World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

1940 In Aviation

Article Id: WHEBN0000565902
Reproduction Date:

Title: 1940 In Aviation  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: 1939 in aviation, Aviation/Anniversaries/October 8, Aviation/Anniversaries/February 1, Aviation/Anniversaries/May 13, Aviation/Anniversaries/May 18
Collection: 1940 in Aviation, Years in Aviation
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

1940 In Aviation

Years in aviation: 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943
Centuries: 19th century · 20th century · 21st century
Decades: 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s
Years: 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943

This is a list of aviation-related events from 1940:

Contents

  • Events 1
    • January 1.1
    • February 1.2
    • March 1.3
    • April 1.4
    • May 1.5
    • June 1.6
    • July 1.7
    • August 1.8
    • September 1.9
    • October 1.10
    • November 1.11
    • December 1.12
  • First flights 2
    • January 2.1
    • February 2.2
    • March 2.3
    • April 2.4
    • May 2.5
    • August 2.6
    • September 2.7
    • October 2.8
    • November 2.9
    • December 2.10
  • Entered service 3
    • February 3.1
    • March 3.2
    • April 3.3
    • May 3.4
    • June 3.5
    • July 3.6
    • September 3.7
    • October 3.8
    • November 3.9
  • Retirements 4
    • July 4.1
  • References 5

Events

January

February

March

  • The United States begins construction of a U.S. Navy seaplane base at Midway Atoll.[10]
  • March 2 – The United Kingdom and France promise to send 100 bombers with crews and bombs to assist Finland at once, but do not follow through on the promise.[11]
  • March 6 – France informs the Finnish government that it will dispatch an expeditionary force including 72 bombers to Finland on March 13, but the Winter War ends before the French force can begin its journey.[12]
  • March 13 – The Winter War between the Soviet Union and Finland ends in the defeat of Finland. During the 3½-month war, the Finnish Air Force has grown from 96 to 287 aircraft,[13] and has lost 62 aircraft in air-to-air combat and 59 more damaged beyond repair, while the Soviet Union has lost between 700 and 900[6] – 725 confirmed destroyed and about 200 unconfirmed – of the 2,500 to 3,000 aircraft it has committed to the campaign, and another 300 damaged. The Soviet Air Force has dropped 150,000 bombs – about 7,500 tons (6,803 tonnes/metric tons) of bombs – on Finnish territory, but has performed poorly; its operations in early December 1939 had failed to disrupt Finnish mobilization and, despite unusually clear weather in January and February, it failed to disrupt the lone railroad connecting Finland with the outside world for more than a few hours at a time or to disrupt Finnish merchant shipping, despite 60 air raids on Finnish ports.[14]
  • March 16 – The United Kingdom suffers its first civilian air-raid casualties of World War II during a raid by the Luftwaffe‍ '​s Kampfgeschwader 26 on Scapa Flow.
  • March 19–20 (overnight) – Royal Air Force Bomber Command conducts its first attack of World War II against a land target, when 20 Hampdens and 30 Whitleys strike the German seaplane base at Hörnum on the island of Sylt. One Whitley is lost.[15][16]
  • March 25 – The United States Government grants permission to American aircraft manufacturers to sell advanced combat aircraft to countries fighting the Axis powers.

