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Rafael Cancel Miranda

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Rafael Cancel Miranda

Rafael Cancel Miranda
Congressman Robert García (left) with Rafael Cancel Miranda (right)
Born (1930-07-18) July 18, 1930
Mayagüez, Puerto Rico
Political party Puerto Rican Nationalist Party
Movement Puerto Rican Independence
Religion Roman Catholicism
Notes
Cancel Miranda was the only Nationalist jailed in "Alcatraz"


Rafael Cancel Miranda [note 1] (born July 18, 1930) is a political activist, member of the Puerto Rican Nationalist Party and an advocate of Puerto Rican independence. On March 1, 1954, Miranda together with fellow Nationalists Lolita Lebron, Andres Figueroa Cordero, and Irving Flores Rodriguez entered the United States Capitol building armed with automatic pistols and fired 30 shots. Five congressmen were hit, however all the representatives survived and Cancel Miranda, along with the other three members of his group were immediately arrested. Cancel Miranda was the only Nationalist out of the four to have been jailed in Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary, a Federal Bureau of Prisons federal prison.

Early years

Cancel Miranda was born in the City of [1]

Ponce Massacre

Police fire upon the Nationalists
External audio
Newsreel scenes of the Ponce Massacre on YouTube

In March 1937, when Cancel Miranda was seven years old, he and his family traveled to the City of Pedro Albizu Campos on sedition charges.[2]

Upon learning of the planned protest, however, the colonial Governor of Puerto Rico at the time, General Blanton Winship, who had been appointed by US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, demanded the immediate withdrawal of the permits. They were withdrawn a short time before the march was scheduled to begin. As "La Borinqueña", Puerto Rico's national song, was being played, the demonstrators began to march.[2] They were then fired upon for over 15 minutes by the police from their four positions. About 235 people were wounded and nineteen were killed.[3] Among the dead were 17 unarmed civilians and two police officers at the hands of the Insular Police for a total of 19 dead, in addition 235 civilians were wounded, including women and children.[3] Ultimately, responsibility for the massacre fell on Governor Winship, and he is considered to have, in effect, ordered the massacre.[4] Many were chased by the police and shot or clubbed at the entrance of their houses as they tried to escape. Others were taken from their hiding places and killed. Leopold Tormes, a member of the Puerto Rico legislature, told reporters how a policeman murdered a nationalist with his bare hands. Dr. Jose N. Gandara, one of the physicians who assisted the wounded, testified that wounded people running away were shot, and that many were again wounded by the clubs and bare fists of the police. No arms were found in the hands of the civilians wounded, nor on the dead ones. About 150 of the demonstrators were arrested immediately afterward; they were later released on bail. The incident is known as the Ponce Massacre.[5]

The white nurse's uniform of Cancel Miranda's mother was soaked with blood as she crawled over bodies in search of her husband. Miraculously, they both managed to return home unharmed. After the family returned home, Cancel Miranda committed his first political act in his first grade class in school when he refused to salute the American flag which at the time was mandatory.[1]

Political activist

Cancel Miranda joined the "[1] As a cadet, Cancel Miranda went to welcome Albizu Campos in December 1947, when the Nationalist Party leader returned from the United States after serving out a ten-year prison sentence – first in the U.S. penitentiary in Atlanta, then in New York – on charges of conspiracy to overthrow the U.S. government and "inciting rebellion" against it. Following World War II, there was widespread resistance to Washington's attempt to impose English as the main language of instruction in Puerto Rico's schools. Cancel Miranda was among those who participated in a school strike to this respect, two months before his graduation and was expelled. from school. He then went to San Juan to finish high school.[1][6]

Puerto Ricans became U.S. citizens as a result of the 1917 Jones-Shafroth Act and those who were eligible, with the exception of women, were expected to serve in the military, either voluntarily or as a result of the military draft (conscription).[7] In 1948, Cancel Miranda, then eighteen and in high school, refused to be drafted into the military. One day, he was walking to school in San Juan with other students, and there was a car with four FBI agents at the corner of his house. He handed his books to the other students to take them to the place where he was living. The men arrested him and charged him with refusing the U.S. draft. The U.S. Federal Court in Puerto Rico sentenced him to two years and one day and he was sent to a prison in Tallahassee, Florida, where he remained from 1949 to 1951. During his stay in prison he confronted a prison guard because of the racist segregation inside prison walls. Under Jim Crow legislation at the time, the prison dormitories were segregated.[1][6]

