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Jimmy Carter

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Collection: 1924 Births, 20Th-Century American Politicians, 20Th-Century Baptists, 21St-Century American Novelists, 21St-Century Baptists, American Democracy Activists, American Diplomats, American Gun Control Advocates, American Humanitarians, American Male Novelists, American Memoirists, American Military Personnel of World War II, American Nobel Laureates, American People of English Descent, American People of Scotch-Irish Descent, American Political Writers, Baptists from the United States, Cold War Leaders, Democratic Party Presidents of the United States, Democratic Party State Governors of the United States, Emory University Faculty, Farmers from Georgia (U.S. State), Georgia (U.S. State) Democrats, Georgia (U.S. State) State Senators, Georgia Institute of Technology Alumni, Georgia Southwestern State University Alumni, Governors of Georgia (U.S. State), Grammy Award Winners, Grand Crosses of the Order of Vasco Núñez De Balboa, Habitat for Humanity People, History of the United States (1964–80), Jimmy Carter, Living People, Nobel Peace Prize Laureates, People from Plains, Georgia, People of the Soviet–afghan War, People with Cancer, Phi Kappa Phi, Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipients, Presidents of the United States, Progressivism in the United States, Recipients of the Indira Gandhi Peace Prize, School Board Members in Georgia (U.S. State), Sons of the American Revolution, Submariners, Union College (New York) Alumni, United States Naval Academy Alumni, United States Navy Officers, United States Presidential Candidates, 1976, United States Presidential Candidates, 1980, Writers from Georgia (U.S. State)
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Jimmy Carter

Jimmy Carter
39th President of the United States
In office
January 20, 1977 – January 20, 1981
Vice President Walter Mondale
Preceded by Gerald Ford
Succeeded by Ronald Reagan
Governor of Georgia
In office
January 12, 1971 – January 14, 1975
Lieutenant Lester Maddox
Preceded by Lester Maddox
Succeeded by George Busbee
Member of the Georgia Senate
from the 14th district
In office
January 14, 1963 – January 10, 1967
Preceded by Constituency established
Succeeded by Hugh Carter
Constituency Sumter County
Personal details
Born James Earl Carter, Jr.
(1924-10-01) October 1, 1924
Plains, Georgia, U.S.
Political party Democratic Party
Spouse(s) Rosalynn Smith
(m. 1946–present)
Parents James Earl Carter, Sr.
Bessie Lillian Gordy
Alma mater
Religion Baptist[1]
Signature Cursive signature in ink
Military service
Allegiance  United States of America
Service/branch  United States Navy
Years of service 1943–1953
Rank Lieutenant
Awards Nobel Peace Prize
Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown

James Earl "Jimmy" Carter, Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician and member of the Democratic Party who served as the 39th President of the United States from 1977 to 1981. He was awarded the 2002 Nobel Peace Prize.

Carter, raised in rural Georgia, was a peanut farmer who served two terms as a Department of Energy and the Department of Education. He established a national energy policy that included conservation, price control, and new technology. In foreign affairs, Carter pursued the Camp David Accords, the Panama Canal Treaties, the second round of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT II), and returned the Panama Canal Zone to Panama. On the economic front he confronted persistent "stagflation", a combination of high inflation, high unemployment and slow growth. The end of his presidential tenure was marked by the 1979–1981 Iran hostage crisis, the 1979 energy crisis, the Three Mile Island nuclear accident, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. In response to the Soviet move he ended détente, escalated the Cold War, and led the international boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. By 1980, Carter's popularity had eroded. Running for re-election that year, he defeated Ted Kennedy in the primary challenge for the Democratic Party nomination, but lost the general election to Republican candidate Ronald Reagan.

Carter was highly active after leaving the White House. He set up the Carter Center in 1982, as his base for advancing human rights. He has traveled extensively to conduct peace negotiations, observe elections, and advance disease prevention and eradication in developing nations. Carter is a key figure in the Habitat for Humanity project, and also remains particularly critical of Israel's role in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.


  • Early life 1
    • Naval career 1.1
    • Farming 1.2
  • Early political career 2
    • State Senate 2.1
    • Campaigns for governor 2.2
  • Governor of Georgia 3
    • National ambition 3.1
  • 1976 presidential campaign 4
  • Presidency 5
    • Iran hostage crisis 5.1
    • U.S. energy crisis 5.2
    • EPA Love Canal Superfund 5.3
    • Deregulation 5.4
    • U.S. boycott of the Moscow Olympics 5.5
  • 1980 presidential campaign 6
  • Post-presidency 7
    • Carter Center and Nobel Prize 7.1
    • Diplomacy 7.2
      • North Korea 7.2.1
      • Middle East 7.2.2
      • Africa 7.2.3
      • Americas 7.2.4
      • Vietnam 7.2.5
      • The Elders 7.2.6
    • Criticism of U.S. policy 7.3
      • Criticisms of George W. Bush 7.3.1
      • Criticisms of Barack Obama 7.3.2
    • Author 7.4
      • Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid 7.4.1
    • Involvement with Bank of Credit and Commerce International 7.5
    • 2012 Presidential race 7.6
    • Other activities 7.7
  • Personal views 8
    • Abortion 8.1
    • Death penalty 8.2
    • Equality for women 8.3
    • Gun control 8.4
    • Race in politics 8.5
    • Torture 8.6
  • Personal life 9
    • Religion 9.1
    • Family 9.2
    • Funeral and burial plans 9.3
  • Public image and legacy 10
    • Public opinion 10.1
    • Legacy 10.2
    • Honors and awards 10.3
  • See also 11
  • Notes 12
  • References 13
  • Further reading 14
    • Primary sources 14.1
  • External links 15

Early life

Jimmy Carter (around age 13) with his dog, Bozo, in 1937

James Earl Carter, Jr. was born October 1, 1924 at the Wise Sanatorium in Sumter County, Plains was a small boomtown of 600 people when Carter was born. James Earl Carter, Sr., was a successful local businessman who ran a general store and had begun to invest in farmland. He had been a reserve second lieutenant in the U.S. Army's Quartermaster Corps during World War I. Carter's mother Bessie Lillian Gordy was a nurse at the Wise hospital. Carter was the first of Earl and Lillian's children; they moved several times in his infancy.[2]

The Carters settled on a dirt road in nearby Archery, which was almost entirely populated by impoverished African American families. They eventually had three more children: Gloria, Ruth, and Billy. Carter got along well with his parents, although his mother worked long hours and was often absent in his childhood. While Earl was staunchly pro-segregation, he allowed his son to befriend the black farmhands' children. An enterprising teenager, Carter was given his own acre of Earl's farmland where he grew, packaged and sold peanuts. He also rented out a section of tenant housing he had purchased.[2]

Carter attended the Plains High School from 1930, first grade, to 1941. The Great Depression was by then taking a toll on Archery and Plains, but the family benefited from New Deal farming subsidies and Earl took a position as a community leader. Carter was a diligent student with a fondness for reading.[note 2] His teacher Julia Coleman was a particular influence on him. As an adolescent he played on the Plains High basketball team; he joined the Future Farmers of America and developed his long-held interest in woodworking.[3]

Naval career

Though he had long dreamed of attending the

Media coverage
Interviews, speeches and statements
Books and movies
  • The Carter Center
  • White House biography
  • Jimmy Carter Presidential Library & Museum
  • Jimmy Carter National Historic Site

External links

  • Califano, Joseph A., Jr. Governing America: An insider's report from the White House and the Cabinet. 1981
  • Jordan, Hamilton. Crisis: The Last Year of the Carter Presidency. 1982
  • Lance, Bert. The Truth of the Matter: My Life in and out of Politics. 1991

