frobisher Bay
Flag of Iqaluit
Iqaluit is located in Nunavut
Country Canada
Territory Nunavut
Region Qikiqtaaluk Region
Electoral districts Iqaluit-Manirajak
Settled 1942
Village status 1974
Town status 1980
City status 19 April 2001
Founded by Nakasuk
 • Type Iqaluit Municipal Council
 • Mayor John Graham
 • MLAs Monica Ell
Pat Angnakak
Paul Okalik
George Hickes
 • Total 52.50 km2 (20.27 sq mi)
Population (2011)[6]
 • Total 6,699
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
Canadian Postal code X0A 0H0, X0A 1H0
Area code(s) 867
Telephone Exchanges 222 (mobile), 975, 979
NTS Map 025N10

Iqaluit (Inuktitut: ᐃᖃᓗᐃᑦ; ) is the largest city and territorial capital of the Canadian territory of Nunavut. Formerly Frobisher Bay until 1987, after the name of the bay on whose shore it is sited. Iqaluit is located on the south coast of Baffin Island at the head of Frobisher Bay. As of the 2011 census the population was 6,699, an increase of 8.3 percent from the 2006 census; it has the lowest population of any capital city in Canada.[6] Inhabitants of Iqaluit are called Iqalummiut (singular: Iqalummiuq).


The Royal Canadian Mounted Police on parade in Iqaluit, Canada Day 1999.

Iqaluit was founded in 1942 as an American air base, intended to provide a stop-over and refueling site for short range aircraft being ferried across the Atlantic to support the war effort in Europe. Iqaluit's first permanent inhabitant was Nakasuk, an Inuk guide who helped American Air Force planners to choose a site with a large flat area suitable for a landing strip. The wartime airstrip was known as Crystal Two and was part of the Crimson Route. Long regarded as a campsite and fishing spot by the Inuit, the place chosen had traditionally been named Iqaluit – "place of many fish" in Inuktitut – but Canadian and American authorities named it Frobisher Bay, after the name of the body of water it abuts. For the history of the air base, see Frobisher Bay Air Base.

The Hudson's Bay Company moved its south Baffin operations to the neighbouring valley of Niaqunngut, officially called Apex, in 1949 to take advantage of the airfield. The population of Frobisher Bay increased rapidly during the construction of the Distant Early Warning Line (DEW line, a system of radar stations, see North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD)) in the mid-1950s. Hundreds of construction workers, military personnel, and administrative staff moved into the community, and several hundred Inuit followed to take advantage of the access to medical care and jobs the base provided. In 1957, 489 of the town's 1,200 residents were reported to be Inuit. After 1959, the Canadian government established permanent services at Frobisher Bay, including full-time doctors, a school and social services. The Inuit population grew rapidly in response, as the government encouraged Inuit to settle permanently in communities with government services.

Naval Radio Station (NRS) Frobisher Bay, callsign CFI, was established in July 1954 as a result of the closure of NRS Chimo, Quebec. Station CFI was part of the Supplementary Radio network.

In its simplest form, a SUPRAD station operated in the following manner. When a prospective target made an emission which was heard by the Control Center, Control "flashed" the details of the emission (frequency and call sign) to the SUPRAD stations of the network. The stations tuned the signal, took bearings then reported the bearing to Control. At Control, the bearings were collated by computer and a fix area established.

Because of its remoteness and size, it was very expensive to operate. Advancing technology eventually forced the closure of CFI in 1967.

The American military left Iqaluit in 1963, as intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM) diminished the strategic value of the DEW line and Arctic airbases, but Frobisher Bay remained the government's administrative and logistical centre for much of the eastern Arctic. In 1964, the first elections were held for a community council, and in 1979 for the first mayor. The founding of the Gordon Robertson Educational Centre, now Inuksuk High School, in the early 1970s at Iqaluit confirmed the government's commitment to the community as an administrative centre. At the time of its founding, it was the sole high school operating in more than one-seventh of Canadian territory.