April

May

  • The Imperial Japanese Navy‍ '​s air arm begins Operation 101, the largest aerial offensive of the Second Sino-Japanese War to date, seeking to destroy Nationalist Chinese air capabilities in Szechuan Province and military facilities around Chungking. It continues until the end of the summer, and will involve 3,715 sorties in 182 raids and the dropping of over 2,000 tons (1,814,388 kg) of bombs.[25]
  • Germany suspends construction of the aircraft carrier Graf Zeppelin. It will not resume until May 1942.[26]
  • Helen Richey obtains a flight instructor‍ '​s certificate and begins training United States Army Air Corps cadets – the only woman to do so – at Pittsburgh-Butler Airport in Butler, Pennsylvania.[27]
  • May 1 – German aircraft attack the British aircraft carrier HMS Glorious off Norway. Her embarked Gloster Sea Gladiators defend her.[23]
  • May 5 – The British aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal begins a week and a half of support to Allied forces in the Narvik area of Norway.
  • May 10 – Germany invades France, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg. Paratroops again play a key role. German aircraft surprise aircraft of the Royal Air Force‍ '​s Advanced Air Striking Force on the ground, but inflict only light damage. Thirty-three Blenheims attack German transport aircraft and other targets in the Netherlands, losing three aircraft. At noon, 32 Fairey Battles attack German ground forces in Luxembourg, losing 13 aircraft shot down and the rest damaged; a second raid by 32 Battles sees the loss of 10 more aircraft.[28] During the day, the Dutch Air Force loses about half its aircraft and the Belgian Air Force about a quarter of its planes, a combined total of more than 100 planes; France loses four of its 879 combat-ready planes destroyed on the ground and 30 damaged, while the Royal Air Force loses six planes destroyed and 12 put out of action out of 384 deployed in France. Dutch and Belgian aircraft and anti-aircraft guns shoot down 230 German planes including most of Germany‍ '​s transport aircraft, and Germany loses 44 more aircraft to French and British forces over France.[29] The Germans are the first to use military gliders in action in the Battle of Fort Eben-Emael when 41 DFS 230 gliders each carrying ten soldiers are launched behind Junkers Ju 52s. Ten gliders land on the grassed roof of the fortress. Only twenty minutes after landing the force had neutralized the fortress at a cost of six dead and twenty wounded.[30]
  • May 11–12 (overnight) – British bombers drop bombs on a German town for the first time, as 37 Handley Page Hampdens and Armstrong Whitworth Whitleys bomb road and rail junctions near Mönchengladbach. Three British bombers are lost.[31]
  • May 13 – The Sikorsky VS-300, which made its first flight the previous year, makes its first untethered flight.
  • May 14
  • May 15 – During British evacuation and demolition operations in Dutch ports, German dive bombers attack the British destroyer HMS Valentine, which is beached and wrecked at the mouth of the Scheldt.[33][34]
  • May 15–16 (overnight) – RAF Bomber Command conducts its first strategic bombing raid of World War II, as 99 Hampden, Whitley, and Vickers Wellington bombers strike German targets in the Ruhr Valley. One British bomber is lost.[31]
  • May 17–18 (overnight) – 72 British bombers attack Bremen, Cologne, and Hamburg, killing at least 47 and injuring 127 in Bremen and Hamburg.[35]
  • May 18
  • May 19 – During British naval operations to bring refugees from Ostend, Belgium, to the United Kingdom, German bombers sink the British destroyer HMS Whitley off Belgium.[38]
  • May 21 – The British aircraft carriers HMS Glorious and HMS Furious fly off Royal Air Force aircraft for service ashore at Bardufoss, Norway, with Glorious delivering the Hurricanes of No. 46 Squadron and Furious the Gladiators of No. 263 Squadron.[37]
  • May 24
    • Adolf Hitler endorses the "Halt Order," stopping the German ground advance in France against Allied forces surrounded at Dunkirk to allow the Luftwaffe to finish them off. He does not rescind the order until May 26.
    • German bombers sink the British destroyer HMS Wessex off Calais and damage a British and a Polish destroyer while they support British troops fighting there.[39][40]
  • May 25 – HMS Illustrious enters service with the Royal Navy as the world‍ '​s first fully armored aircraft carrier.[41]
  • May 26-June 4 – Operation Dynamo, the Dunkirk evacuation, takes place, as 308,888 Allied soldiers are evacuated to the United Kingdom from Dunkirk by sea under continuous German air attack. During the evacuation, German aircraft sink six British and three French destroyers and eight personnel ships and put 19 British destroyers and nine personnel ships out of action.[42]
  • May 27–28 (overnight) – 120 British bombers attack Bremen, Hamburg, Duisburg, Dortmund, Neuss, and other German cities. During the raid, Aircraftman Stan Oldridge, rear gunner of a Whitley of No. 10 Squadron, scores the first aerial victory of World War II over a German night fighter, shooting down what was probably a Messerschmitt Bf 109D near Utrecht early on May 28.[43]