Primary sources

  • Allen, Gary. Jimmy Carter, Jimmy Carter, '76 Press, 1976.
  • Berggren, D. Jason and Rae, Nicol C. "Jimmy Carter and George W. Bush: Faith, Foreign Policy, and an Evangelical Presidential Style." Presidential Studies Quarterly 2006 36(4): 606–632. ISSN 0360-4918
  • Busch, Andrew E. Reagan's Victory: The Presidential Election of 1980 and the Rise of the Right, (2005) online review by Michael Barone
  • Freedman, Robert. "The Religious Right and the Carter Administration." Historical Journal 2005 48(1): 231–260. ISSN 0018-246X
  • Godbold, Jr., E. Stanly. Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter: The Georgia Years, 1924–1974 354 pages (Oxford University Press; 2010)
  • The New York Times "Topics; Thermostatic Legacy", January 1, 1981, Section 1, Page 18, Column 1
  • Regarding the failed Iranian mission to rescue the American hostages
  • Clymer, Kenton. "Jimmy Carter, Human Rights, and Cambodia." Diplomatic History 2003 27(2): 245–278. ISSN 0145-2096
  • Dumbrell, John (1995). The Carter Presidency: A Re-evaluation (2nd ed.). Manchester: Manchester University Press.  
  • Fink, Gary M.; and Hugh Davis Graham (eds.) (1998). The Carter Presidency: Policy Choices in the Post-New Deal Era. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.  
  • Flint, Andrew R.; Joy Porter (March 2005). "Jimmy Carter: The re-emergence of faith-based politics and the abortion rights issue". Presidential Studies Quarterly 35 (1): 28–51.  
  • Gillon, Steven M. (1992). The Democrats' Dilemma: Walter F. Mondale and the Liberal Legacy. New York: Columbia University Press.  
  • Glad, Betty (1980). Jimmy Carter: In Search of the Great White House. New York: W. W. Norton.  
  • Hahn, Dan F. (1992). "The rhetoric of Jimmy Carter, 1976–1980". In in Theodore Windt and Beth Ingold. Essays in Presidential Rhetoric (3rd ed.). Dubuque, Iowa: Kendall/Hunt. pp. 331–365.  
  • Hargrove, Erwin C. (1988). Jimmy Carter as President: Leadership and the Politics of the Public Good. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.  
  • Hayward, Steven F. (2004). The Real Jimmy Carter: How Our Worst Ex-President Undermines American Foreign Policy, Coddles Dictators and Created the Party of Clinton and Kerry.  
  • Jones, Charles O. (1988). The Trusteeship Presidency: Jimmy Carter and the United States Congress. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.  
  • Jorden, William J. (1984). Panama Odyssey. Austin: University of Texas Press.  
  • Kaufman, Burton I. (1993). The Presidency of James Earl Carter, Jr. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas.  
  • Kucharsky, David (1976). The Man From Plains: The Mind and Spirit of Jimmy Carter. New York: Harper & Row.  
  • Mattson, Kevin, with a foreword by Hendrik Hertzberg "'What the Heck Are You Up To, Mr. President?'", Bloomsbury USA, 2010.
  • Morgan, Iwan. "Jimmy Carter, Bill Clinton, and the New Democratic Economics." Historical Journal 2004 47(4): 1015–1039. ISSN 0018-246X
  • Morris, Kenneth Earl. Jimmy Carter, American Moralist. University of Georgia Press year=1996. 
  • Ribuffo, Leo P. (1989). "God and Jimmy Carter". In M. L. Bradbury and James B. Gilbert. Transforming Faith: The Sacred and Secular in Modern American History. New York: Greenwood Press. pp. 141–159.  
  • Ribuffo, Leo P. (1997). "'Malaise' revisited: Jimmy Carter and the crisis of confidence". In John Patrick Diggins (ed.). The Liberal Persuasion: Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. and the Challenge of the American Past. Princeton: Princeton University Press. pp. 164–185.  
  • Rosenbaum, Herbert D.; Ugrinsky, Alexej (eds.) (1994). The Presidency and Domestic Policies of Jimmy Carter. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. pp. 83–116.  
  • Schram, Martin (1977). Running for President, 1976: The Carter Campaign. New York: Stein and Day.  
  • Schmitz, David F. and Walker, Vanessa. "Jimmy Carter and the Foreign Policy of Human Rights: the Development of a Post-cold War Foreign Policy." Diplomatic History 2004 28(1): 113–143. ISSN 0145-2096
  • Strong, Robert A. (Fall 1986). "Recapturing leadership: The Carter administration and the crisis of confidence". Presidential Studies Quarterly 16 (3): 636–650. 
  • Strong, Robert A. (2000). Working in the World: Jimmy Carter and the Making of American Foreign Policy. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press.  
  • Witcover, Jules (1977). Marathon: The Pursuit of the Presidency, 1972–1976. New York: Viking Press.  

