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Title: Viscus  
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Subject: Dinosaur, Pain, Temporomandibular joint dysfunction, Chronic pain, Organ (anatomy), Disembowelment, Somatic, Flesh, Insular cortex, American Head Charge
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Not to be confused with viscous.
"Viscera" and "Visceral" redirect here. For other uses, see Viscera (disambiguation). For the game studio, see Visceral Games.

In anatomy, a viscus /ˈvɪskəs/ is an internal organ, and viscera is the plural form.[1][2] The viscera, when removed from a butchered animal, are known collectively as offal. Internal organs are also known as "guts" (which may also refer to the gastrointestinal tract), or more formally, "innards".

The adjective visceral, also splanchnic,[3] is used for anything pertaining to the internal organs. Historically, viscera of animals were examined by Roman pagan priests like the haruspices or the augurs in order to divine the future by their shape, dimensions or other factors. This practice remains an important ritual in some remote, tribal societies.

The term "visceral" is contrasted with the term "parietal", meaning "of or relating to the wall of a body part, organ or cavity".[4] The two terms are often used in describing a membrane or piece of connective tissue, referring to the opposing sides.

Human viscera


Pelvis and perineum


The viscera are mainly innervated parasympathetically by the vagus nerve and sympathetically by the splanchnic nerves. The sensory part of the latter reaches the spinal column at certain spinal segments. Pain in any viscera is perceived as referred pain, more specifically pain from the dermatome corresponding to the spinal segment.[5]

Viscus Nerves [6] Origin in spinal column[6]
stomach T6, T7, T8, T9 and, sometimes, T10
duodenum T5, T6, T7, T8, T9 and, sometimes, T10
pancreatic head T8, T9
jejunum and ileum T5, T6, T7, T8, T9
spleen T6, T7, T8
vermiform appendix T10
gallbladder and liver T6, T7, T8, T9
kidneys and ureters T11, T12

See also


Template:System and organs

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