Self exile in Cuba

In the 1950s, the United States entered the Korean War. Believing that he was to be drafted by the US Military and that he would once again face a prison term for refusing, Cancel Miranda followed the advice of his wife and his sister Zoraida and went into a self exile in Cuba. Cancel Miranda arrived in the city of Santiago using a different identity, Rafael Rodríguez. Cuba at that time was governed by Carlos Prio Socarras. He moved to Havana where, with the help of Albizu Campos' son, Pedro Albizu Campos Meneses, he found a job with the Public Works Department. After a while, he went to work for the Raymond Concrete Pipe Co. which was building the Línea Street Tunnel, which connects the two banks of the Almendares River.[8]

On October 30, 1950, a Nationalist Party uprising occurred in Puerto Rico. The uprising was a call for independence against United States Government rule of Puerto Rico. It was also a protest against the approval of the creation of the political status the "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico" or how it is legally known, the "Commonwealth of Puerto Rico" ("Estado Libre Associado") for Puerto Rico which was considered a colonial farce.[9] Numerous Nationalists were arrested, among Cancel Miranda's father. In 1951, he published an article in a Havana paper to commemorate the first anniversary of that uprising. The United States embassy learned about it and demanded that the Prío Socarrás government turn him over along with another Puerto Rican, Reynaldo Trilla, but the Cuban authorities ignored them.[8]

Aracelio Azcuy, a politician of the Civil Damages Office and supporter of Prio Socarras, used to asked Cancel Miranda to campaign for him, to write his speeches. On March 10, 1952, Fulgencio Batista led a military coup overthrowing Prío Socarrás' government. After the coup, Batista's police arrested Cancel Miranda and Trilla. They were sent to the Tiscornia prison until August 1952, when they both were expelled from Cuba.[8]

Assault on the House of Representatives

Cancel Miranda migrated to Brooklyn, New York City, where he joined his wife. He found work in a shoe factory as a press operator. In New York he met fellow Nationalists Lolita Lebrón, a sewing machine operator, Irving Flores Rodriguez, a furniture factory employee and Andrés Figueroa Cordero, who worked in a butcher shop.

Attack preparations

Albizu Campos had been corresponding with 34-year-old Lolita Lebrón from prison and chose a group of nationalists who included Cancel Miranda, Irving Flores Rodriguez and Andrés Figueroa Cordero to attack locations in Washington, D.C. Upon receiving the order she communicated it to the leadership of the Nationalist party in New York and, although two members unexpectedly disagreed, the plan continued.[10] Lebrón decided to lead the group, even though Albizu Campos did not order her to directly take part in the assault.[10] She studied the plan, determining the possible weaknesses, concluding that a single attack on the House of Representatives would be more effective. The date for the attack on the House of Representatives was to be March 1, 1954. This date was chosen because it coincided with the inauguration of the Conferencia Interamericana (Interamerican Conference) in Caracas.[10] Lebrón intended to call attention to Puerto Rico's independence cause, particularly among the Latin American countries participating in the conference.

Trial and imprisonment

Cancel Miranda and his comrades were charged with attempted murder and other crimes. The trial began on June 4, 1954, with judge Alexander Holtzoff presiding over the case, under strict security measures. A jury composed of seven men and five women was assembled, their identities were kept secret by the media. The prosecution was led by Leo A. Rover, as part of this process 33 witnesses testified.[11] [12] Cancel Miranda and the other members of the group were the only defense witnesses, as part of Lebrón's testimony she reaffirmed that they "came to die for the liberty of her homeland".[13][14] On June 16, 1954, the jury declared the four guilty. Rover pursued death penalty, but Holtzoff decided to implement the maximum imprisonment penalties.[15] On July 13, 1954, the four nationalists were taken to New York, where they declared themselves not guilty on the charges of "trying to overthrow the government of the United States".[16] Among the prosecution's witnesses was Gonzalo Lebrón Jr., who testified against his sister. On October 26, 1954, judge Lawrence E. Walsh found all of the accused guilty of conspiracy, sentencing them to six additional years in prison.[17]