On 1 January 1987, the name of this municipality was officially changed from "Frobisher Bay" to "Iqaluit" - aligning official usage with the name that the Inuit population had always used (although, many documents still referred to Iqaluit as Frobisher Bay for several years after 1987). In December 1995, Iqaluit was selected to serve as Nunavut's future capital in a territory-wide referendum, in which it was chosen over Rankin Inlet. On 19 April 2001, it was officially redesignated as a city.

Iqaluit was designated by Canada as the host city for the 2010 meeting of the G7 finance ministers, held on 5–6 February.[7] The meeting strained the northern communications technology infrastructure.[8]


Legislative Assembly of Nunavut building in Iqaluit
  • 1576 - Englishman Martin Frobisher sails into Frobisher Bay believing he has found the route to China. First Anglican/Episcopalian church service in North America.
  • 1861 - Charles Francis Hall, an American, camps at the Sylvia Grinnell River and explores the waters of Koojesse Inlet, which he names after his Inuit guide
  • 1942 - U.S. Army Air Forces selects Iqaluit’s current location as the site of a major air base
  • 1949 - The HBC moves its trading post from Ward Inlet to Apex
  • 1955 - Frobisher Bay becomes the centre for U.S. Canada DEW Line construction operations
  • 1958 - Telephone exchange service established by Bell Canada
  • 1963 - US military move out of Iqaluit
  • 1964 - First community council formed; population of Frobisher Bay is 900
  • 1970 - Frobisher Bay officially recognized as a Settlement
  • 1974 - Settlement of Frobisher Bay gains village status
  • 1976 - Inuit present the Nunavut proposal to the Federal government
  • 1979 - First mayor elected
  • 1980 - Frobisher Bay designated as a town
  • 1982 - Government of Canada agrees in principle to the creation of Nunavut
  • 1987 - Frobisher Bay officially becomes Iqaluit, reverting to its original Inuktitut name meaning "place of (many) fish"
  • 1993 - The Nunavut Land Claims Agreement is signed in Iqaluit
  • 1995 - Nunavut residents select Iqaluit as capital of the new territory[9]
  • 1 April 1999 - The Territory of Nunavut officially comes into being
  • 19 April 2001 - Iqaluit receives its order of official status as a city
  • 2002 - Iqaluit, along with Nuuk, Greenland, co-host the first jointly hosted Arctic Winter Games; the Arctic Winter Games Arena was constructed in Iqaluit for the event.
  • 5 February 2010 - Iqaluit hosted the finance meeting as part of the 2010 G7 summit.[10]


Iqaluit is located in the Everett Mountains rising from Koojesse (Kuujussi) Inlet, an inlet of Frobisher Bay, on the southeast part of Baffin Island. It is well to the east of Nunavut's mainland, and northeast of Hudson Bay.


View of Iqaluit from Joamie Hill.

Apex is a small community about 5 km (3.1 mi) southeast () from Iqaluit's centre and is known in Inuktitut as Niaqunngut. It is located on a small peninsula separating Koojesse Inlet from Tarr Inlet. There is a women's shelter, a church, a store, a primary school, a design shop and a bed-and-breakfast.

Historically Apex was the place where most Inuit lived when Iqaluit was a military site, and as such it was off-limits to anyone not working at the base.


Iqaluit has a typically Arctic climate (Köppen: ET), although it is well outside the Arctic Circle. The city has cold winters and short summers that are too cool to permit the growth of trees. Although it is north of the tree line there are still shrubs that are classed, locally, as trees. These include the Arctic Willow (Salix arctica) which is hard to recognize as a tree because of its low height. The permafrost does not allow the taproot to get deeper than 150 mm (6 in) so this does not allow vertical growth. The Arctic Willow may be up to around 7.6 m (25 ft) horizontally, but only 150 mm (6 in) tall. Average monthly temperatures are below freezing for eight months of the year.[11] Iqaluit averages just over of precipitation annually, much wetter than many other localities in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, with the summer being the wettest season.

