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Upland Yuman language

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Title: Upland Yuman language  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Voiceless dental fricative, Havasupai dialect, Havasupai people, Tonto Apache people, Yuman–Cochimí languages, Yavapai language, Paipai people, Paipai language, Yavapai people
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Upland Yuman language

Upland Yuman
Region Arizona, USA
Ethnicity 565 Havasupai, 1,872 Walapai
Native speakers
1,500  (2007)[1]
  • Core Yuman
    • Pai
      • Havasupai–Hualapai
Language codes
ISO 639-3 yuf
Glottolog hava1248[2]

Havasupai–Hualapai (Havasupai–Walapai) is the Native American language spoken by the Hualapai (Walapai) and Havasupai peoples of northwestern Arizona. It is closely related to the Yavapai language.

Havasupai–Hualapai belongs to the Pai branch of the Yuman language family, together with Yavapai and Paipai, which is spoken in northern Baja California. The two groups have separate sociopolitical identities, but a consensus among linguists is that the differences in speech among them lie only at the dialect level, rather than constituting separate languages (Campbell 1997:127; Goddard 1996:7; Kendall 1983:5-7; Mithun 1999:577-578). The Havasupai and Hualapai report that they speak the same language, and indeed the differences between their dialects have been reported as "negligible" (Kozlowski 1976:140).

For a bibliography of texts, grammars, and dictionaries that document the language, see Langdon 1996.


  • Campbell, Lyle. (1997). American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America. Oxford University Press.
  • Goddard, Ives. (1996). "Introduction". In Languages, edited by Ives Goddard, pp. 1–16. Handbook of North American Indians, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, Vol. 17. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
  • Kendall, Martha B. (1983). "Yuman languages". In Southwest, edited by Alfonso Ortiz, pp. 4–12. Handbook of North American Indians, William C. Sturtevant, general editor, Vol. 10. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.
  • Langdon, Margaret. (1996). "Bibliography of the Yuman languages". Survey of California and Other Indian Languages 9:135-159.
  • Mithun, Marianne. (1999). The Languages of Native North America. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Kozlowski, Edwin. (1976). "Remarks on Havasupai phonology". In International Journal of American Linguistics, pp. 140–149. Vol. 42, No. 2.
  • Watahomigie, Lucille J., Jorigine Bender, Philbert Watahomigie, Sr. and Akira Y. Yamamoto with Elnor Mapatis, Malinda Powskey and Josie Steele. (2001). Hualapai Reference Grammar. (ELPR Publications A2-003). Kyoto, Japan: Endangered Languages of the Pacific Rim Project.
  • Watahomigie, Lucille J., Jorigine Bender, Malinda Powskey, Josie Steele, Philbert Watahomigie, Sr. and Akira Y. Yamamoto. (2003). A Dictionary of the Hualapai Language. (ELPR Publications A2-041). Kyoto, Japan: Endangered Languages of the Pacific Rim Project.


  1. ^ Havasupai–Hualapai at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Nordhoff, Sebastian; Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2013). "Havasupai-Walapai-Yavapai". Glottolog 2.2. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. 
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