June

July

  • July 3
    • British bombers make a daylight attack against German barges assembling at Rotterdam in anticipation of an invasion of the United Kingdom, their first attack against German efforts to build an invasion force. Such raids will peak in September and end in October after the threat of a German invasion abates.[52]
    • During the British attack on the French fleet at Mers-el-Kébir, Algeria, Fairey Swordfish aircraft from the aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal mine the harbor and unsuccessfully attack the French battlecruiser Strasbourg as she flees to Toulon. French Curtiss Hawk 75 fighters and Blackburn Skua fighters from Ark Royal engage in a dogfight, during which the French shoot down one Skua.
  • July 4 – In retaliation for the British attack at Mers-el-Kébir, French Air Force bombers raid Gibraltar, causing little damage.
  • July 5 – Shore-based Swordfish of the Fleet Air Arm‍ '​s No. 813 Squadron make a torpedo strike against Italian ships at Tobruk, sinking a transport and a destroyer, blowing the bow off another destroyer, and damaging an ocean liner.[53]
  • July 6 – Twelve Swordfish aircraft from Ark Royal make a torpedo strike against Mers-el-Kébir, sinking a French patrol boat and badly damaging the beached battlecruiser Dunkerque. It is the most successful aerial torpedo attack against a capital ship in history at the time.[54]
  • July 8
  • July 8–9 (overnight) – 64 British bombers strike airfields in the Netherlands and ports in north Germany and lay sea mines. Germany‍ '​s first specialized night fighter unit, Nachtjagdgeschwader 1, scores its first victory, as Oberfeldwebel Hermann Förster shoots down a Whitley off Heligoland.[57]
  • July 8–13 – Italian high-level bombers subject ships of the British Mediterranean Fleet to repeated heavy attacks while the fleet is at sea in the Mediterranean. They score only one hit, on the light cruiser HMS Gloucester.[58]
  • July 9
    • The indecisive Battle of Calabria is the first major fleet action of World War II between the British and Italian navies. Swordfish from the British aircraft carrier HMS Eagle conduct two torpedo strikes but score no hits.[59]
    • 40 Italian Savoia-Marchetti SM.79 bombers attack the British aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal and other ships of Force H off Sardinia. They drop over 100 bombs but score no hits, and Blackburn Skuas from Ark Royal shoot down two SM.79s and damage two others.[55]
  • July 10 – The Battle of Britain commences with the first German attacks on British convoys in the English Channel.
  • July 14 – In retaliation for the British attacks at Mers-el-Kébir and Dakar, French bombers again attack Gibraltar, but most of their bombs fall into the sea.
  • July 15 – Over strong protests by Pan American Airways president Juan Trippe, President Franklin D. Roosevelt approves a seven-year temporary certificate permitting American Export Airlines to begin transatlantic service, providing flights between New York City and Lisbon, Portugal, using Sikorsky VS-44 flying boats.
  • July 20 – Fleet Air Arm Swordfish of No. 813 Squadron conduct another torpedo strike against Tobruk, sinking two Italian destroyers.[53]
  • July 25–26 (overnight) – 166 British bombers strike German airfields in the Netherlands and targets in the Ruhr.[52]
  • Late July – In the first use of airborne radar for interception of an enemy aircraft, a Flying Officer Ashfield flying a British Bristol Blenheim IF night fighter destroys a German Dornier Do 17 bomber. A second such kill will not be achieved until November – again by Ashfield.[1][60]

August

September

October

  • The German Luftwaffe begins photographic mapping flights over the western border regions of the Soviet Union.[75]
  • Imperial Japanese Navy Mitsubishi G3M (Allied reporting name "Nell") bombers based at Hanoi in French Indochina begin attacks on the Burma Road.[76]
  • October 1 – A British bomber is shot down over the Netherlands by German antiaircraft artillery after being illuminated by a searchlight coupled to a Freya radar. It is the first time an aircraft is destroyed after being detected and illuminated by a radar-guided searchlight.[77]
  • October 2 – The first ground-radar-controlled aerial victory at night takes place as the Luftwaffe‍ '​s dunkele Nachtjagd ("dark nightfighting," abbreviated as Dunaja) technique – in which ground-based radar is used to control night fighters until they come within visual range of a target – has its first success. A Freya radar is used to coach the Dorner Do 17Z-10 night fighter of Leutnant Ludwig Becker to within visual range of a British Vickers Wellington bomber over the Netherlands, allowing him to shoot it down.[78]
  • October 8 – The Royal Air Force forms No. 71 Squadron, the "Eagle Squadron," comprising American volunteers.
  • October 8 – Josef František, a Czechoslovakian ace (17 victories) and the most efficient Allied pilot of the Battle of Britain, dies in an air crash.
  • October 14 – Aircraft from the British aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious raid Leros.[69]
  • October 20 – During an air show at Marianna, Arkansas, a sightseeing plane circling a parachutist as he descends becomes entangled in his parachute. The plane crashes, killing all five people on board it as well as the parachutist.[79]
  • October 24
  • October 31 – Since August 1, the Luftwaffe has lost 1,733 aircraft in the Battle of Britain, while the Royal Air Force has lost 915 fighters.[81]