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high Humidex 3.3 5.2 4.3 5.1 13.3 21.7 27.8 27.6 18.8 8.6 4.8 3.4 27.8
Record high °C (°F) 3.9
Average high °C (°F) −22.8
Daily mean °C (°F) −26.9
Average low °C (°F) −30.9
Record low °C (°F) −45.0
Wind chill −64.0 −65.6 −62.1 −53.1 −36.0 −18.8 −7.2 −8.6 −18.6 −42.9 −56.8 −60.1 −65.6

Rainfall mm (inches) 0.0
Snowfall cm (inches) 21.7
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 11.4 11.1 11.8 13.1 12.0 10.9 12.5 15.3 15.0 14.0 13.2 12.2 152.2
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.3 1.4 7.4 12.7 16.7 10.6 2.2 0.3 0.0 51.6
Avg. snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 12.2 11.6 12.7 13.4 12.0 3.9 0.1 0.5 7.2 13.7 13.8 12.3 113.5
% humidity 65.3 64.6 65.4 72.8 76.4 72.6 69.4 72.6 75.6 78.1 76.6 71.5 71.7
Mean monthly sunshine hours 32.4 94.0 172.2 216.5 180.5 200.2 236.8 156.8 87.9 51.4 35.6 12.6 1,476.8
Percent possible sunshine 18.5 39.0 47.4 48.2 31.9 32.5 39.3 31.0 22.4 16.8 17.7 8.9 29.5
Source: Environment Canada Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010[12]

Snowstorms and blizzards

The city of Iqaluit experiences destructive storms during the winter season. A notable blizzard indirectly hit Iqaluit in early February 2007, with wind gusts up to 130 kilometres per hour (81 mph).


Canada Day celebrations in Iqaluit, 1999

The 2011 Census reported that there were 6,699 people living in Iqaluit, an 8.3% increase from 2006.[13] The land area size of the city is 52.50 km2, therefore a population density of 127.6 people per km2. Iqaluit has a total of 2,930 private dwellings, 2,367 of which are occupied by usual residents (80.8% occupancy rate). The median value of these dwellings is $376,639, quite a bit higher than the national median at $280,552. The average household has about 2.8 people living in it, and the average family has 1.4 children living at home with them. The median (after-tax) household income in Iqaluit is quite high, $98,921, almost double the national rate at $54,089. The median income for an individual in the city, is also high, $60,688. 5.9% of people (over 15 years old) are either divorced or separated, which is quite a bit lower than the national rate at 8.6%. Also, 53.3% of the population is either married or living with a common law partner.

Iqaluit has quite a young population, the median age of the population is more than 10 years younger than the national rate, 30.1 years old compared to 40.6 years old.

Iqaluit has the highest number of Inuit people in both numbers (3,900) and percentages (59.1%), of all Canadian cities with populations greater than 5,000. The racial make up is:

There is no "majority mother tongue" in Iqaluit, as 45.4% reported their mother tongue as being English, and 45.4% also reported their mother tongue as Inuktitut. However 97.2% of Iqalummiuts can speak English, whereas only 53.1% can speak Inuktitut. French was the mother tongue of 4.8% of the population, which is the same figure of the population who can speak the language. As of 2012, "Pirurvik, Iqaluit’s Inuktitut language training centre, has a new goal: to train instructors from Nunavut communities to teach Inuktitut in different ways and in their own dialects when they return home."[14]

74.9% of the population practice some form of Christianity (Anglican is the most popular at 42.6%), and 22.9% of the population identify has having no religious affiliation. There are other religions practiced in the city, just not in large numbers.

For those over the age of 25:

  • 75.7% are high school educated (15.9% as their highest level of education)
  • 59.8% are post-secondary school educated
  • 24.3% have no certificate, diploma or degree

