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Organelle

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Organelle

Organelle
Details
Latin organella
Identifiers
Code TH H1.00.01.0.00009
Anatomical terminology
Cell biology
The animal cell
Components of a typical animal cell:
  1. Nucleolus
  2. Nucleus
  3. Ribosome (little dots)
  4. Vesicle
  5. Rough endoplasmic reticulum
  6. Golgi apparatus (or "Golgi body")
  7. Cytoskeleton
  8. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum
  9. Mitochondrion
  10. Vacuole
  11. Cytosol (fluid that contains organelles)
  12. Lysosome
  13. Centrosome
  14. Cell membrane

In lipid bilayers.

The name organelle comes from the idea that these structures are to cells what an

  • Tree of Life Eukaryotes

External links

  1. ^ a b Kerfeld, C. A.; Sawaya, M. R; Tanaka, S; Nguyen, C. V.; Phillips, M; Beeby, M; Yeates, T. O. (5 August 2005). "Protein structures forming the shell of primitive bacterial organelles.". Science 309 (5736): 936–8.  
  2. ^ Lynsey Peterson (2010-04-17). "Mastering the Parts of a Cell". Lesson Planet. Retrieved 2010-04-19. 
  3. ^  
  4. ^ Amer. Naturalist. 23, 1889, p. 183: "It may possibly be of advantage to use the word organula here instead of organ, following a suggestion by Möbius. Functionally differentiated multicellular aggregates in multicellular forms or metazoa are in this sense organs, while, for functionally differentiated portions of
  5. ^ 'Journal de l'anatomie et de la physiologie normales et pathologiques de l'homme et des animaux' at Google Books
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  12. ^ Cl. Hamburger, Handwörterbuch der Naturw. Bd. V,. p. 435. Infusorien. cited after Petersen, Hans (May 1919). "Über den Begriff des Lebens und die Stufen der biologischen Begriffsbildung". Archiv für Entwicklungsmechanik der Organismen (now: Development Genes and Evolution) 45 (3): 423–442.  
  13. ^ Kühn, Alfred (1920). "Untersuchungen zur kausalen Analyse der Zellteilung. I. Teil: Zur Morphologie und Physiologie der Kernteilung von Vahlkampfia bistadialis". Archiv für Entwicklungsmechanik der Organismen (now: Development Genes and Evolution) 46 (2–3): 259–327.  
  14. ^ Hartmann, Max (1953). Allgemeine Biologie (4th ed.). Stuttgart: Gustav Fisher Verlag. 
  15. ^ Nultsch, Allgemeine Botanik, 11. Aufl. 2001, Thieme Verlag
  16. ^ Wehner/Gehring, Zoologies, 23. Aufl. 1995, Thieme Verlag
  17. ^ Alberts, Bruce et al. (2002). The Molecular Biology of the Cell, 4th ed., Garland Science, 2002, ISBN 0-8153-3218-1. online via "NCBI-Bookshelf"
  18. ^ Brock, Mikrobiologie, 2. korrigierter Nachdruck (2003), der 1. Aufl. von 2001
  19. ^ Strasburgers Lehrbuch der Botanik für Hochschulen, 35. Aufl. (2002), p. 42
  20. ^ Alliegro MC, Alliegro MA, Palazzo RE (June 2006). "Centrosome-associated RNA in surf clam oocytes". Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 103 (24): 9037–9038.  
  21. ^ Frey-Wyssling, A (1978). "Definition of the organell concept". Gegenbaurs morphologisches Jahrbuch (in German) 124 (3): 455–7.  
  22. ^ Frey-Wyssling, A. (1978). "Concerning the concept 'organelle'". Experientia 34 (4): 547–9.  
  23. ^ Keeling, Pj; Archibald, Jm (2008). "Organelle evolution: what's in a name?". Current biology: CB 18 (8): R345–7.  
  24. ^ Imanian B, Carpenter KJ, Keeling PJ (2007). "Mitochondrial genome of a tertiary endosymbiont retains genes for electron transport proteins". The Journal of eukaryotic microbiology 54 (2): 146–53.  
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  26. ^ C.Michael Hogan. 2010. . Encyclopedia of Earth. National Council for Science and the Environment.Deoxyribonucleic acid S. Draggan and C. Cleveland (eds.). Washington DC
  27. ^ Campbell and Reece, Biology 6th edition, Benjamin Cummings, 2002
  28. ^ Cormack, David H. (1984) Introduction to Histology, Lippincott, ISBN 0397521146
  29. ^ Fahey RC, Newton GL, Arrack B, Overdank-Bogart T, Baley S (1984). "Entamoeba histolytica: a eukaryote without glutathione metabolism". Science 224 (4644): 70–72.  
  30. ^ Badano, Jose L.; Norimasa Mitsuma; Phil L. Beales; Nicholas Katsanis (September 2006). "The Ciliopathies: An Emerging Class of Human Genetic Disorders". Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics 7: 125–148.  
  31. ^ Tsai Y, Sawaya MR, Cannon GC, Cai F, Williams EB, Heinhorst S, Kerfeld CA, Yeates TO (2007). "Structural Analysis of CsoS1A and the Protein Shell of the Halothiobacillus neapolitanus Carboxysome". PLoS Biology 5 (6): e144.  
  32. ^ Ryter A (1988). "Contribution of new cryomethods to a better knowledge of bacterial anatomy". Ann. Inst. Pasteur Microbiol. 139 (1): 33–44.  
  33. ^ Komeili A, Li Z, Newman DK, Jensen GJ (2006). "Magnetosomes are cell membrane invaginations organized by the actin-like protein MamK". Science 311 (5758): 242–5.  
  34. ^ Scheffel A, Gruska M, Faivre D, Linaroudis A, Plitzko JM, Schüler D (2006). "An acidic protein aligns magnetosomes along a filamentous structure in magnetotactic bacteria". Nature 440 (7080): 110–4.  
  35. ^ Fuerst JA (2005). "Intracellular compartmentation in planctomycetes". Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 59: 299–328.  
  36. ^ Cedano, J.; Aloy, P.; P'erez-Pons, J. A.; Querol, E. (1997). "Relation between amino acid composition and cellular location of proteins". J. Mol. Biol. 266 (3): 594–600.  
  37. ^ Chou, K. C.; Elrod, D. W. (1999). "Protein subcellular location prediction". Protein Engineering 12 (2): 107–118.  
  38. ^ Chou, KC (2001). "Prediction of protein cellular attributes using pseudo-amino acid composition". Proteins 43 (3): 246–55.  
  39. ^ Mundra, P.; Kumar, M.; Kumar, K. K.; Jayaraman, V. K.; Kulkarni, B. D. (2007). "Using pseudo amino acid composition to predict protein subnuclear localization: Approached with PSSM". Pattern Recognition Letters 28 (13): 1610–1615.  
  40. ^ Du, P.; Cao, S.; Li, Y. (2009). "SubChlo: predicting protein subchloroplast locations with pseudo-amino acid composition and the evidence-theoretic K-nearest neighbor (ET-KNN) algorithm".  
  41. ^ Li, F. M.; Li, Q. Z. (2008). "Predicting protein subcellular location using Chou's pseudo amino acid composition and improved hybrid approach". Protein & Peptide Letters 15 (6): 612–616.  

