World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Noncototient

Article Id: WHEBN0000758718
Reproduction Date:

Title: Noncototient  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: 300 (number), 260 (number), 172 (number), 186 (number), Jordan's totient function
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Noncototient

In mathematics, a noncototient is a positive integer n that cannot be expressed as the difference between a positive integer m and the number of coprime integers below it. That is, m − φ(m) = n, where φ stands for Euler's totient function, has no solution for m. The cototient of n is defined as n − φ(n), so a noncototient is a number that is never a cototient.

It is conjectured that all noncototients are even. This follows from a modified form of the Goldbach conjecture: if the even number n can be represented as a sum of two distinct primes p and q, then

pq - \varphi(pq) = pq - (p-1)(q-1) = p+q-1 = n-1. \,

It is expected that every even number larger than 6 is a sum of two distinct primes, so probably no odd number larger than 5 is a noncototient. The remaining odd numbers are covered by the observations 1=2-\phi(2), 3 = 9 - \phi(9) and 5 = 25 - \phi(25).

For even numbers, it can be shown

2pq - \varphi(2pq) = 2pq - (p-1)(q-1) = pq+p+q-1 = (p+1)(q+1)-2

Thus, all even numbers n such that n+2 can be written as (p+1)*(q+1) with p, q primes are cototients.

The first few noncototients are

10, 26, 34, 50, 52, 58, 86, 100, 116, 122, 130, 134, 146, 154, 170, 172, 186, 202, 206, 218, 222, 232, 244, 260, 266, 268, 274, 290, 292, 298, 310, 326, 340, 344, 346, 362, 366, 372, 386, 394, 404, 412, 436, 466, 470, 474, 482, 490, ... (sequence A005278 in OEIS)

The cototient of n are

0, 0, 1, 1, 2, 1, 4, 1, 4, 3, 6, 1, 8, 1, 8, 7, 8, 1, 12, 1, 12, 9, 12, 1, 16, 5, 14, 9, 16, 1, 22, 1, 16, 13, 18, 11, 24, 1, 20, 15, 24, 1, 30, 1, 24, 21, 24, 1, 32, 7, 30, 19, 28, 1, 36, 15, 32, 21, 30, 1, 44, 1, 32, 27, 32, 17, 46, 1, 36, 25, 46, 1, 48, ... (sequence A051953 in OEIS)

Least k such that the cototient of k is n are

0, 2, 4, 9, 6, 25, 10, 15, 12, 21, 0, 35, 18, 33, 26, 39, 24, 65, 34, 51, 38, 45, 30, 95, 36, 69, 0, 63, 52, 161, 42, 87, 48, 93, 0, 75, 54, 217, 74, 99, 76, 185, 82, 123, 60, 117, 66, 215, 72, 141, 0, ... (sequence A063507 in OEIS)

Greatest k such that the cototient of k is n are

1, ∞, 4, 9, 8, 25, 10, 49, 16, 27, 0, 121, 22, 169, 26, 55, 32, 289, 34, 361, 38, 85, 30, 529, 46, 133, 0, 187, 52, 841, 58, 961, 64, 253, 0, 323, 68, 1369, 74, 391, 76, 1681, 82, 1849, 86, 493, 70, 2209, 94, 589, 0, ... (sequence A063748 in OEIS)

Number of ks such that k-φ(k) is n are

2, ∞, 1, 1, 2, 1, 1, 2, 3, 2, 0, 2, 3, 2, 1, 2, 3, 3, 1, 3, 1, 3, 1, 4, 4, 3, 0, 4, 1, 4, 3, 3, 4, 3, 0, 5, 2, 2, 1, 4, 1, 5, 1, 4, 2, 4, 2, 6, 5, 5, 0, 3, 0, 6, 2, 4, 2, 5, 0, 7, 4, 3, 1, 8, 4, 6, 1, 3, 1, 5, 2, 7, 3, ... (sequence A063740 in OEIS)

Erdős (1913-1996) and Sierpinski (1882-1969) asked whether there exist infinitely many noncototients. This was finally answered in the affirmative by Browkin and Schinzel (1995), who showed every member of the infinite family 2^k \cdot 509203 is an example (See Riesel number). Since then other infinite families, of roughly the same form, have been given by Flammenkamp and Luca (2000).

References

  • Browkin, J.; Schinzel, A. (1995). "On integers not of the form n-φ(n)". Colloq. Math. 68 (1): 55–58.  
  • Flammenkamp, A.; Luca, F. (2000). "Infinite families of noncototients". Colloq. Math. 86 (1): 37–41.  
  •  

External links

  • Noncototient definition from MathWorld
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.