Further reading

  1. ^ Warner, Greg. "Jimmy Carter says he can 'no longer be associated' with the SBC". Baptist Standard. Retrieved December 13, 2009. He said he will remain a deacon and Sunday school teacher at Maranatha Baptist Church in Plains and support the church's recent decision to send half of its missions contributions to the Cooperative Baptist Fellowship. 
  2. ^ a b c Bourne, pp. 11–32.
  3. ^ a b Bourne, pp. 33–43.
  4. ^ Bourne, pp. 44–55.
  5. ^ a b Bourne, pp. 72–77.
  6. ^ a b Zelizer, pp. 11–12.
  7. ^ Frank, Northen Magill (1995). Great Events from History II: 1945–1966. p. 554. 
  8. ^ Martel, Peter (2008). Memoirs of a Hayseed Physicist. p. 64. 
  9. ^ Milnes, Arthur (January 28, 2009). "When Jimmy Carter faced radioactivity head-on". The Ottawa Citizen. 
  10. ^ Bourne, pp. 77–81.
  11. ^ Hayward, p. 23.
  12. ^ Bourne, pp. 83–91.
  13. ^ Morris, p. 115.
  14. ^ Bourne, pp. 92–108.
  15. ^ Bourne, pp. 108–132.
  16. ^ Bourne, pp. 132–140.
  17. ^ Bourne, pp. 132–145.
  18. ^ Bourne, pp. 145–149.
  19. ^ Bourne, pp. 149–153.
  20. ^ a b Bourne, pp. 153–165.
  21. ^ Bourne, pp. 165–179.
  22. ^ Hayward, pp. 39–46.
  23. ^ a b c Bourne, pp. 180–199.
  24. ^ a b Hayward, pp. 46–51.
  25. ^ Bourne, pp. 200–201.
  26. ^ Hayward, pp. 49–55.
  27. ^ "TIME Magazine Cover: Gov. Jimmy Carter".  
  28. ^ Bourne, p. 204.
  29. ^ Bourne, pp. 201–202.
  30. ^ a b Bourne, pp. 204–212.
  31. ^ Hayward, pp. 55–56.
  32. ^ Bourne, pp. 214–220.
  33. ^ a b Bourne, pp. 212–213.
  34. ^ a b Bourne, pp. 250–251.
  35. ^ Pilkington, Ed (November 11, 2013). "Jimmy Carter calls for fresh moratorium on death penalty".  
  36. ^ Hugh S. Sidey (January 22, 2012). "Carter, Jimmy". World Book Student. 
  37. ^ "World Book Encyclopedia (Hardcover) [Jimmy Carter entry]". World Book. January 2001.  
  38. ^ Associated Press (July 28, 2008). "Jimmy Carter battles plan for dams – again". 
  39. ^ Bourne, pp. 213–214.
  40. ^ Bourne, pp. 221–230.
  41. ^ Bourne, pp. 237–250.
  42. ^ Zelizer, p. 15.
  43. ^ Mohr, Charles (July 16, 1976). "Choice of Mondale Helps To Reconcile the Liberals; Choice of Mondale as Running Mate Helps Carter to Reconcile Liberal Critics Candidate Tells of Painstaking Search In Effort to Avoid Mistake Like 1972's". The New York Times. 
  44. ^ "Jimmy Carter". The American Experience. Public Broadcasting System. 
  45. ^ "The Playboy Interview: Jimmy Carter." Robert Scheer. Playboy, November 1976, Vol. 23, Iss. 11, pp. 63–86.
  46. ^ Shoup (1980), The Carter Presidency and Beyond'
  47. ^ a b American Presidency, Brinkley and Dyer, 2004.
  48. ^ Iran–U.S. Hostage Crisis (1979–1981)
  49. ^ Jonathan D. Sarna, How Hanukkah Came To The White House. Forward, December 02, 2009.
  50. ^ "Maine college to auction off former White House solar panels". October 28, 2004. Retrieved January 31, 2010. 
  51. ^ Burdick, Dave (January 27, 2009). "White House Solar Panels: What Ever Happened To Carter's Solar Thermal Water Heater? (VIDEO)". Huffington Post. Retrieved January 31, 2010. 
  52. ^ Craig Shirley, Days of 'Malaise' and Jimmy Carter's Solar Panels. October 08, 2010, Fox News.
  53. ^ Robert W. Kolb, Encyclopedia of Business Ethics and Society. SAGE Publications, 2008. Page 1305
  54. ^ Paul E. Rosenfeld and Lydia Feng, Risks of Hazardous Wastes. William Andrew, 2011.
  55. ^ Philpott, Tom (August 17, 2011). "Beer Charts of the Day". Retrieved December 10, 2011. 
  56. ^ "How Jimmy Carter Saved Craft Beer – Max Fisher". The Atlantic Wire. August 5, 2010. Retrieved September 18, 2013. 
  57. ^ "Brewers Association". Retrieved May 19, 2013. 
  58. ^ Jimmy Carter (2005). Our Endangered Values: America's Moral Crisis. Simon and Schuster. p. 8. 
  59. ^ Steven F. Hayward (2009). The Age of Reagan: The Fall of the Old Liberal Order: 1964–1980. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 497. 
  60. ^ Nation: Kraft Drops Out", September 29, 1980""".  
  61. ^ "Carter Center Guinea Worm Eradication Program – Dracunculiasis". The Carter Center. Retrieved April 30, 2014. 
  62. ^ "Carter Center list of elections observed". The Carter Center. Retrieved April 30, 2014. 
  63. ^ Norwegian Nobel Committee, 2002 Nobel Peace Prize announcement,[1], October 11, 2002. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
  64. ^ Marion V. Creekmore, A Moment of Crisis: Jimmy Carter, The Power of a Peacemaker, and North Korea's Nuclear Ambitions (2006).
  65. ^  
  66. ^ James Brooke (September 5, 2003). "Carter Issues Warning on North Korea Standoff".  
  67. ^ "Carter Issues Warning on North Korea Standoff"
  68. ^ Muravchik, Joshua (February 2007). "Our Worst Ex-President". Commentary. Retrieved July 5, 2008. 
  69. ^ Justin McCurry (August 27, 2010). "North Korea releases US prisoner after talks with Jimmy Carter".  
  70. ^ BBC News Online, "Moderates launch Middle East plan", December 1, 2003. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
  71. ^ Douglas G. Brinkley. The Unfinished Presidency: Jimmy Carter's Journey to the Nobel Peace Prize (1999), pp. 99–123.
  72. ^ Kenneth W. Stein, "My Problem with Jimmy Carter's Book", Middle East Quarterly 14.2 (Spring 2007).
  73. ^ "'"Israel 'has 150 nuclear weapons. BBC News. May 26, 2008. 
  74. ^ "Jimmy Carter Planning to meet Mashaal", The Jerusalem Post, April 9, 2008.
  75. ^ "PA to Carter: Don't meet with Mashaal." Associated Press. April 15, 2008.
  76. ^ "Carter: Rice did not advise against Hamas meeting." CNN. April 23, 2008.
  77. ^ Paris, Lebanon, and Syria Trip Report by Former US President Jimmy Carter: December 5–16, 2008 The Carter Center, December 18, 2008.
  78. ^ Jimmy Carter says Israel had 150 nuclear weapons, The Times.
  79. ^ "". November 1, 2007. Retrieved June 8, 2010. 
  80. ^ Jimmy Carter speaks to Forward Magazine.
  81. ^ Erick Stakelbeck (March 24, 2011). "Int'l Red Cross Sheltering Hamas Terrorist Officials". Retrieved December 10, 2011. 
  82. ^ "Former U.S. President and ex-Human Rights Council chief call for ICC probe into Gaza war". Herald Globe. Retrieved August 7, 2014. 
  83. ^ Press Release, African Leaders Gather to Address Great Lakes Crisis, May 2, 1996. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
  84. ^ The Nairobi Agreement, December 8, 1999. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
  85. ^ Larry Rohter, "Showdown with Haiti: Diplomacy; Carter, in Haiti, pursues peaceful shift", The New York Times, September 18, 1994. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
  86. ^ Carter Center News, July–December 2002. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
  87. ^ BBC News, Lift Cuba embargo, Carter tells US, May 15, 2002. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
  88. ^ Jose De Cordoba, and David Luhnow, "Venezuelans Rush to Vote on Chávez: Polarized Nation Decides Whether to Recall President After Years of Political Rifts", The Wall Street Journal (Eastern edition), New York City, August 16, 2004, p. A11.
  89. ^ "Venezuelan Audit Confirms Victory", BBC News, September 21, 2004. Retrieved November 5, 2005.
  90. ^ Carter Center (2005). Observing the Venezuela Presidential Recall Referendum: Comprehensive Report. Retrieved January 25, 2006.
  91. ^ Newman, Lucia (August 17, 2004). "Winner Chavez offers olive branch". CNN. Retrieved July 5, 2008. 
  92. ^ M. Barone, "Exit polls in Venezuela," US News & World Report, August 20, 2004.
  93. ^ "US Poll Firm in Hot Water in Venezuela". Archived from the original on August 20, 2004. Retrieved November 29, 2010. 
  94. ^ "Ecuador and Colombia Presidents Accept President Carter's Proposal to Renew Diplomatic Relations at the Level of Chargé d'Affaires, Immediately and Without Preconditions" (Press release).  
  95. ^ "Colombia, Ecuador restore ties under deal with Carter".  
  96. ^ Cựu Tổng thống Mỹ Jimmy Carter đến Việt Nam (Vietnamese)
  97. ^ "What is The Elders?". The Elders. Retrieved March 8, 2013. 
  98. ^ "Our Work". The Elders. Retrieved March 7, 2013. 
  99. ^ "Jimmy Carter". The Elders. Retrieved March 7, 2013. 
  100. ^ "Jimmy Carter blocked from meeting Darfur chief". Reuters. October 3, 2007. Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  101. ^ Ian Timberlake (May 27, 2012). "Sudan ready to withdraw troops from Abyei: Jimmy Carter". AFP. Retrieved March 7, 2013. 
  102. ^ "Jimmy Carter and Lakhdar Brahimi in Sudan to support peace efforts". The Elders. May 27, 2012. Retrieved March 7, 2013. 
  103. ^ "Annan, Carter say barred from Zimbabwe". Reuters. November 22, 2008. Retrieved March 7, 2013. 
  104. ^ "Carter slams Clinton pardon".  
  105. ^ Associated Press, "Carter says US should close detention center at Guantanamo", June 8, 2005. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
  106. ^ Newsnight audio recording, September 2006, BBC.
  107. ^ "Americas – US 'likely behind' Chavez coup".  
  108. ^ Carter, Jimmy (June 16, 2011). "Call Off the Global Drug War". The New York Times. 
  109. ^ Jimmy Carter, "Just War – or a Just War?", The New York Times, March 9, 2003. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
  110. ^ "Jimmy Carter: Blair Subservient to Bush". The Washington Post. Associated Press. August 27, 2006. Retrieved July 5, 2008. 
  111. ^ Frank Lockwood, "Carter calls Bush administration worst ever", Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, May 19, 2007. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
  112. ^ "Jimmy Carter Can Only Blame Himself", American Thinker, May 25, 2007.
  113. ^ "Carter: Anti-Bush remarks 'careless or misinterpreted'", Associated Press, May 21, 2007. Retrieved May 21, 2007.
  114. ^ "'Carter is irrelevant,' Bush administration shoots back", Associated Press, May 20, 2007. Retrieved May 21, 2007. Archived by the Wayback Machine beta.
  115. ^ a b "Carter attacks Blair's Iraq role". BBC News. May 19, 2007. Retrieved July 5, 2008. 
  116. ^ "Jimmy Carter Speaks to Forward Magazine". Jan 2009. Retrieved April 12, 2014. 
  117. ^ Bingham, Amy (June 25, 2012). "'"Jimmy Carter Accuses U.S. of 'Widespread Abuse of Human Rights.   ABC quotes came from a NY Times June 25, 2012 op-ed written by Carter
  118. ^ Greg Bluestein, Jim Galloway (July 18, 2013). "Your daily jolt: ‘America has no functioning democracy,’ says Jimmy Carter".  
  119. ^ Peter Schmitz (July 17, 2013). "NSA-Affäre: Ex-Präsident Carter verdammt US-Schnüffelei".  
  120. ^ Remarks by Former U.S. President Jimmy Carter at Brandeis University, The Carter Center, January 23, 2007. Retrieved September 19, 2010.
  121. ^ a b "Simon & Schuster: Palestine Peace Not Apartheid (Hardcover) – Read an Excerpt,", Simon & Schuster, November 2006. Retrieved April 9, 2007.
  122. ^ Speaking Frankly about Israel and Palestine, Los Angeles Times, December 8, 2006, Op-Ed. Retrieved January 4, 2007.
  123. ^ Dennis Ross, "Don't Play With Maps," The New York Times, January 9, 2007. Retrieved January 4, 2009.
  124. ^ Kenneth W. Stein, "My Problem with Jimmy Carter's Book," Middle East Forum, Spring, 2007. Retrieved January 4, 2009.
  125. ^ Julie Bosman, "Carter Book Stirs Furor With Its View of Israelis' 'Apartheid'" The New York Times, December 14, 2006. Retrieved March 29, 2008.
  126. ^ Alan Dershowitz (November 22, 2006). "The World According to Carter". The New York Sun. Retrieved September 25, 2007. 
  127. ^ Sony Classics Pictures, Jimmy Carter: Man from Plains. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
  128. ^ "Ex-President Carter offers apology to Jews". Associated Press. December 23, 2009. Retrieved October 18, 2011. 
  129. ^ "16 – BCCI And Georgia Politicians". Retrieved September 6, 2010. 
  130. ^ "Could Jimmy Carter's Comments Doom Mitt Romney?". The International Business Times Inc. Retrieved September 22, 2011. 
  131. ^ Yahoo News, Jimmy Carter wants Mitt Romney to be the Republican nominee, September 16, 2011. Retrieved October 5, 2011.
  132. ^ Camia, Catalina (August 7, 2012). "Jimmy Carter to speak by video at Dem convention". USA TODAY. Retrieved August 7, 2012. 
  133. ^ "Honorary Chairs". World Justice Project. Retrieved February 24, 2010. 
  134. ^ "About the Opportunity Fund". World Justice Project. Retrieved February 24, 2010. 
  135. ^ John-Henry Westen (November 7, 2005). "Jimmy Carter Using Abortion to Split Support for Republicans?". 
  136. ^ Skinner, Kudelia, Mesquita, Rice (2007). The Strategy of Campaigning. University of Michigan Press.  
  137. ^ "Carter: Jesus Would Not Approve of Abortions", CBS Atlanta, March 30, 2012. Retrieved March 30, 2012
  138. ^ "Jimmy Carter: Democratic Party Should Be More Pro-Life, March 29, 2012". 
  139. ^ "Democrats shift on death penalty", Boston Globe, December 7, 2003
  140. ^ "Carter Nobel Peace Prize speech", CNN, December 10, 2002
  141. ^ "NEW VOICES: Jimmy Carter Urges New Mexico Governor to Support Death Penalty Repeal | Death Penalty Information Center". Retrieved June 8, 2010. 
  142. ^ Carter, Jimmy, "Jimmy Carter to California: Yes on Prop. 34" (op-ed), LA Times, October 28, 2012. Retrieved March 5, 2013.
  143. ^ "Brian Baldwin, Center on Wrongful Convictions". Retrieved June 8, 2010. 
  144. ^ "Jimmy Carter, Desmond Tutu Urge Texas to Stay Execution of Kenneth Foster". Retrieved June 8, 2010. 
  145. ^ "Clemency | Death Penalty Information Center". Retrieved June 8, 2010. 
  146. ^ The Carter Center (September 19, 2008). "Carter Center Press Releases – President Carter Calls for Clemency for Troy Davis". The Carter Center. Retrieved June 8, 2010. 
  147. ^ Losing my religion for equality, Opinion,, July 15, 2009
  148. ^ Carter, Jimmy (April 26, 2009). "What Happened to the Ban on Assault Weapons?". New York Times (Op-ed). Retrieved July 4, 2014. 
  149. ^ Eaton, William J. (May 5, 1994). "Ford, Carter, Reagan Push for Gun Ban". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved July 4, 2014. 
  150. ^ Kurtz, Jason (February 22, 2013). "Clips From Last Night: Jimmy Carter on firearm legislation, the NRA, and the conflict in the Middle East". Cable News Network. Retrieved July 4, 2014. 
  151. ^ "NBC Nightly News with Brian Williams: News and videos from the evening broadcast NBC Nightly News with Brian Williams: News and videos from the evening broadcast". MSNBC. Retrieved June 8, 2010. 
  152. ^ "White House disputes Carter's analysis – Capitol Hill". MSNBC. September 16, 2009. Retrieved June 8, 2010. 
  153. ^ O'Brien, Michael (September 19, 2009). "Obama plays down role of race in criticism – The Hill's Blog Briefing Room". Retrieved June 8, 2010. 
  154. ^ Torture can never be justified on YouTube
  155. ^ Carter, Jimmy, Letter to Artist Mia LaBerge, February 14, 2008.
  156. ^ Somini Sengupta, "Carter Sadly Turns Back on National Baptist Body", The New York Times, October 21, 2000. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
  157. ^ a b Maranatha Baptist Church. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
  158. ^ Carter, Jimmy; Richardson, Don (1998). Conversations with Carter. Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 14.  
  159. ^ Sengupta, S. (October 21, 2000). Carter Sadly Turns Back On National Baptist Body. The New York Times. Retrieved on: March 31, 2013.
  160. ^ New Baptist Covenant. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
  161. ^ Robert D. Hershey Jr (September 26, 1988). "Billy Carter Dies of Cancer at 51; Troubled Brother of a President".  
  162. ^ Cash, John R. with Patrick Carr (1997). Johnny Cash, the Autobiography. Harper Collins.
  163. ^ Associated Press, "President Carter Talks of Funeral Plans", December 3, 2006. Retrieved October 13, 2009.
  164. ^ a b c "Jimmy Carter:39th president – 1977–1981". The Independent (London). January 22, 2009. Retrieved January 28, 2009. 
  165. ^ "What History Foretells for Obama's First Job Approval Rating". Retrieved December 10, 2011. 
  166. ^ "Bush Presidency Closes With 34% Approval, 61% Disapproval". Retrieved December 10, 2011. 
  167. ^ "Polls: Ford's Image Improved Over Time". CBS News. December 27, 2006. 
  168. ^ a b "Disaffection of the public – Jimmy Carter – election". Retrieved December 10, 2011. 
  169. ^ Dionne, Jr., E. J. (May 18, 1989). "Washington Talk; Carter Begins to Shed Negative Public Image".  
  170. ^ "Time kind to former presidents, CNN poll finds". CNN. January 7, 2009. 
  171. ^ Cinnamon Stillwell (December 12, 2006). "Jimmy Carter's Legacy of Failure". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved June 8, 2010. 
  172. ^ "Jimmy Carter: Why He Failed – Brookings Institution". January 21, 2000. Retrieved June 8, 2010. 
  173. ^ Ponnuru, Ramesh (May 28, 2008). "In Carter's Shadow". Time. 
  174. ^ PBS Online/WGBH, "People & Events: Jimmy Carter's Post-Presidency", American Experience: Jimmy Carter, 1999–2001. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
  175. ^  
  176. ^ Gibb, Lindsay (June 4, 2009). "Monte-Carlo TV fest opens with doc for first time". Retrieved June 12, 2012. 
  177. ^ World Screen
  178. ^
  179. ^ Jamie McIntyre, "Navy to name submarine after former President Jimmy Carter", CNN, April 8, 1998. Retrieved August 4, 2008.
  180. ^
  181. ^ "James Earl Carter Jr 1998 - ASME". 
  182. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize for 2002". 
  183. ^ " - Jimmy Carter wins Nobel Peace Prize - Oct. 11, 2002". 
  184. ^ "The liberal history of the Grammy's Spoken Word category - The Daily Caller". The Daily Caller. 
  185. ^
  186. ^ "Jimmy Carter Regional Airport Becomes a Reality". Fox News. 


