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Soyuz 36

Soyuz 36
Mission duration 65 days, 20 hours, 54 minutes, 23 seconds
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft type Soyuz 7K-T
Manufacturer NPO Energia
Launch mass 6,800 kilograms (15,000 lb)
Crew size 2
Launching Valery Kubasov
Bertalan Farkas
Landing Viktor Gorbatko
Pham Tuân
Callsign Орион (Orion - "Orion")
Start of mission
Launch date 26 May 1980, 18:20:39 (1980-05-26T18:20:39Z) UTC
Rocket Soyuz-U
Launch site Baikonur 31/6
End of mission
Landing date Did not recognize date. Try slightly modifying the date in the first parameter. UTC
Landing site 140 kilometres (87 mi) SE of Dzhezkazgan
Orbital parameters
Reference system Geocentric
Regime Low Earth
Perigee 197.5 kilometres (122.7 mi)
Apogee 281.9 kilometres (175.2 mi)
Inclination 51.62 degrees
Period 89.0 minutes
Docking with Salyut 6

Soyuz programme
(Manned missions)
← Soyuz 35 Soyuz T-2

Soyuz 36 (Russian: Союз 36, Union 36) was a 1980 Soviet manned space flight to the Salyut 6 space station. It was the 11th mission to and ninth successful docking at the orbiting facility. The Soyuz 36 crew were the first to visit the long-duration Soyuz 35 resident crew.[1]

Soyuz 36 carried Valery Kubasov and Bertalan Farkas, the first Hungarian cosmonaut, into space. They swapped Soyuz craft with the long-duration crew and returned to earth in Soyuz 35; a later crew used their craft to return to Earth.


  • Crew 1
    • Backup crew 1.1
  • Mission parameters 2
  • Mission highlights 3
  • References 4


Position Launching crew Landing crew
Commander Valery Kubasov
Third spaceflight
 Soviet Union
Viktor Gorbatko
Third spaceflight
 Soviet Union
Research Cosmonaut Bertalan Farkas
First spaceflight
Pham Tuân
First spaceflight

Backup crew

Position Crew
Commander Vladimir Dzhanibekov
 Soviet Union
Research Cosmonaut Béla Magyari

Mission parameters

  • Mass: 6,800 kg (15,000 lb)
  • Perigee: 197.5 km (122.7 mi)
  • Apogee: 281.9 km (175.2 mi)
  • Inclination: 51.62°
  • Period: 89.0 minutes

Mission highlights

Soyuz 36 was launched on 26 May 1980 with Valery Kubasov and Hungarian cosmonaut Bertalan Farkas, headed to the Salyut 6 space station where Leonid Popov and Valery Ryumin, launched aboard Soyuz 35, were resident.[2] The flight was originally scheduled for 5 June 1979, but was cancelled due to the Soyuz 33 failure.[3] They successfully docked at the aft port the day after launching.[3] The flight was the fifth Intercosmos flight whereby guest cosmonauts from Soviet allied nations would visit the space station, typically for about a week. The flight was only the second time a Soviet mission had a civilian commander.[2]

Upon boarding, the visiting crew carried out Hungarian experiments, so many that the visiting crew sometimes only got three hours of sleep.[3] One experiment was Pille, which measured radiation doses received by the crew with miniature thermoluminescent devices attached to their clothing and to the walls of the station. Another three experiments studied the formation of interferon in human cells under weightless conditions.[2] Earth resources work using the on-board cameras were carried out, in coordination with ground crews, airplanes and helicopters.[3]

Farkas was said by the Hungarian press to have adjusted far quicker than Kubasov to the weightless conditions.[2]

The Soyuz craft was used to boost the station's orbit on 29 May, then Kubasov and Farkas swapped Soyuz craft with the long-duration crew, exchanging seat liners, pressure suits and personal items, before departing the station in Soyuz 35 on 3 June and landed 140 km southeast of Dzhezkazgan.[3] The Soyuz 36 spacecraft was later used to return the crew of Soyuz 37 to earth.[2]


  1. ^ The mission report is available here:
  2. ^ a b c d e Clark, Phillip (1988). The Soviet Manned Space Program. New York: Orion Books, a division of Crown Publishers, Inc. pp. 119–120.  
  3. ^ a b c d e Newkirk, Dennis (1990). Almanac of Soviet Manned Space Flight. Houston, Texas: Gulf Publishing Company. pp. 211–212.  
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