November

December

First flights

January

February

March

April

May

August

September

October

November

December

Entered service

February

March

April

May

June

July

September

October

November

Retirements

July

References

  1. ^ a b Crosby, Francis, The Complete Guide to Fighters & Bombers of the World: An Illustrated History of the World‍ '​s Greatest Military Aircraft, From the Pioneering Days of Air Fighting in World War I Through the Jet Fighters and Stealth Bombers of the Present Day, London: Anness Publishing Ltd., 2006, ISBN 978-1-84476-917-9, p. 30.
  2. ^ Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, p. 95.
  3. ^ TWA History Timelines
  4. ^ Condon, Richard W., The Winter War: Russia Against Finland, New York: Ballantine Books Inc., 1972, pp. 105, 107.
  5. ^ May, Ernest R., Strange Victory: Hitler‍ '​s Conquest of France, New York: Hill and Wang, 2000, ISBN 0-8090-8906-8, p. 246.
  6. ^ a b c Hardesty, Von, Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941–1945, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982, ISBN 978-0-87474-510-8, p. 52.
  7. ^ May, Ernest R., Strange Victory: Hitler‍ '​s Conquest of France, New York: Hill and Wang, 2000, ISBN 0-8090-8906-8, pp. 225, 236, 315-316, 317-319.
  8. ^ Condon, Richard W., The Winter War: Russia Against Finland, New York: Ballantine Books Inc., 1972, p. 109.
  9. ^ Condon, Richard W., The Winter War: Russia Against Finland, New York: Ballantine Books Inc., 1972, p. 146.
  10. ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot, History of U.S. Naval Operations in World War II, Volume IV: Coral Sea, Midway, and Submarine Actions, May 1942-August 1942, Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1988, p. 72.
  11. ^ Condon, Richard W., The Winter War: Russia Against Finland, New York: Ballantine Books Inc., 1972, p. 145.
  12. ^ Condon, Richard W., The Winter War: Russia Against Finland, New York: Ballantine Books Inc., 1972, pp. 147–148.
  13. ^ Condon, Richard W., The Winter War: Russia Against Finland, New York: Ballantine Books Inc., 1972, pp. 30, 50.
  14. ^ Condon, Richard W., The Winter War: Russia Against Finland, New York: Ballantine Books Inc., 1972, pp. 7, 50, 55.
  15. ^ Hastings, Max, Bomber Command: Churchill‍ '​s Epic Campaign - The Inside Story of the RAF‍ '​s Valiant Attempt to End the War, New York: Simon & Schuster Inc., 1987, ISBN 0-671-68070-6, p. 80.
  16. ^ a b c d e f Royal Air Force Bomber Command 60th Anniversary: Campaign Diary 1940
  17. ^ a b Aviation Hawaii: 1940–1949 Chronology of Aviation in Hawaii
  18. ^ Sturtivant, Ray, British Naval Aviation: The Fleet Air Arm, 1917–1990, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990, ISBN 0-87021-026-2, p. 39.
  19. ^ a b Sturtivant, Ray, British Naval Aviation: The Fleet Air Arm, 1917–1990, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990, ISBN 0-87021-026-2, p. 40.
  20. ^ Thetford, Owen, British Naval Aircraft Since 1912, Sixth Edition, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1991, ISBN 1-55750-076-2, p. 140.
  21. ^ Sturtivant, Ray, British Naval Aviation: The Fleet Air Arm, 1917–1990, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990, ISBN 0-87021-026-2, pp. 40–41.
  22. ^ Thetford, Owen, British Naval Aircraft Since 1912, Sixth Edition, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1991, ISBN 1-55750-076-2, p. 141.
  23. ^ a b c d Sturtivant, Ray, British Naval Aviation: The Fleet Air Arm, 1917–1990, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990, ISBN 0-87021-026-2, p. 41.
  24. ^ Hinchcliffe, Peter, The Other Battle: Luftwaffe Night Aces Versus Bomber Command, Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books, 2001, ISBN 978-0-7858-1418-4, p. 31.
  25. ^ Peattie, Mark R., Sunburst: The Rise of Japanese Naval Air Power 1909–1941, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 2001, ISBN 978-1-55750-432-6, pp. 118, 120.
  26. ^ Graf Zeppelinhazegray.org
  27. ^ Lynch, Adam, "Hometown Heroine," Aviation History, March 2012, p. 57.