  1. ^ Carter was the first future U.S. president to be born in a hospital.[2]
  2. ^ A popular anecdote holds that he was passed over for valedictorian after he and his friends skipped school to adventure downtown in a hot rod. The truancy was documented by a local newspaper, although it is not clear he would have been valedictorian otherwise.[3]
  3. ^ With Carter out of the race, Maddox narrowly won the runoff ballot over Arnall, clinching the Democratic nomination. In the general election, the Callaway won a plurality of the vote but came short of the 50 percent majority. The election was thus decided by the Georgia House of Representatives with its Democratic majority; they settled on Maddox.[20]


See also

Carter has received numerous awards and accolades since his presidency, and several institutions and locations have been named in his honor. His threats of war against Iraq and Carter's criticism of the Bush administration.[183] Six of Carter's audiobook recordings have been nominated for the Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album; his book Our Endangered Values won the award in 2007.[184][185] The Souther Field Airport in Americus was renamed Jimmy Carter Regional Airport in 2009.[186]

Former President and Navy submariner Jimmy Carter (left) hoists a replica of the USS Jimmy Carter (SSN-23) given to him by Secretary of the Navy John H. Dalton (right) at a naming ceremony in the Pentagon on April 28, 1998

Honors and awards

  • Carter's presidency was initially viewed by most as a failure.[171][172][173] In historical rankings of US presidents, the Carter presidency has ranged from No. 19 to #34.
  • Although his presidency received mixed reviews, his peace keeping and humanitarian efforts since he left office have made Carter renowned as one of the most successful ex-presidents in US history.[174][175]
  • The documentary Back Door Channels: The Price of Peace (2009) credits Carter's efforts at Camp David, which brought peace between Israel and Egypt, with bringing the only meaningful peace to the Middle East. The film opened the 2009 Monte-Carlo Television Festival in an invitation-only royal screening[176] on June 7, 2009 at the Grimaldi Forum in the presence of Albert II, Prince of Monaco.[177]


[164] His post-Presidency activities have been favorably received. Carter believes that [170] In the years since then, his reputation has much improved. Carter's presidential approval rating, at 31 percent just prior to the 1980 election, was polled in early 2009 at 64 percent.

In the 1980 campaign, Ronald Reagan projected an easy self-confidence, in contrast to Carter's serious and introspective temperament. Carter's personal attention to detail, his pessimistic attitude, his seeming indecisiveness and weakness with people were accentuated in contrast to Reagan's charismatic charm and delegation of tasks to subordinates.[168][169] Reagan used the economic problems, Iran hostage crisis, and lack of Washington cooperation to portray Carter as a weak and ineffectual leader. Carter was the first elected president since Hoover in 1932 to lose a reelection bid.

His administration suffered from his inexperience in politics. Carter paid too much attention to detail. He frequently backed down from confrontation and was quick to retreat when attacked by political rivals. He appeared to be indecisive and ineffective, and did not define his priorities clearly. He seemed to be distrustful and uninterested in working with other groups, or even with Congress when controlled by his own party, as well as fellow Democratic senators which he denounced for being controlled by special interest groups.[168] Though he made efforts to address many of these issues in 1978, the approval he won from his reforms did not last long.

In the wake of Nixon's Watergate Scandal, exit polls from the 1976 Presidential election suggested that many still held Gerald Ford's pardon of Nixon against him.[167] By comparison Carter seemed a sincere, honest, and well-meaning Southerner.[164]

The Independent writes, "Carter is widely considered a better man than he was a president."[164] While he began his term with a 66 percent approval rating,[165] this had dropped to 34 percent approval by the time he left office, with 55 percent disapproving.[166]

Public opinion

Carter (right) with U.S. President Barack Obama (center) and former president Bill Clinton (left) on August 28, 2013.
Carter at the LBJ Library on February 15, 2011
Carter (right), walks with, from left, George H.W. Bush, George W. Bush, and Bill Clinton during the dedication of the William J. Clinton Presidential Center and Park in Little Rock, Arkansas on November 18, 2004

Public image and legacy

Carter intends to be buried in front of his home in Plains, Georgia. Both President Carter and his wife Rosalynn were born in Plains. Carter also noted that a funeral in Washington, D.C. with visitation at the Carter Center is being planned as well.[163]

Funeral and burial plans

He married the 2014 election and a state senator.

