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1914 In Aviation

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1914 In Aviation

Years in aviation: 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917
Centuries: 19th century · 20th century · 21st century
Decades: 1880s 1890s 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s
Years: 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917

This is a list of aviation-related events from 1914.

The outbreak of World War I accelerates all aspects of aviation which in turn changes war in a twofold way. The aeroplane turns the sky into a new battlefield and eliminates the distinction between frontline and hinterland, with the civilian population far behind the frontline also becoming a target. The war results in the deaths of approximately 20,000 flyers, most of them trained pilots.

Contents

  • Events 1
    • January 1.1
    • February 1.2
    • April 1.3
    • May 1.4
    • June 1.5
    • July 1.6
    • August 1.7
    • September 1.8
    • October 1.9
    • November 1.10
    • December 1.11
  • First flights 2
    • January 2.1
    • February 2.2
    • June 2.3
    • July 2.4
  • Entered service 3
  • Retirements 4
    • May 4.1
  • Notes 5
  • References 6

Events

January

February

  • The Sikorsky Ilya Muromets sets a load-to-altitude record, lifting 16 people to 2,000 metres (6,562 ft).
  • 1 February – The Aero Club of America announces plans to sponsor an around-the-world airplane race.[7]
  • 8–10 February – Berliner, Haase and Nikolai fly 3,053 km (1,896 statute miles) in their free balloon from Bitterfeld to Perm. This record stands until 1950.[8]

April

May

June

July

August

A German dirigible hovering over a British fleet.
  • Imperial German Navy Rear Admiral Paul Behncke, Chief of the Naval Staff, urges that the navy‍ '​s Zeppelins begin attacks on London, arguing that Zeppelin attacks "may be expected, whether they involve London or the neighborhood of London, to cause panic in the population which may possibly render it doubtful that the war may be continued."[21]
  • 1 August – Germany and Russia enter World War I with Germany‍ '​s declaration of war on Russia.
  • 3 August
    • France and Belgium enter World War I when Germany invades Belgium and declares war on France.
    • The Imperial German Navy leases the cargo-passenger ship Answald for conversion into Germany‍ '​s first seaplane carrier, SMS Answald, designated Flugzeugmutterschiff I (Airplane Mothership I).[22]
  • 4 August – The United Kingdom enters World War I, declaring war on Germany. At the time, the Royal Naval Air Service has 52 seaplanes, of which only 26 are serviceable, with 46 more on order.[23]
  • 5 August – It was decreed that all Dutch military aircraft would display an Orange disc on each side of the fuselage and on the upper and lower surfaces of the wings.
  • 6 August – The first airship lost in combat is the Imperial German Army Zeppelin Z VI. Badly damaged by artillery and infantry gunfire on her first combat mission while bombing Liège, Belgium, at low altitude, she limps back into Germany and is wrecked in a crash-landing in a forest near Bonn.[24]
  • 8 August – A French aerial observer is injured by small-arms fire, becoming that nation's first air casualty in a war.
  • 9–10 August – Conducting a reconnaissance mission, the French dirigible Fleurus becomes the first Allied aircraft to fly over Germany during World War I.[25]
  • 12 August – Lieutenant Robin R. Skene and mechanic R. Barlow crash their Blériot monoplane on the way to Dover, becoming the first members of the Royal Flying Corps to die on active duty.
  • 13 August – Twelve Royal Aircraft Factory B.E.2 observation aircraft from No. 2 Squadron, Royal Flying Corps, flying from Dover, become the first British aircraft to arrive in France for the war.
  • 14 August – The first true bomber, the French Voisin III, is used in combat for the first time in an attack on German airship hangars at Metz-Frascaty, Germany.[26]
  • 17 August – The Imperial Japanese Navy's first aviation ship, Wakamiya, is recommissioned as a seaplane carrier.[27][28][29]
  • 21 August – Two Imperial Germany Army Zeppelins on their first combat missions become the second and third airships lost in combat after being damaged by French infantry and artillery fire during low-altitude missions in the Vosges mountains. Z VII limps back into Germany to crash near St. Quirin in Lothringen, while Z VIII crash-lands in Badonvillers Forest near Badonvillers, France, where French cavalry drives off her crew and loots her.[30][31] The loss of three airships on their first combat missions in August sours the German Army on the further combat use of airships.
  • 22 August
    • An Avro 504 of the Royal Flying Corps‍ '​s No. 5 Squadron on patrol over Belgium is shot down by German rifle fire, the first British aircraft ever to be destroyed in action.[32]
    • An early attempt to get a Lewis gun into action in air-to-air combat fails when a Royal Flying Corps Farman armed with one scrambles to intercept a German Albatros and takes 30 minutes to climb to 1,000 feet (305 meters) because of the gun's weight. On landing, the pilot is ordered to remove the Lewis gun and carry a rifle on future missions.[33]
  • 23 August – Japan enters World War I, declaring war on Germany.
  • 25 August – Flying a Morane-Saulnier Type G monoplane, Imperial Russian Army pilot Pyotr N. Nesterov becomes the first pilot to down an enemy aircraft in aerial combat. After firing unsuccessfully with a pistol at an Austro-Hungarian Albatros B.II crewed by Franz Malina (pilot) and Baron Friederich von Rosenthal (observer), Nesterov rams the Albatros.[34][35] Both aircraft crash, killing all three men.
  • 27 August – The Royal Naval Air Service‍ '​s famed Eastchurch Squadron arrives in France for World War I service, commanded by Wing Commander Charles Samson.[36]
  • 30 August – Paris is bombed by a German aircraft for the first time - by an Etrich Taube flown by Lt Ferdinand von Hiddessen.