  28. ^ Royal Air Force Bomber Command 60th Anniversary: Campaign Diary: The Battle of France May-June 1940
  29. ^ May, Ernest R., Strange Victory: Hitler's Conquest of France, New York: Hill and Wang, 2000, ISBN 0-8090-8906-8, pp. 384–385.
  30. ^ Devlin, Gerald M. (1985). Silent Wings. London: W. H. Allen.  
  31. ^ a b Hinchcliffe, Peter, The Other Battle: Luftwaffe Night Aces Versus Bomber Command, Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books, 2001, ISBN 978-0-7858-1418-4, p. 37.
  32. ^ a b Hinchcliffe, Peter, The Other Battle: Luftwaffe Night Aces Versus Bomber Command, Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books, 2001, ISBN 978-0-7858-1418-4, pp. 36–37.
  33. ^ a b c Macintyre, Donald, The Naval War Against Hitler, New York: Charles Scribner‍ '​s Sons, 1971, no ISBN number, pp. 50–51.
  34. ^ Colledge, J, j., Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of All Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy From the Fifteenth Century to the Present, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1987, ISBN 0-87021-652-X, p. 363.
  35. ^ Hinchcliffe, Peter, The Other Battle: Luftwaffe Night Aces Versus Bomber Command, Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books, 2001, ISBN 978-0-7858-1418-4, p. 38.
  36. ^ Guttman, Jon, "History's Only Black Ace," Military History, January 2016, p. 16.
  37. ^ a b c d e f Sturtivant, Ray, British Naval Aviation: The Fleet Air Arm, 1917–1990, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990, ISBN 0-87021-026-2, p. 42.
  38. ^ Macintyre, Donald, The Naval War Against Hitler, New York: Charles Scribner‍ '​s Sons, 1971, no ISBN number, p. 511.
  39. ^ Macintyre, Donald, The Naval War Against Hitler, New York: Charles Scribner‍ '​s Sons, 1971, no ISBN number, p. 51.
  40. ^ Colledge, J, j., Ships of the Royal Navy: The Complete Record of All Fighting Ships of the Royal Navy From the Fifteenth Century to the Present, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1987, ISBN 0-87021-652-X, p. 378.
  41. ^ a b Sturtivant, Ray, British Naval Aviation: The Fleet Air Arm, 1917–1990, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990, ISBN 0-87021-026-2, p. 215.
  42. ^ Macintyre, Donald, The Naval War Against Hitler, New York: Charles Scribner‍ '​s Sons, 1971, no ISBN number, pp. 52–53.
  43. ^ Hinchcliffe, Peter, The Other Battle: Luftwaffe Night Aces Versus Bomber Command, Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books, 2001, ISBN 978-0-7858-1418-4, pp. 38–39.
  44. ^ Sweeting, C. G., "Target: Berlin," Aviation History, January 2015, pp. 41–42, 45.
  45. ^ Macintyre, Donald, The Naval War Against Hitler, New York: Charles Scribner‍ '​s Sons, 1971, no ISBN number, p. 50.
  46. ^ Macintyre, Donald, The Naval War Against Hitler, New York: Charles Scribner‍ '​s Sons, 1971, no ISBN number, p. 149.
  47. ^ a b c Sweeting, C. G., "Target: Berlin," Aviation History, January 2015, p. 45.
  48. ^ a b Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 0-7607-0592-5, p. 184.
  49. ^ Sturtivant, Ray, British Naval Aviation: The Fleet Air Arm, 1917–1990, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990, ISBN 0-87021-026-2, p. 45.
  50. ^ a b Sturtivant, Ray, British Naval Aviation: The Fleet Air Arm, 1917–1990, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990, ISBN 0-87021-026-2, p. 44.
  51. ^ Hinchcliffe, Peter, The Other Battle: Luftwaffe Night Aces Versus Bomber Command, Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books, 2001, ISBN 978-0-7858-1418-4, p. 39.
  52. ^ a b Hinchcliffe, Peter, The Other Battle: Luftwaffe Night Aces Versus Bomber Command, Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books, 2001, ISBN 978-0-7858-1418-4, p. 43.
  53. ^ a b c Macintyre, Donald, The Naval War Against Hitler, New York: Charles Scribner‍ '​s Sons, 1971, no ISBN number, p. 150.
  54. ^ a b Thetford, Owen, British Naval Aircraft Since 1912, Sixth Edition, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1991, ISBN 1-55750-076-2, p. 144.
  55. ^ a b Sturtivant, Ray, British Naval Aviation: The Fleet Air Arm, 1917–1990, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990, ISBN 0-87021-026-2, p. 51.