He is a first cousin of politician Hugh Carter. He is a half-second cousin of Motown founder Berry Gordy on his mother's side, and a cousin of June Carter Cash.[162]

Carter had three younger siblings: sisters Gloria (1926–1990) and Ruth (1929–1983), and brother "Billy" (1937–1988). During Carter's presidency, Billy was often in the news, usually in an unflattering light.[161]


In 2000, Carter severed his membership with the Southern Baptist Convention, saying the group's doctrines did not align with his Christian beliefs. In April 2006, Carter, former President Bill Clinton, and Mercer University President Bill Underwood initiated the New Baptist Covenant. The broadly inclusive movement seeks to unite Baptists of all races, cultures and convention affiliations. Eighteen Baptist leaders representing more than 20 million Baptists across North America backed the group as an alternative to the Southern Baptist Convention. The group held its first meeting in Atlanta, January 30 through February 1, 2008.[160]

From a young age, Carter showed a deep commitment to Plains.[156][157][157] As president, Carter prayed several times a day, and professed that Jesus Christ was the driving force in his life. Carter had been greatly influenced by a sermon he had heard as a young man. It asked, "If you were arrested for being a Christian, would there be enough evidence to convict you?"[158] The New York Times noted that Carter had been instrumental in moving evangelical Christianity closer to the American mainstream during and after his presidency.[159]


Carter's hobbies include painting,[155] fly-fishing, woodworking, cycling, tennis, and skiing.

Carter and his wife, Rosalynn, are well known for their work as volunteers with Habitat for Humanity, a Georgia-based philanthropy that helps low-income working people around the world to build and buy their own homes and access clean water.

Carter in Plains, 2008

Personal life

In a 2008 interview with Amnesty International, Carter criticized the alleged use of torture at Guantanamo Bay, saying that it "contravenes the basic principles on which this nation was founded."[154] He stated that the next President should publicly apologize upon his inauguration, and state that the United States will "never again torture prisoners."


Carter ignited debate in September 2009 when he stated, "I think an overwhelming portion of the intensely demonstrated animosity toward President Barack Obama is based on the fact that he is a black man, that he is African-American."[151][152] Obama disagreed with Carter's assessment. On CNN Obama stated, "Are there people out there who don't like me because of race? I'm sure there are ... that's not the overriding issue here."[153]

Race in politics

Carter has publicly expressed support for assault weapons bans and background checks.[148] In May 1994, Carter, along with former presidents assault weapons ban did not pass it would be mainly due to the National Rifle Association and its pressure on "weak-kneed" politicians.[150]

Gun control

The truth is that male religious leaders have had—and still have—an option to interpret holy teachings either to exalt or subjugate women. They have, for their own selfish ends, overwhelmingly chosen the latter. Their continuing choice provides the foundation or justification for much of the pervasive persecution and abuse of women throughout the world. This is in clear violation not just of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights but also the teachings of Jesus Christ, the Apostle Paul, Moses and the prophets, Muhammad, and founders of other great religions—all of whom have called for proper and equitable treatment of all the children of God. It is time we had the courage to challenge these views.[147]

In subsequent years, Carter has joined with other world leaders who have spoken out about the subjugation of women by religious and other institutions. On July 15, 2009, Carter wrote an opinion piece about equality for women in which he stated that he chooses equality for women over the dictates of the leadership of what has been a lifetime religious commitment. He said that the view that women are inferior is not confined to one faith, "nor, tragically does its influence stop at the walls of the church, mosque, synagogue or temple." Carter stated:

In October 2000, Carter, a third-generation Southern Baptist, announced that he was severing ties to the Southern Baptist Convention over its opposition to women as pastors. What led Carter to take this action was a doctrinal statement by the Convention, adopted in June 2000, advocating a literal interpretation of the Bible. This statement followed a position of the Convention two years previously advocating the submission of wives to their husbands. Carter described the reason for his decision as due to: "an increasing inclination on the part of Southern Baptist Convention leaders to be more rigid on what is a Southern Baptist and exclusionary of accommodating those who differ from them." The New York Times called Carter's action "the highest-profile defection yet from the Southern Baptist Convention."

Equality for women

[146] Carter has also called for commutations of death sentences for many death-row inmates, including Brian K. Baldwin (executed in 1999 in

In a letter to the Governor of New Mexico, Bill Richardson, Carter urged the governor to sign a bill to eliminate the death penalty and institute life in prison without parole instead. New Mexico abolished the death penalty in 2009. Carter wrote: "As you know, the United States is one of the few countries, along with nations such as Saudi Arabia, China, and Cuba, which still carry out the death penalty despite the ongoing tragedy of wrongful conviction and gross racial and class-based disparities that make impossible the fair implementation of this ultimate punishment."[141] In 2012, Carter wrote an op-ed in the LA Times supporting passage of a state referendum which would have ended the death penalty. He opened the article: "The process for administering the death penalty in the United States is broken beyond repair, and it is time to choose a more effective and moral alternative. California voters will have the opportunity to do this on election day."[142]

During his presidential campaigns, he expressed his opposition to the death penalty, as had George McGovern. Two successive nominees, Walter Mondale and Michael Dukakis, also opposed the death penalty.[139] Carter is known for his strong opposition to the death penalty; in his Nobel Prize lecture, he urged "prohibition of the death penalty".[140] Carter continued to speak out against the death penalty in the US and abroad.

Death penalty

In March 2012, during an interview on The Laura Ingraham Show, Carter expressed his view that the Democratic Party should be more pro-life. He said that it had been difficult for him, given his strong beliefs, to uphold Roe v. Wade while he was president.[137] In a March 29, 2012 interview with Laura Ingraham, Carter expressed his current view of abortion and his wish to see the Democratic Party becoming more pro-life: "I never have believed that Jesus Christ would approve of abortions and that was one of the problems I had when I was president having to uphold Roe v. Wade and I did everything I could to minimize the need for abortions. I made it easy to adopt children for instance who were unwanted and also initiated the program called Women and Infant Children or WIC program that's still in existence now. But except for the times when a mother's life is in danger or when a pregnancy is caused by rape or incest I would certainly not or never have approved of any abortions. I've signed a public letter calling for the Democratic Party at the next convention to espouse my position on abortion which is to minimize the need, requirement for abortion and limit it only to women whose life [sic?] are in danger or who are pregnant as a result of rape or incest. I think if the Democratic Party would adopt that policy that would be acceptable to a lot of people who are now estranged from our party because of the abortion issue."[138]

Although "personally opposed" to abortion, after the landmark US Supreme Court decision Roe v. Wade, 410 US 113 (1973), Carter supported legalized abortion.[135] As president, he did not support increased federal funding for abortion services. He was criticized by the American Civil Liberties Union for not doing enough to find alternatives.[136]


Personal views

Carter serves as Honorary Chair for the Continuity of Government Commission (he was co-chair with Gerald Ford until the latter's death). The Commission recommends improvements to continuity of government measures for the federal government.

President Jimmy Carter serves as an Honorary Chair for the World Justice Project.[133] The World Justice Project works to lead a global, multidisciplinary effort to strengthen the Rule of Law for the development of communities of opportunity and equity.[134]

Carter has participated in many ceremonial events such as the opening of his own presidential library and those of Presidents Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush, and Bill Clinton. He has also participated in many forums, lectures, panels, funerals and other events. Carter delivered a eulogy at the funeral of Coretta Scott King and, most recently, at the funeral of his former political rival, but later his close, personal friend and diplomatic collaborator, Gerald Ford.

Carter (far right) in 1991 with President George H. W. Bush and former Presidents Gerald Ford, Richard Nixon, and Ronald Reagan at the dedication of the Reagan Presidential Library

Other activities

Carter addressed the Democratic National Convention in North Carolina by videotape, and did not attend the convention in person.[132]

Despite being a Democrat, Carter endorsed former Massachusetts governor Mitt Romney in the Republican party 2012 Presidential primary in mid-September 2011, not because he supported Romney, but because he felt Obama's re-election bid would be strengthened in a race against Romney.[130] Carter added that he thought Mitt Romney would lose in a match up against Obama and that he supported the president's re-election.[131]

2012 Presidential race

After Carter left the presidency, his interest in the developing countries led him to having a close relationship with Carter Center and the Global 2000 Project. Abedi also traveled with Carter to at least seven countries in connection with Carter's charitable activities. The main purpose of Abedi's association with Carter was not charitable activities, but to enhance BCCI's influence, in order to open more offices and develop more business. In 1991, BCCI was seized by regulators, amid allegations of criminal activities, including illegally having control of several U.S. banks. Just prior to the seizure, Carter began to disassociate himself from Abedi and the bank.[129]

Involvement with Bank of Credit and Commerce International

In December 2009, Carter apologized for any words or deeds that may have upset the Jewish community in an open letter meant to improve an often tense relationship. He said he was offering an Al Het, a prayer said on Yom Kippur, the Jewish Day of Atonement.[128]

The 2007 documentary film, Man from Plains, follows President Carter during his tour for the controversial book and other humanitarian efforts.[127]

While some – such as a former Special Rapporteur for both the United Nations Commission on Human Rights and the International Law Commission, as well as a member of the Israeli Knesset – have praised Carter for speaking frankly about Palestinians in Israeli occupied lands, others – including the envoy to the Middle East under Clinton, as well as the first director of the Carter Center[123][124] – have accused him of anti-Israeli bias. Specifically, these critics have alleged significant factual errors, omissions and misstatements in the book.[125][126]

The ultimate purpose of my book is to present facts about the Middle East that are largely unknown in America, to precipitate discussion and to help restart peace talks (now absent for six years) that can lead to permanent peace for Israel and its neighbors. Another hope is that Jews and other Americans who share this same goal might be motivated to express their views, even publicly, and perhaps in concert. I would be glad to help with that effort.[122]

He declares that Israel's current policies in the Palestinian territories constitute "a system of apartheid, with two peoples occupying the same land, but completely separated from each other, with Israelis totally dominant and suppressing violence by depriving Palestinians of their basic human rights."[121] In an Op-Ed titled "Speaking Frankly about Israel and Palestine," published in the Los Angeles Times and other newspapers, Carter states:

Israel's continued control and colonization of Palestinian land have been the primary obstacles to a comprehensive peace agreement in the Holy Land.[121]

In his book Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid, published in November 2006, Carter states:

In a 2007 speech to Brandeis University, Carter stated: "I have spent a great deal of my adult life trying to bring peace to Israel and its neighbors, based on justice and righteousness for the Palestinians. These are the underlying purposes of my new book."[120]

Palestine: Peace Not Apartheid

Carter has been a prolific author in his post-presidency, writing 21 of his 23 books. Among these is one he co-wrote with his wife, Rosalynn, and a children's book illustrated by his daughter, Amy. They cover a variety of topics, including humanitarian work, aging, religion, human rights, and poetry.