The four Nationalists were shipped off to different prisons. Figueroa Cordero was sent to the federal penitentiary in Atlanta; Lebrón to the women's prison in Alderson, West Virginia; and Flores Rodríguez to Leavenworth, Kansas, where Oscar Collazo, who in 1950 attacked the Blair House in a failed attempt to assassinate US President Harry S. Truman, was incarcerated. Cancel Miranda, considered to be the primary shooter, received a prison sentence of 85 years and was sent to Alcatraz, in the San Francisco Bay.[6]

Imprisonment

Alcatraz

In July 1954, Cancel Miranda, inmate number 1163, was sent to Alcatraz where he served six years of his sentence. Alcatraz island became a Federal Bureau of Prisons federal prison in August 1934 and was used as such for 29 years. There he worked in the brush factory and served as an altar boy at Catholic services. His closest friends were fellow Puerto Ricans Emerito Vasquez and Hiram Crespo-Crespo. They spoke Spanish and watched out for each other. On the recreation yard he often played chess with Harlem gangster Ellsworth "Bumpy" Johnson.[18] He also befriended Morton Sobell, they developed a friendship that lasts to this day.[18]

His family made trips to San Francisco to visit him, however he wasn't allow to see his children. His wife was allowed to talk to him through a glass in the visiting room, using a phone. They were not allowed to speak in Spanish and had to speak in English.[6] Cancel Miranda was a model prisoner and in 1960, after six years on Alcatraz, he was transferred to Leavenworth.[18]

Leavenworth

Cancel Miranda spent 10 years in Leavenworth. In 1970, together with fellow Nationalists Andrés Figueroa Cordero (he was transferred from the federal penitentiary in Atlanta), Irving Flores Rodríguez and Oscar Collazo, he started a strike and stopped working because of the abuses by some of the guards against them. He was charged with organizing the strike and was sent to the "hole" (the "hole" is a colloquial term for solitary confinement)[note 2] for five months.[8] His wife had worked to save up enough for the long trip to Kansas only to find that he was confined in the "hole." After three days of waiting she was allowed one hour with him. During his imprisonment, in Leavenworth, a photo from a local newspaper reminded him of one of his Cuban experiences, which allowed him to recognize that a genuine revolution was taking place in that country.[8]

Marion

Cancel Miranda was transferred to the Marion Penitentiary, a Federal Bureau of Prisons facility located in Southern Precinct, unincorporated Williamson County, Illinois. By the late 1960s, there were increasing numbers of prisoners engaged in political activity, and Cancel Miranda joined with them.

In prison he read books on sociology and learned to play the guitar. He also became involved in the defense of Corky Gonzales and the "Crusade for Justice". Every September 16, Cancel Miranda would join the Mexican and Chicano prisoners in marking Mexico's independence day with a work stoppage. He was also involved in the African-American struggle.[6] Together they produced newspapers like the Chicano prisoners' paper Aztlán and the Militant. In 1972, he was placed in the Control Unit, where he was held for eighteen months, after a big strike in Marion.[1] In the early years there was no campaign for the release of the Nationalist prisoners. An Afro-American prisoner named Ed Johnson, wrote to Michael Deutsch, a lawyer, and invited him to visit the Control Unit. The campaign for the release of the Nationalists began with Michael Deutsch and Mara Siegel from the People's Law Office.

When Cancel Miranda's father died in 1977, his supporters campaigned to allow him to attend the funeral. Cancel was allowed out on a seven hour furlough in Puerto Rico to attend his funeral.[6][18]

Released from prison

In 1979, President Jimmy Carter pardoned Cancel Miranda, Lolita Lebrón and Irving Flores Rodríguez after they had served 25 years in prison.[19] Andrés Figueroa Cordero was released from prison earlier because of ill health. Governor of Puerto Rico Carlos Romero Barceló publicly opposed the pardons granted by Carter, stating that it would encourage terrorism and undermine public safety. Cancel Miranda and the other Nationalists received a hero's welcome by the different independence groups upon their return to their motherland.[19]

President Carter also commuted the sentence of fellow nationalist Oscar Collazo, to time served on September 6, 1979, after spending 29 years in jail. Collazo had been eligible for parole since April 1966, and Lebrón since July 1969. Both Cancel Miranda and Flores Rodríguez became eligible for parole in July 1979. However, none had applied for parole because of their political beliefs.[20]