  56. ^ TWA History Timeline
  57. ^ Hinchcliffe, Peter, The Other Battle: Luftwaffe Night Aces Versus Bomber Command, Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books, 2001, ISBN 978-0-7858-1418-4, p. 44.
  58. ^ Macintyre, Donald, The Naval War Against Hitler, New York: Charles Scribner‍ '​s Sons, 1971, no ISBN number, pp. 150–151.
  59. ^ Macintyre, Donald, The Naval War Against Hitler, New York: Charles Scribner‍ '​s Sons, 1971, no ISBN number, p. 151.
  60. ^ Hinchcliffe, Peter, The Other Battle: Luftwaffe Night Aces Versus Bomber Command, Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books, 2001, ISBN 978-0-7858-1418-4, p. 66.
  61. ^ a b c Sturtivant, Ray, British Naval Aviation: The Fleet Air Arm, 1917–1990, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990, ISBN 0-87021-026-2, p. 52.
  62. ^ Macintyre, Donald, The Naval War Against Hitler, New York: Charles Scribner‍ '​s Sons, 1971, no ISBN number, p. 153.
  63. ^ Operation Hurry, 1-4 August 1940
  64. ^ a b Crosby, Francis, The Complete Guide to Fighters & Bombers of the World: An Illustrated History of the World‍ '​s Greatest Military Aircraft, From the Pioneering Days of Air Fighting in World War I Through the Jet Fighters and Stealth Bombers of the Present Day, London: Anness Publishing Ltd., 2006, ISBN 978-1-84476-917-9, p. 29.
  65. ^ Peattie, Mark R., Sunburst: The Rise of Japanese Naval Air Power 1909–1941, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 2001, ISBN 978-1-55750-432-6, p. 119.
  66. ^ a b Crosby, Francis, The Complete Guide to Fighters & Bombers of the World: An Illustrated History of the World‍ '​s Greatest Military Aircraft, From the Pioneering Days of Air Fighting in World War I Through the Jet Fighters and Stealth Bombers of the Present Day, London: Anness Publishing Ltd., 2006, ISBN 978-1-84476-917-9, p. 270.
  67. ^ a b Peattie, Mark R., Sunburst: The Rise of Japanese Naval Air Power 1909–1941, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 2001, ISBN 978-1-55750-432-6, p. 120.
  68. ^ Sturtivant, Ray, British Naval Aviation: The Fleet Air Arm, 1917–1990, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990, ISBN 0-87021-026-2, p. 126.
  69. ^ a b c Sturtivant, Ray, British Naval Aviation: The Fleet Air Arm, 1917–1990, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990, ISBN 0-87021-026-2, p. 48.
  70. ^ Hinchcliffe, Peter, The Other Battle: Luftwaffe Night Aces Versus Bomber Command, Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books, 2001, ISBN 978-0-7858-1418-4, p. 53.
  71. ^ a b c WorldHeritage Corpo Aereo Italiano article.
  72. ^ Sturtivant, Ray, British Naval Aviation: The Fleet Air Arm, 1917–1990, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990, ISBN 0-87021-026-2, pp. 52–536.
  73. ^ Sturtivant, Ray, British Naval Aviation: The Fleet Air Arm, 1917–1990, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990, ISBN 0-87021-026-2, p. 53.
  74. ^ Sweetman, John, Schweinfurt: Disaster in the Skies, New York: Ballantine Books, Inc., 1971, p. 23.
  75. ^ Hardesty, Von, Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941–1945, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87474-510-1, p. 55.
  76. ^ Peattie, Mark R., Sunburst: The Rise of Japanese Naval Air Power 1909–1941, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 2001, ISBN 978-1-55750-432-6, p. 122.
  77. ^ Hinchcliffe, Peter, The Other Battle: Luftwaffe Night Aces Versus Bomber Command, Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books, 2001, ISBN 978-0-7858-1418-4, p. 52.
  78. ^ Hinchcliffe, Peter, The Other Battle: Luftwaffe Night Aces Versus Bomber Command, Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books, 2001, ISBN 978-0-7858-1418-4, p. 51.
  79. ^ "Starts Sift of 6 Killed in Crash". Kentucky New Era. Associated Press. October 21, 1940. Retrieved 12 July 2009. 
  80. ^ Hinchcliffe, Peter, The Other Battle: Luftwaffe Night Aces Versus Bomber Command, Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books, 2001, ISBN 978-0-7858-1418-4, p. 48.
