World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Khoe language

Article Id: WHEBN0000715493
Reproduction Date:

Title: Khoe language  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Demographics of South Africa, Languages of Angola, Sandawe people, South Africa
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Khoe language

Khwe
Kxoe
Native to Namibia, Angola, Botswana, South Africa, Zambia
Native speakers 8,000  (2013)Template:Infobox language/ref
(7,000 Khwe and 1,000 ǁAni)
Language family
Khoe
  • Kalahari (Tshu–Khwe)
    • West
      • Khwe
Language codes
ISO 639-3 Either:
hnh – ǁAni (Handa)
Linguist List Template:Infobox language/linguistlist
  Template:Infobox language/linguistlist
  Template:Infobox language/linguistlist
  Template:Infobox language/linguistlist
  Template:Infobox language/linguistlist
  Template:Infobox language/linguistlist

Khwe Template:Sc Kxoe (/ˈkw/ or /ˈkɔɪ/) is a dialect continuum of the Khoe family of Namibia, Angola, Botswana, South Africa, and small parts of Zambia, with some 11,000 speakers. It is learned locally as a second language in Namibia, but the language is being lost in Botswana as speakers shift to Tswana. Thousands of Kxoe were murdered in Angola after independence, as they had been used by the Portuguese as trackers, and the survivors fled to Zambia. However, some may have returned to Angola more recently.

There is currently a dictionary of the Kxoe language.

Name

Khwe is the preferred spelling of the Khwe people, also commonly written Khoe. Khoe-dam and Khwedam are also seen.

Other names and spellings of ǁAni include ǀAnda, Gǀanda, Handá, Gani, Tanne, and Tsʼéxa with various combinations of -kwe/khwe/khoe and -dam.

Speaker breakdown

Namibia: 3,700
Angola and Zambia: 300–400
Botswana: 2,700 (incl. 1,000 ǁAni)
South Africa: 1,300

Dialects

Eastern and Western dialects, ǁXom-Buma and ǁXo-Buga, have been largely leveled since resettlement in the mid 1970s. Khwe and ǁAni are an ethnic distinction, and in 2000 the two groups founded a committee to establish a common standard language.

Phonology

Khwe has 32 or 36 clicks, depending on whether one counts the four prenasalized clicks. There are four places of articulation, ], ], ], and ], each with several "releases". Miller (2011), in a comparative study with other languages, interprets the description in Kilian-Hatz (2003) as follows, illustrated with the palatal articulation:[1]

Click Description
ǂʰ aspirated
ǂ tenuis
ᶢǂ voiced
ᵑǂ nasal
ŋᶢǂ prenasalized
ᵑǂˀ glottalized nasal
ǂ͡q linguo-pulmonic
ǂ͡χ linguo-pulmonic fricative
ǂ͡χʼ linguo-glottalic fricative

Bibliography

  • Kilian-Hatz, Christa (2003) Khwe Dictionary (with a supplement on Khwe place names by Matthias Brenzinger). Köln: Rüdiger Köppe. ISBN 3-89645-083-2

References

External links

  • Map of Kxoe (Mbarakwengo) language from the LL-Map Project
  • Khwe basic lexicon at the Global Lexicostatistical Database
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.