September

  • Early September – In a memorandum, First Sea Lord Winston Churchill establishes the policy for the air defense of the United Kingdom. He calls for the use of antiaircraft artillery and searchlights around likely targets; the deployment of aircraft forward in Europe to attack all Zeppelin and other enemy air bases within reach; the interception of enemy aircraft between Dover and London by British aircraft, coordinated by telephone and telegraph; the basing of aircraft at Hendon specifically for the defense of London, with their crews specifically trained and equipped for night-fighting and their operations also coordinated by telephone; a blackout in major cities; and warning the public of the dangers of air attack, precautions against it, and how to take shelter when under air attack.[37]
  • 1 September – The Imperial Japanese Navy seaplane carrier Wakamiya arrives off Kiaochow Bay, China, to participate in operations during the Siege of Tsingtao. It is the first combat deployment of an aviation ship by any country.[38][39]
  • 5 September – During the Siege of Tsingtao, the Imperial Japanese Navy carries out its first air combat mission. A three-seat Farman seaplane from the Wakamiya bombs German fortifications at Tsingtao, China, and conducts a reconnaissance of Kiaochow Bay.[40]
  • 16 September – The Canadian Aviation Corps is formed.
  • 22 September – In the first British air raid against Germany in history, Royal Naval Air Service BE.2 aircraft of No. 3 Squadron based at Antwerp, Belgium, attack German airship hangars at Cologne and Düsseldorf, Germany, but fail to inflict damage due to bad weather and the failure of bombs to explode.[19][41]
  • 27 September – The first French bomber group is formed.
  • 28 September – The first report by British observers of German military aircraft using of the wartime Eisernes Kreuz national markings.
  • 30 September –
    • The Wakamiya is damaged by a naval mine and forced to retire from the Siege of Tsingtao, ending the first combat deployment of an aviation ship in history.[38][39]
    • The two America prototypes prepared for the Daily Mail sponsored transatlantic constest in August are shipped to the United Kingdom aboard RMS Mauretania for the Royal Naval Air Service, spawning a fleet of aircraft which saw extensive military service during World War I,[42] developed extensively in the process for anti-submarine patrol craft and air-sea rescue.