Later years

External audio
A speech in Spanish by Rafael Cancel Miranda on YouTube

Cancel Miranda authored seven books and remains active in the struggle for Puerto Rican independence. He continues to carry the cause of freedom to other countries, and returns occasionally to the United States on speaking tours on behalf of Puerto Rican political prisoners. In 2006, he was awarded the José Martí Order by the Cuban government for his work. It is the highest honor Cuba accords to non-Cubans.[18] In 1979. at the International Conference in Support of Independence for Puerto Rico, held in Mexico City, Cancel Miranda. Irvin Flores Rodríguez, Lolita Lebrón and Oscar Collazo before representatives of some fifty-one countries they were seen as the embodiment of the directive of their teacher Albizu Campos to exercise valor and sacrifice.[1]

A musical production of his poetry, "Por Las Calles de Mi Patria," has been enthusiastically received in Puerto Rico and in the United States. The poems are those he had sent to his father while in prison. He had thought them lost, and was surprised to find them published by his father. The musical production is dedicated to those active in the struggle for freedom.[1]

Oscar López Rivera founded the Rafael Cancel Miranda High School in Chicago, in his honor. The school is now known as the Dr. Pedro Albizu Campos High School and the Juan Antonio Corretjer Puerto Rican Cultural Center.[21]

Further reading

  • "Puerto Rico: Independence Is a Necessity"; by: Rafael Cancel Miranda (Author); Publisher: Pathfinder Press (NY); Booklet edition (February 1, 2001); ISBN 978-0-87348-895-2
  • "Commemorate el grito de Lares with Rafael Cancel Miranda"; by: Puerto Rican socialist party (Author); ASIN: B0041V1C6U
  • "Sembrando Patria...Y Verdades"; by: Rafael Cancel Miranda (Author); Publisher: Cuarto Idearo (January 1, 1998); ASIN: B001CK17D6
  • "Testimonio: Los indómitos [Paperback]"; by: Antonio Gil de Lamadrid Navarro (Author); Publisher: Editorial Edil,
  • "War Against All Puerto Ricans: Revolution and Terror in America’s Colony"; Author: Nelson Antonio Denis; Publisher: Nation Books (April 7, 2015); ISBN 978-1568585017.

See also


Notes

  1. ^
  2. ^ Note: The "hole" is a punishment or special form of imprisonment in which a prisoner is denied contact with any other persons, though often with the exception of members of prison staff.

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Voices
  2. ^ a b
  3. ^ a b Insular Police Retrieved July 9, 2009.
  4. ^ Gov. Winship Responsible for the Massacre Retrieved July 9, 2009.
  5. ^ Biggest Massacre in Puerto Rican History Retrieved July 9, 2009.
  6. ^ a b c d e f "We Came Out Of Prison Standing, Not On Our Knees" – Rafael Cancel Miranda on his political activity in jail and the campaign for his freedom. BY MARTÍN KOPPEL, ROLLANDE GIRARD, AND JACOB PERASSO
  7. ^ Eustaquio Correa
  8. ^ a b c d e "I was expelled by Batista regime, embraced by Cuban revolutionaries"
  9. ^ Puerto Rico By Kurt Pitzer, Tara Stevens, page 224, Published by Hunter Publishing, Inc, 2001, ISBN 1-58843-116-9, ISBN 978-1-58843-116-5
  10. ^ a b c Ribes Tovar et al., p.132
  11. ^ Ribes Tovar et al., p.178
  12. ^ Guide to the Ruth M. Reynolds Papers 1915-1989
  13. ^ Ribes Tovar et al., p.186
  14. ^ Ribes Tovar et al., p.188
  15. ^ Ribes Tovar et al., p.193–194
  16. ^ Ribes Tovar et al., p.197
  17. ^ Ribes Tovar et al., p.209
  18. ^ a b c d e "Former Alcatraz inmate speaks about his time", Examiner San Francisco, by: D. Morita; October 9, 2009
  19. ^ a b
  20. ^ Jimmy Carter: Puerto Rican Nationalists Announcement of the President's Commutation of Sentences
  21. ^ Rosales, Francisco. Dictionary of Latino Civil Rights History. Arte Publico Press, 2006. ISBN 1-55885-347-2. P.159
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