Notable Iqalummiut


Iqaluit has the distinction of being the smallest Canadian capital in terms of population and the only capital that is not connected to other settlements by a highway. Located on an island remote from the Canadian highway system, Iqaluit is generally only accessible by aircraft and, subject to ice conditions, by boat. Iqaluit Airport is a fully modern facility whose originally Second World War era runway is more than long enough for most classes of modern jet. Plans are underway to build a new, larger passenger terminal building north of the current terminal, which would also include a larger apron adjacent to the new terminal. A persistent rumour that Iqaluit was an emergency landing site for the Space Shuttle is false.[19] Iqaluit shared its runway with the Royal Canadian Air Force until the Canadian Forces stopped using Iqaluit as a Forward Operating Location (FOL). The barracks and F-18 hangars are maintained. Iqaluit Airport was a centre for cold-weather testing of new aircraft, such as the Airbus A380 in February 2006. Both Canadian North and First Air serve Iqaluit from Ottawa and Yellowknife as well as multiple communities in Nunavut. Air Canada Jazz also provided daily service to Iqaluit from Ottawa between March 28, 2010 and July 31, 2011. CBC reports the Air Canada service was cancelled due to rising fuel costs, among other issues, which prevented the route from being profitable.[20][21] Locally based airlines include Air Nunavut, Canadian Helicopters, Nunasi Helicopters and Unaalik Aviation. All provide air charters and Air Nunavut and Kivalliq Air provide MEDIVAC/air ambulance service.

Iqaluit stop sign

In the middle of summer, a few ships — generally no larger than a Liberty class vessel — transport bulk and heavy goods to the city. Cargo is off-loaded onto barges as the harbour is not deep enough. The city is currently planning a deepwater port.[22] Experienced locals also cross the Hudson Strait from the Canadian mainland when it freezes over, either on foot or by dog sled or snowmobile, a distance of over 100 km (62 mi).

Iqaluit has a local road system only stretching from the nearby community of Apex to the Sylvia Grinnell Territorial Park Reserve, 1 km (0.62 mi) west of town. Iqaluit currently has no public transportation, although there is city-wide taxi service. (There was bus service in the city before, but the service was cancelled due to low ridership.) Motor cars are increasing in number, to the extent of causing occasional traffic jams known locally as "the rush minute." However, the cost of shipping automobiles and the wear-and-tear of the harsh Arctic climate combined with its notoriously rough roadways mean that snowmobiles remain the preferred form of personal transportation. All-terrain vehicles are also increasingly common in most of the Canadian Arctic. Snowmobiles are used to travel both within the city and in the surrounding area. In winter, dog sleds are still used, but primarily for recreation. In winter, the nearby Qaummaarviit Territorial Historic Park and the more remote Katannilik Territorial Park Reserve are only accessible by snowmobile, dog sled or foot. In the summer, both are accessible by boat.

Both residents and businesses identify their locations mostly by building number, and occasionally by the name of a prominent structure. Residents know where in the city certain series of building numbers are located; numbers tend to be aggregated in blocks, so someone might say that they live in the 2600s. Around 2003, street names were developed, although there were delays in finalizing them and posting the signs. Street numbers have not been assigned, and building numbers continue to be used. Iqaluit is the only Canadian capital city not to have traffic signals.[23]


Most major roads in Iqaluit are paved with asphalt, but local and smaller roads are gravel. Roads do not have traffic signals, but use stop signs to control intersections.


There are 7 schools located in Iqaluit, 6 public (Qikiqtani School Operations) and 1 French (Commission scolaire francophone du Nunavut).

At the post-secondary level there are 2, Nunavut Arctic College (Nunatta Campus) and Akitsiraq Law School.


Waste and water treatment

The city's infrastructure is stressed by growth and lack of means to upgrade. Waste from the city is disposed off into an open air dump on Akilliq Drive (West 40) located south of the city.[24]

While the city has water treatment facilities, raw sewage from the city is often dumped untreated into nearby Frobisher Bay.[24]

As the dump has reached capacity, the city is planning to open a second dump 9 kilometres (5.6 mi) north of the city.[25] Iqaluit does not have a recycling program in place with all recyclable materials sent into the waste stream.

Emergency services

Emergency services (fire and ambulance) are provided by city from a single station on Niaqunngusiariaq.[26]

The emergency services fleet consists of:

  • Engine 1 – Spartan Diamond/Smeal pumper
  • Ladder 1 – Spartan Metro Star/Smeal 75' aerial
  • Command 1 - Ford SUV
  • Command 2 – Ford F250 4×4 pickup
  • Medic 1 and 2 – Ford F450 Type II ambulances

Iqaluit Airport Emergency Services is responsible for fire services at the airport. Following a fire at the airport in 1998, the Government of Nunavut re-opened the fire station at the airport.[27] Their fleet consists of:

  • Waltek C-5500 ARFF
  • Oshkosh T3000 ARFF

Policing in Iqaluit, as with the rest of Nunavut is contracted to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) V Division.[28]

Architecture and attractions

Much of Iqaluit's architecture is functional – designed to minimize material costs, while retaining heat and withstanding the climate. Early architecture runs from the 1950s military barracks of the original DEW line installation, through the 1970s white hyper-modernist fibreglass block of the Nakasuk School and Municipal Offices and Arena, to the lines of the steel-reinforced concrete high-rise complex on the hill above it. A number of older Hudson's Bay Company and early 1950s buildings have been retained and restored in Apex (the former nursing station has been revived as the Rannva Bed and Breakfast, the HBC buildings as an art gallery). The newer buildings are more colourful and diverse, and closer to the norms of southern architecture.

The principal exception is the Nunavut Legislative Assembly Building, which is remarkable for its colourful interior, adorned with some of the very best in Inuit art. A new legislative building is in planning to be developed and built outside the city on the Apex Road.

St. Jude's Anglican Cathedral

Another distinctive building was St. Jude's Anglican Cathedral, see of the Anglican Diocese of The Arctic, which was a white building shaped like an igloo. Originally built by the parishioners, under the guidance of Markoosie Peter, a traditional master carpenter, the altar was shaped like a traditional Inuit sled, and the cross composed of two crossed narwhal tusks. An incident of arson severely affected the Cathedral structure and interior on 5 November 2005,[29] and it was finally demolished on 1 June 2006. The cathedral is slowly being rebuilt (foundation 2008 super structure 2010) and fund-raising continues locally and internationally. As of December 2010, the exterior of a similarly shaped replacement cathedral had been completed, and interior work was planned for 2011 with a potential opening for Christmas 2011. On a ridge overlooking the city is the distinctive blue and white Inuksuk High School. The school is made up of four square sections joined together that give a clover leaf shape when viewed from the air.

The city is also the location of the Nunatta Sunakkutaangit Museum, which houses a large collection of Inuit and Arctic objects. The museum is housed in a restored and extended Hudson's Bay Company building, clad in the HBC signature red and white, transported to Iqaluit from its original site on the Apex Beach.

Just west of Iqaluit is the Sylvia Grinnell Territorial Park Reserve. This park is dominated by the valley of the Sylvia Grinnell River. A small visitor's centre with viewing platform is located on top of a hill overlooking scenic waterfalls, tidal flats and traditional fishing sites.

Nearby on an island near Peterhead Inlet, is the Qaummaarviit Territorial Historic Park. It is a site with a long Inuit history and numerous artifacts have been recovered, including the remains of 11 semi-buried sod houses.

A little farther, across Frobisher Bay, are the Katannilik Territorial Park Reserve and the Soper Heritage River Park forming a park corridor linking Iqaluit along traditional overland travel routes with Kimmirut (formerly Lake Harbour). Frobisher Bay extends for almost 110 kilometres (70 mi) to the east, with moderate hills, glaciers and traditional and summer camp sites, opening into the Davis Straits which divide Nunavut from Greenland.

Iqaluit, like many Nunavut communities has a volunteer run annual spring festival. Called Toonik Tyme it involves a combination of traditional Inuit activities combined with more modern events, while the Alianait Music and Arts Festival is held for a week each June 21.



Iqaluit was previously served by CFFB-TV channel 8, a CBC Television / CBC North repeater of CFYK-DT Yellowknife; that station closed down on July 31, 2012 due to budget cuts affecting the CBC.[30][31]

  • Meshnet Community WiFi - Free Community WiFi and Paid Service available in most areas of city. Free services include access to, and many other resources.