October

November

  • The first Imperial German Navy shipboard air operations take place, when the armored cruiser Friedrich Karl embarks two seaplanes with which to scout Russian ports in the Baltic Sea. One is still aboard when Friedrich Karl strikes a mine and sinks on 17 November.[44]
  • 1 November – The Ottoman Empire enters World War I when Russia declares war on it.
  • 18 November – The Secretary of State for the German Navy, Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, advocating massed Zeppelin attacks on London, writes, "The English are now in terror of the Zeppelin, perhaps not without reason...[S]ingle bombs from flying machines are wrong; they are odious when they hit and kill old women, and one gets used to them. If [however] one could set fire to London in thirty places, then what in a small way is odious would retire before something fine and powerful."[45][46]
  • 21 November – Three Royal Naval Air Service Avro 504s based at Belfort, France, conduct history‍ '​s first long-range strategic bombing raid, attacking German airship sheds on the shore of Lake Constance at Friederichshafen. Carrying four 20-lb (9-kg) bombs each, they cause a gas works to explode and badly damage a dirigible, losing one aircraft shot down.[19][47]
  • 27 November – The first air-sea battle in history occurs when Imperial Japanese Navy Farman seaplanes make an unsuccessful attempt to bomb German and Austro-Hungarian ships in Kiaochow Bay during the Siege of Tsingtao.[39]

December

  • Upon the conclusion of the Siege of Tsingtao, the Wakamiya returns Japanese naval seaplanes deployed at Tsingtao to Japan. The Japanese naval air arm sees no further combat during World War I.[48]
  • 10 December – HMS Ark Royal is completed. She is the first ship with an internal hangar enclosed by her hull, and the first with specially designed internal spaces to accommodate aviation fuel, lubricants, ordnance, and spares and machinery required for aircraft maintenance.[10]
  • 14 December – A Royal Naval Air Service Avro 504 of the Eastchurch Squadron drops four 16-lb (7.25-kg) bombs on the Ostend-Bruges railway in Belgium.[47]
  • 16 December – SMS Glyndwr is the first Imperial German Navy aviation ship to be commissioned. She serves initially as a seaplane pilot training ship.[49]
  • 21 December
  • 25 December – HMS Empress, HMS Engadine, and HMS Riviera launch a seaplane attack on the Zeppelin sheds at Nordholz Airbase. It is the first attempt in history to exert sea power on land by means of the air.[19] Fog prevents the aircraft from reaching their target, and only three of the nine aircraft find their way back to their mother ships.