Jimmy Carter at a book signing in Raleigh, NC on April 2, 2014


In July 2013, Carter expressed his criticism of current federal surveillance programs as disclosed by Edward Snowden indicating that "America has no functioning democracy at this moment."[118][119]

Carter has criticized the Obama administration for its use of drone strikes against suspected terrorists. Carter also said that he disagrees with President Obama's decision to keep the Guantánamo Bay detention camp open, saying that the inmates "have been tortured by waterboarding more than 100 times or intimidated with semiautomatic weapons, power drills or threats to sexually assault their mothers." He claimed that the U.S. government had no moral leadership, and was committing human rights violations, and is no longer "the global champion of human rights".[117]

Criticisms of Barack Obama

[116] Due to his status as former President, Carter was a

On May 19, 2007, Mr. Blair made his final visit to Iraq before stepping down as British Prime Minister, and Carter criticized him afterward. Carter told the BBC that Blair was "apparently subservient" to Bush and criticized him for his "blind support" for the Iraq war.[115] Carter described Blair's actions as "abominable" and stated that the British Prime Minister's "almost undeviating support for the ill-advised policies of President Bush in Iraq have been a major tragedy for the world." Carter said he believes that had Blair distanced himself from the Bush administration during the run-up to the invasion of Iraq in 2003, it might have made a crucial difference to American political and public opinion, and consequently the invasion might not have gone ahead. Carter states that "one of the defenses of the Bush administration ... has been, okay, we must be more correct in our actions than the world thinks because Great Britain is backing us. So I think the combination of Bush and Blair giving their support to this tragedy in Iraq has strengthened the effort and has made the opposition less effective, and prolonged the war and increased the tragedy that has resulted." Carter expressed his hope that Blair's successor, Gordon Brown, would be "less enthusiastic" about Bush's Iraq policy.[115]

Carter has also criticized the Tony Blair for waging an unnecessary war "based upon lies and misinterpretations" to oust Saddam Hussein. In August 2006, Carter criticized Blair for being "subservient" to the Bush administration and accused Blair of giving unquestioning support to Bush's Iraq policies.[110] In a May 2007 interview with the Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, he said, "I think as far as the adverse impact on the nation around the world, this administration has been the worst in history," when it comes to foreign affairs.[111][112] Two days after the quote was published, Carter told NBC's Today that the "worst in history" comment was "careless or misinterpreted," and that he "wasn't comparing this administration with other administrations back through history, but just with President Nixon's."[113] The day after the "worst in history" comment was published, White House spokesman Tony Fratto said that Carter had become "increasingly irrelevant with these kinds of comments."[114]

Criticisms of George W. Bush

On June 16, 2011, the 40th anniversary of Richard Nixon's official declaration of America's War on Drugs, Carter wrote an op-ed in The New York Times urging the United States and the rest of the world to "Call Off the Global War on Drugs",[108] explicitly endorsing the initiative released by the Global Commission on Drug Policy earlier that month and quoting a message he gave to Congress in 1977 saying that "[p]enalties against possession of a drug should not be more damaging to an individual than the use of the drug itself."

In September 2009, Carter put weight behind allegations by Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, pertaining to United States involvement in the 2002 Venezuelan coup d'état attempt by a civilian-military junta, saying that Washington knew about the coup and may have taken part.[107]

In September 2006, Carter was interviewed on the BBC's current affairs program Newsnight, voicing his concern at the increasing influence of the Religious Right on US politics.[106]

In June 2005, Carter urged the closing of the Guantanamo Bay Prison in Cuba, which has been a focal point for recent claims of prisoner abuse.[105]

In 2001, Carter criticized President Bill Clinton's controversial pardon of Marc Rich, calling it "disgraceful" and suggesting that Rich's financial contributions to the Democratic Party were a factor in Clinton's action.[104]

Criticism of U.S. policy

[103] In November 2008, President Carter, former UN Secretary General

Carter has been actively involved in the work of The Elders, participating in visits to Cyprus, the Korean Peninsula, and the Middle East, among others[99] In October 2007, Carter toured Darfur with several of the Elders, including Desmond Tutu. Sudanese security prevented him from visiting a Darfuri tribal leader, leading to a heated exchange.[100] He returned to Sudan with fellow Elder Lakhdar Brahimi in May 2012 as part of The Elders’ efforts to encourage the presidents of Sudan and South Sudan to return to negotiations, and highlight the impact of the conflict on civilians.[101][102]

On July 18, 2007, Carter joined Israeli-Palestinian conflict, the Korean Peninsula, Sudan, and South Sudan, sustainable development, and equality for girls and women.[98]

The Elders

On November 18, 2009, Carter visited Vietnam to build houses for the poor. The one-week program, known as Jimmy and Rosalynn Carter Work Project 2009, built 32 houses in Tiền Giang and Đồng Nai as well as Ho Chi Minh City.[96]


Following Ecuador's severing of ties with Colombia in March 2008, Carter brokered a deal for agreement between the countries' respective presidents on the restoration of low-level diplomatic relations announced June 8, 2008.[94][95]

Carter observed the Súmate for fieldwork, and its results contradicted five other opposition exit polls.[93]

Carter visited Cuba in May 2002 and had full discussions with Fidel Castro and the Cuban government. He was allowed to address the Cuban public uncensored on national television and radio with a speech that he wrote and presented in Spanish. In the speech, he called on the US to end "an ineffective 43-year-old economic embargo" and on Castro to hold free elections, improve human rights, and allow greater civil liberties.[86] He met with political dissidents; visited the AIDS sanitarium, a medical school, a biotech facility, an agricultural production cooperative, and a school for disabled children; and threw a pitch for an all-star baseball game in Havana. The visit made Carter the first President of the United States, in or out of office, to visit the island since the Cuban revolution of 1959.[87]

Carter led a mission to Haiti in 1994 with Senator Sam Nunn and former chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Colin Powell to avert a US-led multinational invasion and restore to power Haiti's democratically elected president, Jean-Bertrand Aristide.[85]


On June 18, 2007, Carter, accompanied by his wife, arrived in Dublin, Ireland, for talks with President Mary McAleese and Bertie Ahern concerning human rights. On June 19, Carter attended and spoke at the annual Human Rights Forum at Croke Park. An agreement between Irish Aid and The Carter Center was also signed on this day.

Carter played a key role in negotiation of the Nairobi Agreement in 1999 between Sudan and Uganda.[84]

Carter held summits in Egypt and Tunisia in 1995–1996 to address violence in the Great Lakes region of Africa.[83]

Carter leads an observer mission at South Sudan's referendum on independence, January 2011


In August 2014, Carter was joined by Elders, in an op-ed article in Foreign Policy, noted the recent unity deal between Hamas and Fatah when Hamas agreed with the Palestinian Authority to denounce violence, recognize Israel and adhere to past agreements, saying it presented an opportunity. Carter and Robinson called on the UN Security Council to act on what they described as the inhumane conditions in Gaza, and mandate an end to the siege.[82]

Carter visited with three officials from Hamas who have been living at the International Red Cross office in Jerusalem since July 2010. Israel believes that these three Hamas legislators had a role in the 2006 kidnapping of Israeli soldier Gilad Shalit, and has a deportation order set for them.[81]

In December 2008, Carter visited Damascus again, where he met with Syrian President Bashar Assad, and the Hamas leadership. During his visit he gave an exclusive interview to Forward Magazine, the first ever interview for any American president, current or former, with a Syrian media outlet.[79][80]

In May 2007, while arguing that the United States should directly talk to Iran, Carter again stated that Israel has 150 nuclear weapons in its arsenal.[78]

[77]."Shalit Carter spoke to Mashaal on several matters, including "formulas for prisoner exchange to obtain the release of Corporal [76] nor anyone else in the State Department had warned him against meeting with Hamas leaders during his trip.Condoleezza Rice Carter said on April 23 that neither [75] on April 14, 2008.Ramallah in Yasser Arafat Within this Mid-East trip, Carter also laid a wreath on the grave of [74] In April 2008, the London-based Arabic newspaper

He mentioned statistics showing nutritional intake of some Palestinian children was below that of the children of Sub-Saharan Africa and described the European position on Israel as "supine".[73]

In 2006, at the UK Hay Festival, Carter stated that Israel has at least 150 nuclear weapons. He expressed his support for Israel as a country, but criticized its domestic and foreign policy; "One of the greatest human rights crimes on earth is the starvation and imprisonment of 1.6m Palestinians," said Carter.

