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Orders of magnitude (frequency)

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Title: Orders of magnitude (frequency)  
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Orders of magnitude (frequency)

To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various frequencies, which is measured in hertz.

Multiple Value Item
10−18 1 attohertz (aHz) ~2.29 aHz The Hubble Constant (once in 13.8 billion years)
10−15 1 femtohertz (fHz)
10−12 1 picohertz (pHz)
10−11 10 pHz ~31.71 pHz Once per millennium
10−10 100 pHz ~317.1 pHz Once per century
10−9 1 nanohertz (nHz) ~1 nHz Once per generation
~3.171 nHz Once per decade
10−8 10nHz 11.6699016 nHz Once in a blue moon[1]
~31.71 nHz Yearly (or Earth's orbital frequency)
10−7 100 nHz ~380.5 nHz Monthly (or the Moon's orbital frequency)
~413 nHz Average menstrual cycle (28 days)
10−6 1 microhertz (µHz) ~1.653 µHz Weekly
10−5 10 µHz ~11.57 µHz Daily (or Earth's rotation frequency)
10−4 100 µHz ~277.8 µHz Once per hour
10−3 1 millihertz (mHz)
10−2 1 centihertz (cHz) ~16.667 mHz One rpm
10−1 1 decihertz (dHz)
100 1 hertz 1 to 1.66 Hz approximate frequency of an adult human's resting heart beat
1 Hz 60 bpm, common tempos in music.
2 Hz 120 bpm, common tempos in music.
101 1 decahertz (daHz) 10 Hz cyclic rate of a typical automobile engine at idle (equivalent to 600 rpm)
12 Hz acoustic — the lowest possible frequency that a human can hear[2]
27.5 Hz acoustic — the lowest musical note (A) playable on a normally-tuned standard piano
50 Hz electromagnetic — standard AC mains power (European AC, Tokyo AC)
60 Hz electromagnetic — standard AC mains power (American AC, Osaka AC)
102 1 hectohertz (hHz) 100 Hz cyclic rate of a typical automobile engine at redline (equivalent to 6000 rpm)
261.626 Hz acoustic — the musical note middle C
440 Hz acoustic — concert pitch (A above middle C), used for tuning musical instruments
103 1 kilohertz (kHz) 4.186 kHz acoustic — the highest musical note (C8) playable on a normally-tuned standard piano
8 kHz ISDN sampling rate
104 10 kHz 14 kHz acoustic — the typical upper limit of adult human hearing
17.4 kHz acoustic — a frequency known as The Mosquito, which is generally only audible to those under the age of 24.
105 100 kHz 740 kHz the clock speed of the world's first commercial microprocessor, the Intel 4004 (1971)
106 1 megahertz (MHz) 530 kHz to 1.710 MHz electromagnetic — AM radio broadcasts
1 MHz to 8 MHz clock speeds of early home/personal computers (mid-1970s to mid-1980s)
107 10 MHz 13.56 MHz electromagnetic — Near field communication
108 100 MHz 88 MHz to 108 MHz electromagnetic — FM radio broadcasts
902 to 928 MHz electromagnetic — common cordless telephone frequency in the US
109 1 gigahertz (GHz) 1.42 GHz electromagnetic — the hyperfine transition of hydrogen, also known as the hydrogen line or 21 cm line
2.4 GHz electromagneticmicrowave ovens, Wireless LANs and cordless phones (starting in 1998).
2.6-3.8 GHz A common desktop processor speed as of 2014
4.7 GHz AMD FX-9790 clock speed, fastest commercial processor
5.8 GHz electromagnetic — cordless phone frequency introduced in 2003
1010 10 GHz 3 GHz to 30 GHz electromagneticsuper high frequency
60 GHz electromagnetic — 802.11ad Wi-Fi (WiGig) introduced in 2010
1011 100 GHz 160.2 GHz electromagnetic — peak of cosmic microwave background radiation
845 GHz fastest transistor (Dec. 2006).[3]
1012 1 terahertz THz see: the Terahertz gap
1013 10 THz 21 THz to 33 THz electromagneticinfrared light used in thermal imaging, for example for night vision
31.5 THz electromagnetic — peak of Black-body radiation emitted by human body
1014 100 THz 428 THz to 750 THz electromagnetic — visible light, from red to violet
1015 1 petahertz PHz 2.47 PHz electromagneticLyman-alpha line
1016 10 PHz 30 PHz electromagneticx-rays
1017 100 PHz
1018 1 exahertz EHz
1019 10 EHz
1020 100 EHz 300 EHz + electromagneticgamma rays
1021 1 zettahertz ZHz
1024 1 yottahertz YHz 262×1024 Hz The frequency of heat which causes uranium to fission
1027 1000 YHz 3.9×1027 Hz Highest energy (16 TeV) gamma ray detected, from Markarian 501.[4]
1043 10 quintillion YHz 1.85×1043 Hz Planck frequency, the inverse of the Planck time

See also


  1. ^ Google Calculator Result for "once in a blue moon"
  2. ^ 20 Hz is considered the normal low frequency limit of human hearing. When pure sine waves are reproduced under ideal conditions and at very high volume, a human listener will be able to identify tones as low as 12 Hz.  
  3. ^ - Fastest Transistor Approaches Terahertz Speed.(Brief article), 2007-01-01
  4. ^ Ultra-high-energy gamma ray
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