References

See also

The function of a protein is closely correlated with the organelle in which it resides. Some methods were proposed for predicting the organelle in which an uncharacterized protein is located according to its amino acid composition[36][37] and some methods were based on pseudo amino acid composition.[38][39][40][41]

Proteins and organelles

Prokaryotic organelles and cell components
Organelle/Macromolecule Main function Structure Organisms
carboxysome carbon fixation protein-shell compartment some bacteria
chlorosome photosynthesis light harvesting complex green sulfur bacteria
flagellum movement in external medium protein filament some prokaryotes and eukaryotes
magnetosome magnetic orientation inorganic crystal, lipid membrane magnetotactic bacteria
nucleoid DNA maintenance, transcription to RNA DNA-protein prokaryotes
plasmid DNA exchange circular DNA some bacteria
ribosome (70S) translation of RNA into proteins RNA-protein bacteria and archaea
thylakoid photosynthesis photosystem proteins and pigments mostly cyanobacteria
mesosomes functions of Golgi bodies, centrioles, etc. small irregular shaped organelle containing ribosomes present in most prokaryotic cells

However, more recent research has revealed that at least some prokaryotes have microcompartments such as carboxysomes. These subcellular compartments are 100–200 nm in diameter and are enclosed by a shell of proteins.[1] Even more striking is the description of membrane-bound magnetosomes in bacteria,[33][34] as well as the nucleus-like structures of the Planctomycetes that are surrounded by lipid membranes.[35]

mesosomes, but these were later shown to be artifacts produced by the chemicals used to prepare the cells for electron microscopy.[32]

Prokaryotic organelles

(A) Electron micrograph of Halothiobacillus neapolitanus cells, arrows highlight carboxysomes. (B) Image of intact carboxysomes isolated from H. neapolitanus. Scale bars are 100 nm.[31]

Other related structures:

Minor eukaryotic organelles and cell components
Organelle/Macromolecule Main function Structure Organisms
acrosome helps spermatozoa fuse with ovum single-membrane compartment many animals
autophagosome vesicle that sequesters cytoplasmic material and organelles for degradation double-membrane compartment all eukaryotes
centriole anchor for cytoskeleton, organizes cell division by forming spindle fibers Microtubule protein animals
cilium movement in or of external medium; "critical developmental signaling pathway".[30] Microtubule protein animals, protists, few plants
eyespot apparatus detects light, allowing phototaxis to take place euglenids
glycosome carries out glycolysis single-membrane compartment Some protozoa, such as Trypanosomes.
glyoxysome conversion of fat into sugars single-membrane compartment plants
hydrogenosome energy & hydrogen production double-membrane compartment a few unicellular eukaryotes
lysosome breakdown of large molecules (e.g., proteins + polysaccharides) single-membrane compartment most eukaryotes
melanosome pigment storage single-membrane compartment animals
mitosome probably plays a role in Fe-S cluster assembly double-membrane compartment a few unicellular eukaryotes that lack mitochondria
myofibril myocyte contraction bundled filaments animals
nematocyst stinging coiled hollow tubule Cnidarians
nucleolus pre-ribosome production protein-DNA-RNA most eukaryotes
parenthesome not characterized not characterized fungi
peroxisome breakdown of metabolic hydrogen peroxide single-membrane compartment all eukaryotes
proteasome degradation of unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis very large protein complex All eukaryotes, all archaea, some bacteria
ribosome (80S) translation of RNA into proteins RNA-protein all eukaryotes
vesicle material transport single-membrane compartment all eukaryotes

Mitochondria and chloroplasts, which have double-membranes and their own Endosymbiotic theory.

Major eukaryotic organelles
Organelle Main function Structure Organisms Notes
chloroplast (plastid) photosynthesis, traps energy from sunlight double-membrane compartment plants, protists (rare kleptoplastic organisms) has some genes; theorized to be engulfed by the ancestral eukaryotic cell (endosymbiosis)
endoplasmic reticulum translation and folding of new proteins (rough endoplasmic reticulum), expression of lipids (smooth endoplasmic reticulum) single-membrane compartment all eukaryotes rough endoplasmic reticulum is covered with ribosomes, has folds that are flat sacs; smooth endoplasmic reticulum has folds that are tubular
Flagellum locomotion, sensory eukaryotes
Golgi apparatus sorting, packaging, processing and modification of proteins single-membrane compartment all eukaryotes cis-face (convex) nearest to rough endoplasmic reticulum; trans-face (concave) farthest from rough endoplasmic reticulum
mitochondria energy production from the oxidation of glucose substances and the release of adenosine triphosphate double-membrane compartment most eukaryotes has some DNA; theorized to be engulfed by an ancestral eukaryotic cell (endosymbiosis)
vacuole storage, transportation, helps maintain homeostasis single-membrane compartment eukaryotes
nucleus DNA maintenance, controls all activities of the cell, RNA transcription double-membrane compartment all eukaryotes contains bulk of genome
There are also occasional exceptions to the number of membranes surrounding organelles, listed in the tables below (e.g., some that are listed as double-membrane are sometimes found with single or triple membranes). In addition, the number of individual organelles of each type found in a given cell varies depending upon the function of that cell. [29]Not all

nucleus and vacuoles, are easily visible with the light microscope. They were among the first biological discoveries made after the invention of the microscope.

Eukaryotic organelles

Under the more restricted definition of membrane-bound structures, some parts of the cell do not qualify as organelles. Nevertheless, the use of organelle to refer to non-membrane bound structures such as ribosomes is common.[27] This has led some texts to delineate between membrane-bound and non-membrane bound organelles.[28] These structures are large assemblies of macromolecules that carry out particular and specialized functions, but they lack membrane boundaries. Such cell structures include:

Other organelles are also suggested to have endosymbiotic origins, but do not contain their own DNA (notably the flagellum – see evolution of flagella).

Under this definition, there would only be two broad classes of organelles (i.e. those that contain their own DNA, and have originated from endosymbiotic bacteria):

While most cell biologists consider the term organelle to be synonymous with "endosymbiosis.[23][24][25]

Types of organelles

In 1978, centrosomes, ribosomes, and nucleoli.[21][22] This new definition, however, did not win wide recognition.

[20][19] definition of organelle emerged, after which only cellular structures with surrounding [18][17][16][15] Later, the now widely used

In his 1953 textbook, Max Hartmann used the term for extracellular (pellicula, shells, cell walls) and intracellular skeletons of protists.[14]

[13] Around 1920, the term organelle was used to describe propulsion structures ("motor organelle complex", i.e.,

It would take several years before organulum, or the later term organelle, became accepted and expanded in meaning to include subcellular structures in multicellular organisms. Books around 1900 from [10]

Credited as the first[3][4][5] to use a

of bodily organs to microscopic cellular substructures is obvious, as from even early works, authors of respective textbooks rarely elaborate on the distinction between the two. analogy The [2] In biology

History and terminology

Contents

  • History and terminology 1
  • Types of organelles 2
    • Eukaryotic organelles 2.1
    • Prokaryotic organelles 2.2
  • Proteins and organelles 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

[1]

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