Carter has also in recent years become a frequent critic of Israel's policies in Lebanon, the West Bank, and Gaza.[71][72]

Carter and experts from The Carter Center assisted unofficial Israeli and Palestinian negotiators in designing a model agreement for peace—called the Geneva Accord—in 2002–2003.[70]

Middle East

In August 2010, Carter traveled to North Korea in an attempt to secure the release of Aijalon Mahli Gomes. Gomes, a U.S. citizen, was sentenced to eight years of hard labor after being found guilty of illegally entering North Korea. Carter successfully secured the release.[69]

Bush Administration opponents of the Agreed Framework believed that the North Korean government never intended to give up a nuclear weapons program. However, supporters of the Agreed Framework believed that the agreement could have been successful, had it not been undermined by the Bush Administration.[68]

In 2001, George W. Bush had taken a confrontational position toward North Korea. And in January 2002, Bush had named North Korea as part of an "Axis of Evil". Meanwhile, North Korea began developing the capability to enrich uranium.

The agreement was widely hailed at the time as a significant diplomatic achievement.[66][67] However, in December 2002, the Kim Jong-il.

The Clinton Administration signed a later version of the Agreed Framework, under which North Korea agreed to freeze and ultimately dismantle its current nuclear program and comply with its nonproliferation obligations in exchange for oil deliveries, the construction of two light water reactors to replace its graphite reactors, and discussions for eventual diplomatic relations.

Carter negotiated an understanding with Kim Il-sung, but went further and outlined a treaty, which he announced on CNN without the permission of the Clinton White House as a way to force the US into action.

Bill Clinton secretly recruited Carter to undertake a peace mission to North Korea,[64] under the guise that it was a private mission of Carter's. Clinton saw Carter as a way to let North Korean President Kim Il-sung back down without losing face.[65]

In 1994, North Korea had expelled investigators from the International Atomic Energy Agency and was threatening to begin processing spent nuclear fuel. In response, then-President Clinton pressured for US sanctions and ordered large amounts of troops and vehicles into the area to brace for war.

North Korea

Foreign trips of Jimmy Carter during his presidency


In 2002, President Carter received the Nobel Peace Prize for his work "to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development" through The Carter Center.[63] Three sitting presidents, Theodore Roosevelt, Woodrow Wilson, and Barack Obama, have received the prize; Carter is unique in receiving the award for his actions after leaving the presidency. He is, along with Martin Luther King, Jr., one of only two native Georgians to receive the Nobel.

A major accomplishment of The Carter Center has been the elimination of more than 99 percent of cases of Guinea worm disease, from an estimated 3.5 million cases in 1986 to 148 reported cases in 2013.[61] The Carter Center has monitored 96 elections in 38 countries since 1989.[62] It has worked to resolve conflicts in Haiti, Bosnia, Ethiopia, North Korea, Sudan and other countries. Carter and the Center support human rights defenders around the world and have intervened with heads of state on their behalf.

Carter has been involved in a variety of national and international public policy, conflict resolution, human rights and charitable causes. In 1982, he established The Carter Center in Atlanta to advance human rights and alleviate human suffering. The non-profit, nongovernmental Center promotes democracy, mediates and prevents conflicts, and monitors the electoral process in support of free and fair elections. It also works to improve global health through the control and eradication of diseases such as Guinea worm disease, river blindness, malaria, trachoma, lymphatic filariasis, and schistosomiasis. It also works to diminish the stigma of mental illnesses and improve nutrition through increased crop production in Africa.

President George W. Bush invited former Presidents George H.W. Bush, Bill Clinton, Jimmy Carter (far right) and President-Elect Barack Obama for a meeting and lunch at The White House. Photo taken Wednesday, January 7, 2009 in the Oval Office at The White House.

Carter Center and Nobel Prize

He has also contributed to the expansion of Habitat for Humanity, to build affordable housing. As of October 27, 2014, Carter has lived longer after leaving the White House than any other U.S. President. [47] In 1981, Carter returned to Georgia to his peanut farm, which he had placed into a

Former President and First Lady Carter wave from their aircraft after the inauguration of Ronald Reagan on January 20, 1981.


Carter's campaign for re-election in 1980 was one of the most difficult, and least successful, in history. He faced strong challenges from the right (Republican Ronald Reagan), the center (independent John B. Anderson), and the left (Democrat Ted Kennedy). He had to run against his own "stagflation"-ridden economy, while the hostage crisis in Iran dominated the news every week. He alienated liberal college students, who were expected to be his base, by re-instating registration for the military draft. His campaign manager and former appointments secretary, Timothy Kraft, stepped down some five weeks before the general election amid what turned out to have been an uncorroborated allegation of cocaine use.[60] Carter was defeated by Ronald Reagan in a landslide, and the Senate went Republican for the first time since 1952.

Carter later wrote that the most intense and mounting opposition to his policies came from the liberal wing of the Democratic Party, which he attributed to Ted Kennedy's ambition to replace him as president.[58] Kennedy surprised his supporters by running a weak campaign, and Carter won most of the primaries and secured renomination. However, Kennedy had mobilized the liberal wing of the Democratic Party, which gave Carter weak support in the fall election.[59]

The electoral map of the 1980 election

1980 presidential campaign

In response to the 1979 Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Carter decided to boycott the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, which raised a bitter controversy. It was the only time since the founding of the modern Olympics in 1896 that the United States had not participated in a Summer or Winter Olympics. The Soviet Union retaliated by boycotting the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. It did not withdraw troops from Afghanistan until 1989 (eight years after Carter left office).

U.S. boycott of the Moscow Olympics

In 1979, Carter deregulated the American beer industry by making it legal to sell malt, hops, and yeast to American home brewers for the first time since the effective 1920 beginning of Prohibition in the United States.[55] This deregulation led to an increase in home brewing over the 1980s and 1990s that by the 2000s had developed into a strong craft microbrew culture in the United States, with over 2,000 breweries and brewpubs in the United States by 2012.[56][57]

The Airline Deregulation Act (Pub.L. 95–504) was signed into law by President Carter on October 24, 1978. The main purpose of the act was to remove government control over fares, routes and market entry (of new airlines) from commercial aviation. The Civil Aeronautics Board's powers of regulation were to be phased out, eventually allowing market forces to determine routes and fares. The Act did not remove or diminish the FAA's regulatory powers over all aspects of airline safety.

In 1977, Carter appointed Alfred E. Kahn, a professor of economics at Cornell University, to be chair of the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB). He was part of a push for deregulation of the industry, supported by leading economists, leading 'think tanks' in Washington, a civil society coalition advocating the reform (patterned on a coalition earlier developed for the truck-and-rail-reform efforts), the head of the regulatory agency, Senate leadership, the Carter administration, and even some in the airline industry. This coalition swiftly gained legislative results in 1978.

U.S. President Jimmy Carter signs the Airline Deregulation Act.


In 1978, Carter declared a federal emergency in the neighborhood of Love Canal in the city of Niagara Falls, New York. More than 800 families were evacuated from the neighborhood, which was built on top of a toxic waste landfill. The Superfund law was created in response to the situation.[53] Federal disaster money was appropriated to demolish the approximately 500 houses, the 99th Street School, and the 93rd Street School, which were built on top of the dump; and to remediate the dump and construct a containment area for the hazardous wastes. This was the first time that such a process had been undertaken. Carter acknowledged that several more "Love Canals" existed across the country, and that discovering such hazardous dumpsites was "one of the grimmest discoveries of our modern era".[54]

EPA Love Canal Superfund

Carter meeting Deng Xiaoping, leader of China from 1978 to 1992

On April 18, 1977, Carter delivered a televised speech declaring that the U.S. energy crisis during the 1970s was the moral equivalent of war. He encouraged energy conservation by all U.S. citizens and installed solar water heating panels on the White House.[50][51] He wore sweaters to offset turning down the heat in the White House.[52]

Carter meeting with the Shah of Iran, Mohammad-Reza Pahlavi, in Tehran

U.S. energy crisis

On November 4, 1979 a group of Iranian students, belonging to the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line, who were supporting the Iranian Revolution, took over the U.S. Embassy in Tehran.[48] Fifty-two American diplomats and citizens were held hostage for the next 444 days until January 20, 1981. During the crisis, Carter remained in isolation in the White House for more than 100 days, until he left to participate in the lighting of the National Menorah on the ellipse.[49] On April 24, 1980, Carter ordered Operation Eagle Claw to try free the hostages. The mission failed leaving eight American servicemen dead and the destruction of two aircraft.

President Carter at first National Menorah lighting in 1979.

Iran hostage crisis

Carter attempted to calm various conflicts around the world, most visibly in the Middle East with the signing of the Camp David Accords; giving back the Panama Canal; and signing the SALT II nuclear arms reduction treaty with Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev. His final year was marred by the Iran hostage crisis, which contributed to his losing the 1980 election to Ronald Reagan.

Carter's tenure was a time of continuing inflation and recession, as well as an energy crisis. On January 7, 1980, Carter signed Law H.R. 5860 aka Public Law 96-185 known as The Chrysler Corporation Loan Guarantee Act of 1979, bailing out Chrysler Corporation. He cancelled military pay raises during a time of high inflation and government deficits.

Robert Templeton's portrait of President Carter, displayed in the National Portrait Gallery, Washington DC


Carter began the race with a sizable lead over Ford, who narrowed the gap during the campaign, but lost to Carter in a narrow defeat on November 2, 1976. Carter won the popular vote by 50.1 percent to 48.0 percent for Ford, and received 297 electoral votes to Ford's 240. Carter became the first contender from the Deep South to be elected President since the 1848 election. Carter carried fewer states than Ford—23 states to the defeated Ford's 27—yet Carter won with the largest percentage of the popular vote (50.1 percent) of any non-incumbent since Dwight Eisenhower.