First flights

January

February

June

July

Entered service

Retirements

May

Notes

  1. ^ a b Layman 1989, p. 13.
  2. ^ Chant, Chris 2000, p. 48.
  3. ^ Peattie 2001, p. 23.
  4. ^ Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, p. 37.
  5. ^ a b Thetford, Owen, British Naval Aircraft Since 1912, Sixth Edition, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1991, ISBN 1-55750-076-2, p. 10.
  6. ^ Daniel, Clifton, ed., Chronicle of the 20th Century, Mount Kisco, New York: Chronicle Publications, 1987, ISBN 0-942191-01-3, p. 179.
  7. ^ Daniel, Clifton, ed., Chronicle of the 20th Century, Mount Kisco, New York: Chronicle Publications, 1987, ISBN 0-942191-01-3, p. 180.
  8. ^ "Balloon Distance Record: German Pilot Berliner Reached A Point In The Ural Mountains". The New York Times (February 17, 1914). Retrieved 20 May 2015. 
  9. ^ Swanborough, Gordon, and Peter M. Bowers, United States Navy Aircraft Since 1911, Second Edition, London: Putnam, 1976, ISBN 0-370-10054-9, p. 2.
  10. ^ a b Layman 1989, p. 45.
  11. ^ a b Layman 1989, p. 17.
  12. ^ Phythyon, John R., Jr., Great War at Sea: Zeppelins, Virginia Beach, Virginia: Avalanche Press, Inc., 2007, p. 44.
  13. ^ Daniel, Clifton, ed., Chronicle of the 20th Century, Mount Kisco, New York: Chronicle Publications, 1987, ISBN 0-942191-01-3, p. 140.
  14. ^ Layman 1989, p. 112.
  15. ^ Skytamer, accessed August 21, 2010
  16. ^ New York Times, July 13, 1914, p. 3
  17. ^ (London) 13 July 1914.The Daily Telegraph
  18. ^ Maurer, Maurer, ed. (1983) [1961]. Air Force Combat Units of World War II (PDF) (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. p. 2.  
  19. ^ a b c d e f Sturtivant, Ray, British Naval Aviation: The Fleet Air Arm, 1917-1990, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990, ISBN 0-87021-026-2, p. 215.
  20. ^ Chant, Chris 2000, p. 13.
  21. ^ Murray, Williamson, Strategy for Defeat: The Luftwaffe 1933-1945, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama: Air University Press, 1983, no ISBN number, pp. 3-4.
  22. ^ Layman 1989, p. 22-23.
  23. ^ Whitehouse Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN number, p. 50.
  24. ^ [3]Lehman, Ernst A., Captain, and Howard Mingos, The Zeppelins: The Development of the Airship, with the Story of the Zeppelins Air Raids in the World War, Kingsport, Tennessee: Kingsport Press, 1927, Chapter I (online). Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN number, p. 48, states that Z VI, which he identifies as L 6, had attacked the French "garrison town" of "Lutetia outside Paris" when she suffered her fatal damage.
  25. ^ , Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama: Air University Press, 2003, p. 12.One Hundred Years of Flight: USAF Chronology of Significant Air and Space Events 1903-2002Haulman, Daniel L.,
  26. ^ Crosby 2006, p. 262.
  27. ^ Peattie 2001, p. 5.
  28. ^ Gardiner, Robert, ed., Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships 1906-1921, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1985, ISBN 0-87021-907-3, p. 240.
  29. ^ Layman 1989, p. 87.
  30. ^ [4] Lehman, Ernst A., Captain, and Howard Mingos, The Zeppelins: The Development of the Airship, with the Story of the Zeppelins Air Raids in the World War, Kingsport, Tennessee: Kingsport Press, 1927, Chapter I (online).
  31. ^ Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN number, p. 48.
  32. ^ Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 978-0-7607-0592-6, p. 76.
  33. ^ Crosby 2006, p. 17.
  34. ^ Guttman, p. 9.
  35. ^ Hardesty, Von, Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941-1945, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87474-510-1, p. 27.
  36. ^ Thetford, Owen, British Naval Aircraft Since 1912, Sixth Edition, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1991, ISBN 1-55750-076-2, p. 31.
  37. ^ Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York: Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN number, pp. 67-68.
  38. ^ a b Peattie 2001, p. 7.
  39. ^ a b c d Layman 1989, p. 85.
  40. ^ Peattie 2001, p. 8.
  41. ^ Crosby 2006, p. 264.
  42. ^ "Amsterdam Evening Recorder". 30 September 1914. p. 3. 
  43. ^ Peattie 2001, p. 8-9.
  44. ^ Layman 1989, p. 22.
  45. ^ Murray, Williamson, Strategy for Defeat: The Luftwaffe 1933-1945, Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama: Air University Press, 1983, no ISBN number, p. 4.
  46. ^ Whitehouse, Arch, The Zeppelin Fighters, New York:Ace Books, 1966, no ISBN number, p. 49.
  47. ^ a b Thetford, Owen, British Naval Aircraft Since 1912, Sixth Edition, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1991, ISBN 1-55750-076-2, p. 32.
  48. ^ Layman 1989, p. 86-7.
  49. ^ Layman 1989, p. 24.
  50. ^ a b Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 0-7607-0592-5, p. 73.
  51. ^ Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 0-7607-0592-5, p. 75.

References

  • Chant, Chris, The World's Great Bombers, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 2000, ISBN 0-7607-2012-6
  • Crosby, Francis, The Complete Guide to Fighters & Bombers of the World: An Illustrated History of the World's Greatest Military Aircraft, From the Pioneering Days of Air Fighting in World War I Through the Jet Fighters and Stealth Bombers of the Present Day, London: Hermes House, 2006, ISBN 9781846810008
  • Peattie, Mark R., Sunburst: The Rise of Japanese Naval Air Power 1909-1941, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 2001, ISBN 1-55750-432-6
  • Layman, R.D., Before the Aircraft Carrier: The Development of Aviation Vessels 1849-1922, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1989, ISBN 0-87021-210-9
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