  1. ^ "Council Members". Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  2. ^ Results for the constituency of Iqaluit-Manirajak at Elections Nunavut
  3. ^ Results for the constituency of Iqaluit-Niaqunnguu at Elections Nunavut
  4. ^ Results for the constituency of Iqaluit-Sinaa at Elections Nunavut
  5. ^ Results for the constituency of Iqaluit-Tasiluk
  6. ^ a b c "Canada 2011 census". 2012-02-08. Retrieved 2012-02-08. 
  7. ^ "Iqaluit G7 talks serious business: Aglukkaq". 2010-02-02. Archived from the original on 2012-09-22. Retrieved 2013-12-12. 
  8. ^ "G7 tests Nunavut data networks". 2010-02-04. Archived from the original on 2012-01-04. Retrieved 2013-12-12. 
  9. ^ "Iqaluit Wins the Capital Plebiscite". Nunatisaq News. December 15, 1995. Archived from the original on 2008-12-23. Retrieved 2006-07-30. 
  10. ^ "Iqaluit to host G7 finance meeting". CBC News. 2009-11-18. Retrieved 2012-08-25. 
  11. ^ "Iqaluit A". Canadian Climate Normals 1981−2010. Environment Canada. Retrieved September 6, 2013. 
  12. ^ "Iqaluit A". Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010.  
  13. ^ NHS Profile, Iqaluit, CY, Nunavut, 2011. Retrieved December 6, 2013
  14. ^ Dawson, Samantha (2013-01-17). "A new way to nurture the Inuit language: train the instructors". NunatsiaqOnline. Retrieved 2013-01-24. 
  15. ^ a b The road to Nunavut: the progress of the eastern Arctic Inuit since the Second World War by Ronald Quinn Duffy
  16. ^ "Fact Sheet" (in Français). Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  17. ^ "Chasing his dreams – Aqpik Peter leads way for Inuit youth". Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  18. ^ "Nunavut MLAs choose Tootoo as new Speaker". 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2011-07-31. 
  19. ^ John Pike (2005-04-27). "List of Space Shuttle emergency landing sites at". Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  20. ^ "Air Canada expands its network north to Iqaluit". 2010-03-28. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  21. ^ "Air Canada discontinues Iqaluit flights". 2011-07-04. Retrieved 2011-08-02. 
  22. ^ Strategic Plan for the Iqaluit Deepwater Port Project, retrieved from the City of Iqaluit web site, October 2008
  23. ^ [1]
  24. ^ a b Posted: Nov 22, 2011 7:53 PM CST (2011-11-22). "Iqaluit’s infrastructure struggles to keep up with growth - North - CBC News". Retrieved 2013-08-08. 
  25. ^ "As Iqaluit landfill overflows, residents propose incinerator - News - MSN CA". 2013-07-22. Retrieved 2013-08-08. 
  26. ^ "Welcome to the City of Iqaluit". Retrieved 2013-08-08. 
  27. ^ "Transportation Safety Board of Canada - Aviation Investigation Report A98Q0192". Retrieved 2013-08-08. 
  28. ^ About the RCMP in Nunavut
  29. ^ "Iqaluit officials confirm cathedral fire was deliberately set". CBC News. 2005-11-10. 
  30. ^ Speaking notes for Hubert T. Lacroix regarding measures announced in the context of the Deficit Reduction Action Plan
  31. ^ Broadcasting Decision CRTC 2012-384, July 17, 2012.

Further reading

  • Baffin Regional Health Board (Nunavut), and Health Needs Assessment Project (Nunavut). Iqaluit Community Profile. Iqaluit, Nunavut?: Health Needs Assessment Project, Baffin Regional Health Board?, 1994.
  • Eno, Robert V. Crystal Two The Origin of Iqaluit. Arctic. 2003.
  • Hodgson, D. A. Quaternary geology of western Meta Incognita Peninsula and Iqaluit area, Baffin Island, Nunavut. Ottawa: Geological Survey of Canada, 2005. ISBN 0-660-19405-8
  • Keen, Jared. Iqaluit Gateway to the Arctic. Calgary: Weigl, 2000. ISBN 1-896990-55-X
  • Kublu, Alexina, and Mélanie Gagnon. Inuit Recollections on the Military Presence in Iqaluit. Memory and history in Nunavut, v. 2. Iqaluit, N.W.T.: Nunavut Arctic College, 2002. ISBN 1-896204-54-6
  • Newbery, Nick. Iqaluit gateway to Baffin. Iqaluit, NT: Published for the Royal Canadian Legion Branch No. 4, Iqaluit by Nortext Pub. Co, 1995. ISBN 1-55036-452-9

External links

  • City of Iqaluit
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