He chose Senator Walter F. Mondale as his running mate. He attacked Washington in his speeches, and offered a religious salve for the nation's wounds.[47]

As late as January 26, 1976, Carter was the first choice of only four percent of Democratic voters, according to a Gallup poll. Yet "by mid-March 1976 Carter was not only far ahead of the active contenders for the Democratic presidential nomination, he also led President Ford by a few percentage points", according to Shoup.[46]

Carter was interviewed by Robert Scheer of Playboy for the November 1976 issue, which hit the newsstands a couple of weeks before the election. While discussing his religion's view of pride, Carter said: "I've looked on a lot of women with lust. I've committed adultery in my heart many times."[45] He is the only American president to have been interviewed by Playboy.

What Carter had that his opponents did not was the acceptance and support of elite sectors of the mass communications media. It was their favorable coverage of Carter and his campaign that gave him an edge, propelling him rocket-like to the top of the opinion polls. This helped Carter win key primary election victories, enabling him to rise from an obscure public figure to President-elect in the short space of 9 months.

The national news media discovered and promoted Carter, as Lawrence Shoup noted in his 1980 book The Carter Presidency and Beyond:

Initially dismissed as a regional candidate, Carter proved to be the only Democrat with a truly national strategy, and he clinched the nomination. [44] Carter became the front-runner early on by winning the

Carter and President Gerald Ford debating at the Walnut Street Theatre in Philadelphia

[43] When Carter entered the Democratic Party presidential primaries in 1976, he was considered to have little chance against nationally better-known politicians; his

The electoral map of the 1976 election

1976 presidential campaign

After McGovern's loss in November 1972, Carter began meeting regularly with his fledgling campaign staff. He had quietly decided to begin putting a presidential bid together. He tried unsuccessfully to become chairman of the National Governors Association to boost his visibility. On David Rockefeller's endorsement he was named to the Trilateral Commission in April 1973. The following year he was named chairman of the Democratic National Committee's congressional, as well as gubernatorial, campaigns.[41] In 1973 he appeared on the game show What's My Line, where a group of celebrity panelists would try to guess his occupation. None recognized him and it took several rounds of question-and-answer before movie critic Gene Shalit correctly guessed he was a governor.[42]

Looking toward a potential presidential run, Carter engaged himself in national politics and public appearances. He was named to several southern planning commissions and was a delegate to the 1972 Democratic ticket went to McGovern and Senator Thomas Eagleton.[40]

National ambition

[39] he vetoed a plan to build a dam on Georgia's [38] In one of his more controversial decisions,

Carter pushed reforms through the legislature to provide equal state aid to schools in the wealthy and poor areas of Georgia, set up community centers for mentally handicapped children, and increased educational programs for convicts. He took pride in his program for the appointment of judges and state government officials. Under this program, all such appointments were based on merit, rather than political influence.[36][37]

Civil rights were a heartfelt priority for Carter. He expanded the number of black state employees, judges, and board members. He hired Rita Jackson Samuels, a black woman, to advise him on potential appointments.[33] He placed portraits of Martin Luther King, Jr., and two other prominent black Georgians in the capitol building, even as the [35]

Ultimately he merged about 300 state agencies into 30—a fact he would emphasize in his presidential run—although it is disputed that there were any overall cost savings from doing so. [32] He looked to aggressively expand the governor's authority while reducing the complexity of the state government. Therefore he negotiated a bill allowing him to propose executive restructuring and to force a vote on it. He implemented [31][30] With Carter's reluctance to engage in back-slapping and political favors, the legislature found him frustrating to work with.

lieutenant governor. Carter had endorsed Maddox, although the two did not campaign as a ticket. The two found little common ground during their four years of service, often publicly feuding with each other.[28] Richard Russell, Jr., then President pro tempore of the United States Senate, died in office during Carter's second week in office; the newly inaugurated governor appointed David H. Gambrell, state Democratic Party chair, to fill Russell's unexpired term in the Senate.[29]

Carter was sworn in as the 76th Governor of Georgia on January 12, 1971. He declared in his inaugural speech that "the time of racial segregation was over. No poor, rural, weak, or black person should ever again have to bear the additional burden of being deprived of the opportunity for an education, a job, or simple justice." The crowd was reportedly shocked by this message, contrasting starkly with Georgia's political culture and particularly Carter's campaign. The many segregationists who had supported Carter during the race felt betrayed. Time magazine ran a story on the progressive "New South" governors elected that year in a May 1971 issue, featuring a cover illustration of Carter.[25][26][27]

Governor of Georgia

That September, Carter came ahead of Sanders in the first ballot by 49 to 38 percent, leading to a runoff. The campaign grew even more bitter; Carter's campaign criticized Sanders for supporting Leroy Johnson, a black state Senator, voiced his support for Carter, saying, "I understand why he ran that kind of ultra-conservative campaign. ... I don't believe you can win this state without being a racist."[23]

[24][23] The liberal former governor,

Carter returned to his agriculture business and, during the next four years, carefully planned his next campaign for Governor in 1970. This period was a spiritual turning point for Carter; he grew increasingly evangelical, undertaking several religious missions in other states. Inspired by his sister Ruth and liberal theologians such as Reinhold Niebuhr, he declared himself born again, a growing movement in 1960s America. His last child Amy was born around this time.[21][22]

The congressional race was shaken up in mid-May when Callaway dropped out and decided to run for Governor of Georgia instead. Callaway was a very strong candidate, and state Democrats panicked over the prospect of losing the governorship they had held since Reconstruction. Carter soon decided to follow Callaway and run for governor himself. In the Democratic primary he ran as a moderate alternative to both the liberal former governor Ellis Arnall and the conservative Lester Maddox. In a press conference he described his ideology as "Conservative, moderate, liberal and middle-of-the-road. ... I believe I am a more complicated person than that."[19] He lost the Democratic primary, but drew enough votes as a third-place candidate to force Arnall into a runoff election with Maddox. A chain of events then resulted in Maddox, the dark horse candidate, being elected governor.[note 3] The result was a sharp blow to Carter, who was left deeply in debt. His attempt to rescue the race from Callaway had resulted in the unlikely election of the segregationist Maddox, which he considered an even worse outcome.[20]

Campaigns for governor

Carter was re-elected in 1964 to serve a second two-year term. For a time in the State Senate, he chaired its Education Committee; he also sat on the Appropriations Committee toward the end of his second term. Before his term ended he contributed to a bill expanding statewide education funding and getting Georgia Southwestern a four-year program. He leveraged his regional planning work, giving speeches around the district to make himself more visible to potential voters. The last day of the term, March 3, 1966, he announced his run for Congress.[18]

The Columbus. Carter saw Callaway, a Republican, as a rival who represented the inherited wealth and selfishness he despised in politics.[17]

Racial tension was inflamed in Plains by the 1954 Quitman County. Carter challenged the results; when fraud was confirmed, a new election was held, which he won.[15]

State Senate

Early political career

Earl Carter died a relatively wealthy man, recently elected to the public housing in Plains; Carter is the only U.S. president to have lived in housing subsidized for the poor. Knowledgeable in scientific and technological subjects, Carter took over the family peanut farm. The transition was difficult, as the harvest his first year failed due to drought and Carter was forced to open several lines of credit to keep the farm afloat. Carter took classes and read up on agriculture while Rosalynn learned accounting to manage the business' financials. Though they barely broke even the first year, Carter managed over the following years to expand and become quite successful.[12][13]


Carter took some classes at Union College in Schenectady, New York, in early 1953.[6] Upon the death of his father in July of that year, Carter was urgently needed to run the family business, but he was torn over the decision. Staying in Schenectady he had the promise of a distinguished naval career, with eventual promotion to admiral a possibility. Furthermore, Rosalynn had grown comfortable with her family life and her husband's relative prestige; returning to the small-town life of Plains felt like a "monumental step backward" for her. On the other hand, Carter felt restricted by the military culture and yearned to take a path more like his father's. Resigning his commission, he was honorably discharged from the Navy on October 9, 1953.[10][11]

On December 12, 1952, an accident with the experimental NRX reactor at Atomic Energy of Canada's Chalk River Laboratories caused a partial meltdown. The resulting explosion caused millions of liters of radioactive water to flood the reactor building's basement, and the reactor's core was no longer usable.[7] Carter was ordered to Chalk River, joining other American and Canadian service personnel. He was the officer in charge of the U.S. team assisting in the shutdown of the Chalk River Nuclear Reactor.[8] The painstaking process required each team member, including Carter, to don protective gear, and be lowered individually into the reactor to disassemble it for minutes at a time. During and after his presidency, Carter indicated that his experience at Chalk River shaped his views on nuclear power and nuclear weapons, including his decision not to pursue completion of the neutron bomb.[9]

[5], which he began in late 1952. Rickover's demands on his men and machines were legendary, and Carter later said that, next to his parents, Rickover had the greatest influence on him.Hyman G. Rickover program run by then Captain nuclear submarine fledgling US Navy's, he completed qualification for command of a diesel-electric submarine. He applied for the full lieutenant Promoted to a [6].Pacific fleets and Atlantic From 1946 to 1953, Carter and Rosalynn lived temporarily in Virginia, Hawaii, Connecticut, and California, as he served deployments in the [5] Carter graduated 59th out of 820 midshipmen, by his own recollection.[4]

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