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Trencsén

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Trencsén

Trenčín
City
Trenčín Castle
Coat of arms
Country Slovakia
Region Trenčín
District Trenčín
Tourism region Považie
River Váh
Elevation 211 m (692 ft)
Coordinates 53|31|N|18|02|12|E|type:city(56365)_region:SK name=

}}

Area 81.996 km2 (31.66 sq mi)
Population 56,365 (2009-01-01)
Density 687 / km2 (1,779 / sq mi)
First mentioned circa 150
Mayor Richard Rybníček (Independent)
Timezone CET (UTC+1)
 - summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 91101
Area code +421-32
Car plate TN, TC, TE
Location in Slovakia
Location in Slovakia
Location in the Trenčín Region
Location in the Trenčín Region
Commons: Trenčín
Statistics: MOŠ/MIS
Website: www.trencin.sk

Trenčín (Slovak pronunciation: [ˈtrɛntʃiːn]; German: Trentschin; Hungarian: Trencsén) is a city in western Slovakia of the central Váh River valley near the Czech border, around 120 km (75 mi) from Bratislava. It has a population of more than 56,000, which makes it the ninth largest municipality of the country and is the seat of the Trenčín Region and the Trenčín District. It has a medieval castle, situated on a rock above the city.

Names

Trenčín was first mentioned under the Greek name Leukaristos (Λεθκαριστοσ), depicted on the Ptolemy world map around 150 CE. During the course of the Marcomannic Wars between the Roman Empire and Germanic Quadi, the Romans carved an inscription on the rock under the present-day castle in 179 CE and the place was mentioned as Laugaricio. It is the northernmost known presence of the Romans in Central Europe.

The first written mentions in the Middle Ages are from 1111 (as Treinchen) and 1113 (adjective Trenciniensis). The German and Hungarian forms are Trentschin and Trencsén, respectively.

History

The site of Trenčín has been inhabited since time immemorial. Trenčín Castle, a typical medieval fortified castle is situated high on a rock above the city.

Trenčín is best known for a Roman inscription on the rock below the Trenčín Castle dating from 179 AD, the era of the Marcomannic Wars, a series of wars between the Roman Empire and the Germanic Quadi. It denotes the site as Laugaricio and is the most northern evidence of the presence of Roman soldiers in central Europe.

Trenčín is one of the suggested locations for the capital of Samo's Empire in the 7th century. Wogastisburg (Vogast castle) was probably located somewhere on the Vah (Vogas) river and was also the site of a decisive battle between the Slavic and Frankish armies in 631.

It is plausible that Trenčín Castle was founded during the Great Moravian era. In the beginning of the 11th century, the region was controlled by king Bolesław I the Brave of Poland. In 1017, Stephen I of Hungary conquered the region which remained part of Hungary until 1918. By the end of the 11th century, the castle became the administrative centre of Trencsén county in the Kingdom of Hungary. As one of the few stone castles in the country it resisted the disastrous invasion of Mongols in 1241. In 1263 Trenčín was in the possession of Jakab Cseszneky royal swordbearer, but in 1302 King Wenceslas I took it away from the Cseszneky brothers because they were supporting his rival Charles Robert, and donated it to Matthew Csák. Between 1302 and 1321 the castle was the seat of the powerful magnate Matthew Csák who controlled most of what is now present-day Slovakia. Challenging the authority of king Charles Robert, Matthew Csák maintained a large court and pursued his own foreign policy. The Treaty of Trentschin between Bohemia, Hungary, and Poland was signed in the city in 1335.

Trenčín gained a number of privileges during the Middle Ages: In 1324 the inhabitants were freed from paying tolls and the city received free royal town privileges in 1412 from King Sigismund. However during the following decades and centuries there were catastrophes and wars which lasted until the end of the 18th century. During the conflict between the Habsburgs and the supporters of the rival king, János Szapolyai, the town was captured in 1528 by imperial troops. In the 17th century the Ottomans were another threat from the south but they failed to conquer the city. The town then suffered from the Kuruc uprising against the Habsburgs and on 3 August 1708 the Battle of Trenčín took place close to the city. Two years later a plague killed 1,600 inhabitants of the city. Finally, in 1790 the town, along with the castle, was burned down and the castle has been in ruins ever since.

In the 19th century Trenčín flourished, as the railways to Žilina and Bratislava were built and many new enterprises were established, particularly in the textile, food and machine industries.

The town became the hub of the middle Považie (Váh) region.

In 1867 Trenčín was downgraded from a "free royal town" to a "town with municipal government" and came under the direct control of the chief of Trenčín county.

Trenčín flourished again during the era of the first Czechoslovak republic and became the capital of the Trenčín county again between 1940–1945 when the puppet Slovak Republic was in existence.

Shortly after the Slovak National Uprising began, Trenčín was occupied by Nazi Germany and it became the headquarters of the Sicherheitsdienst and the Gestapo, and a prison camp was placed there.

Trenčín was captured by the Soviet troops on 10 April 1945, after a bloody battle.

Since 1990, the historical centre of the city has been largely restored and since 1996 it has been the seat of Trenčín Region and Trenčín District. The castle and its Roman inscription have attracted tourism since.

Geography

Trenčín lies at an altitude of 262 metres (860 ft) above sea level and covers an area of 82.0 square kilometres (31.7 sq mi).[1] It lies in the Trenčín Basin of north-western Slovakia, which is surrounded by the Strážov Mountains, Považský Inovec and White Carpathians, with the last mentioned being a protected area. The Váh River flows in the north-south axis.

Climate

Trenčín lies in the north temperate zone and has a continental climate with four distinct seasons. It is characterized by a significant variation between hot summers and cold, snowy winters.

Climate data for Trenčín
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 2
(35)
4
(40)
10
(49)
16
(60)
21
(70)
24
(75)
26
(79)
26
(79)
21
(70)
15
(59)
7
(45)
3
(37)
14.6
(58.2)
Average low °C (°F) −4
(25)
−3
(26)
0
(33)
4
(40)
9
(49)
12
(54)
14
(56)
14
(57)
10
(50)
6
(43)
2
(35)
−2
(28)
5.2
(41.3)
Precipitation cm (inches) 1.78
(0.70)
2.11
(0.83)
2.15
(0.85)
3.15
(1.24)
3.83
(1.51)
4.90
(1.93)
4.83
(1.90)
3.53
(1.39)
4.05
(1.59)
2.89
(1.14)
3.09
(1.22)
2.85
(1.12)
39.16
(15.42)
Source: MSN Weather[2]

Tourism and sights


The city is dominated by Trenčín Castle, which is the third-largest castle in Slovakia. Trenčín Castle is divided into upper and lower sections, with extensive fortifications. The upper castle has several palace buildings which surround the central medieval tower, which remains the highest point of the city. Below the castle, on the hillside, is the old parish church and a small upper square which is reached by historic covered stairs as well as by winding side streets. The old town has a large main square, with a large baroque church and a variety of shops, as well as a town tower.

Pohoda, the most visited music festival in Slovakia,[3] has been organized in Trenčín since 1997. As of 2008, it takes place at the Trenčín Airport.

Demographics

In 2005 the city had a population of 56,750. In 2009 Trenčín had a population of 60,012. The population density was 692/km². According to the 2001 census the religious makeup was: 65.8% Roman Catholics, 22.3% people with no religious affiliation, and 7.1% Lutherans. 95.3% inhabitants were Slovaks and 2.4% Czechs.[4]

Sport

Football (soccer) club FK AS Trenčín plays in the Slovak First League (season 2011/2012). The ice hockey club HC Dukla Trenčín plays in the Slovak Extraliga and is a four-time winner of the domestic league. Trenčín is the hometown of professional ice hockey players: Columbus Blue Jackets forward Marian Gaborik, Boston Bruins defenceman Zdeno Chara, and Chicago Blackhawks forward Marian Hossa, all playing in the National Hockey League of North America, and in soccer, Liverpool defender Martin Skrtel.

The Stanley Cup appearances in Trenčín

The North American "top-level" professional ice hockey championship trophy, the Stanley Cup, was brought to Trenčín in four consecutive years from 2008 to 2011 by these individuals:

  1. 2008 – forward Tomáš Kopecký celebrated with Stanley Cup after the victory of the Detroit Red Wings over the Pittsburgh Penguins. Kopecký was born in Ilava, about 15 miles (24 kilometres) from Trenčín. Another memorable fact is that it came after the first Stanley Cup final round played by Trenciner Marián Hossa who lost this year with Pittsburgh Penguins.
  2. 2009 – forward Miroslav Šatan won the cup with the Pittsburgh Penguins. He played for HC Dukla Trenčín from 1992 to 1994. This celebration came after the second Stanley Cup final round played by Marián Hossa. Hossa who now played with the Red Wings lost against his former team from Pittsburgh.
  3. 2010 – right winger Marián Hossa who played in HC Dukla Trenčín in the 1996–1997 season finally won the cup with the Chicago Blackhawks. In Trenčín he celebrated together with Tomáš Kopecký who won the trophy for his second time. It was after both players transeferred from Detroit to Chicago. As far as Marián Hossa's relationship to Trenčín – though he was not born in Trenčín, he grew up and lived in the town almost his whole life until he was drafted into the NHL.
  4. 2011 – defense man and the team captain of the Boston Bruins Zdeno Chára won the trophy when the Bruins defeated Vancouver Canucks. Zdeno Chára was born in Trenčín and had lived there his whole life until he was drafted into the NHL.
  5. 2013 – in shortended season 2012/2013 Marián Hossa won the cup again with the Chicago Blackhawks; together with another Slovak team-mate Michal Handzuš who brought the cup to his hometown Banská Bystrica.

Education

Trenčín is home to the public Alexander Dubček University with 7,140 students, including 110 doctoral students,[5] and the private College of Management in Trenčín with 1,275 students.[6] The city's system of primary education consists of nine public schools and one religious primary school, enrolling 4,623 pupils overall.[7] Secondary education is represented by five gymnasia with 1,974 students,[8] 5 specialized high schools with 1,892 students,[9] and 6 vocational schools with 3,975 students.[10][11]

Transport

Trenčín lies near the main Slovak motorway and is an important stop on the main railway line from Bratislava to Žilina and Košice. Roads from the city also lead into the Czech Republic and Prievidza/Nitra. Railway tracks from the aforementioned cities end in Trenčín.Trenčín has also an airport.

Territorial division

Trenčín is divided into four main boroughs:

  • Stred (center):Staré mesto (old town), Dolné mesto (lower town), Dlhé Hony, Noviny, Biskupice
  • Juh (south):Juh I-III
  • Sever (north):Sihoť I-IV, Opatová nad Váhom, Pod Sokolice, Kubrá, Kubrica
  • Západ (west):Zámostie, Kvetná, Istebník, Orechové, Zlatovce, Nové Zlatovce, Záblatie

International relations

Twin towns – Sister cities

Trenčín is twinned with:

See also

Gallery

References

External links

  • Official city website
  • Trenčín information
  • Satellite picture of the Trenčín Castle

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