  81. ^ Potter, E. B., Sea Power: A Naval History, Second Edition, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1981, ISBN 0-87021-607-4, p. 250.
  82. ^ Maurer, Maurer, ed. (1983) [1961]. Air Force Combat Units of World War II (PDF) (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. p. 8.  
  83. ^ Hardesty, Von, Red Phoenix: The Rise of Soviet Air Power 1941–1945, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1982, ISBN 0-87474-510-1, p. 57.
  84. ^ a b Hinchcliffe, Peter, The Other Battle: Luftwaffe Night Aces Versus Bomber Command, Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books, 2001, ISBN 978-0-7858-1418-4, p. 55.
  85. ^ Mason, David, U-Boat: The Secret Menace, New York: Ballantine Books, 1968, no ISBN, pp. 46, 48.
  86. ^ a b Sturtivant, Ray, British Naval Aviation: The Fleet Air Arm, 1917–1990, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1990, ISBN 0-87021-026-2, p. 61.
  87. ^ Hastings, Max, Bomber Command: Churchill‍ '​s Epic Campaign - The Inside Story of the RAF‍ '​s Valiant Attempt to End the War, New York: Simon & Schuster Inc., 1987, ISBN 0-671-68070-6, p. 93.
  88. ^ Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, ISBN 978-0-517-56588-9, pp. 226–227.
  89. ^ Hinchcliffe, Peter, The Other Battle: Luftwaffe Night Aces vs. Bomber Command, Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books, 1996, ISBN 978-0-7858-1418-4, p. 107.
  90. ^ Francillon, René J., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1979, ISBN 978-0-87021-313-7, pp. 254, 256.
  91. ^ Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, ISBN 978-0-517-56588-9, p. 230.
  92. ^ a b Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, p. 44.
  93. ^ Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, ISBN 978-0-517-56588-9, p. 437.
  94. ^ Francillon, René J., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1979, ISBN 978-0-87021-313-7, p. 167.
  95. ^ Francillon, René J., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1979, ISBN 978-0-87021-313-7, pp. 216, 570.
  96. ^ Francillon, René J., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1979, ISBN 978-0-87021-313-7, p. 281.
  97. ^ Airventure Museum: North American P-64/NA-50-N840
  98. ^ Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, ISBN 978-0-517-56588-9, p. 330.
  99. ^ Francillon, René J., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1979, ISBN 978-0-87021-313-7, p. 108.
  100. ^ Guttman, Robert, "Northrop‍ '​s Norwegian Seaplane," Aviation History, January 2011, p. 14.
  101. ^ Francillon, René J., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1979, ISBN 978-0-87021-313-7, p. 225.
  102. ^ Francillon, René J., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1979, ISBN 978-0-87021-313-7, pp. 454–455.
  103. ^ Francillon, René J., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1979, ISBN 978-0-87021-313-7, p. 104.
  104. ^ Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, p. 236.
  105. ^ Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, p. 40.
  106. ^ Guttman, Robert, "The Flying Clog," Aviation History, November 2015, p. 13.
  107. ^ Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 978-0-7607-0592-6, p. 49.
  108. ^ Johnson, E. R., "Workhorse of the Fleet," Aviation History, November 2011, p. 46.
  109. ^ Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, ISBN 978-0-517-56588-9, p. 90.
  110. ^ Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, ISBN 978-0-517-56588-9, pp. 262, 268.
  111. ^ Francillon, René J., Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War, Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1979, ISBN 978-0-87021-313-7, pp. 365, 570.
  112. ^ Angelucci, Enzo, The American Fighter: The Definitive Guide to American Fighter Aircraft From 1917 to the Present, New York: Orion Books, 1987, ISBN 978-0-517-56588-9, p. 154.
  113. ^ Donald, David, ed., The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft, New York: Barnes & Noble Books, 1997, ISBN 978-0-7607-0592-6, p. 81.
  114. ^ Hinchcliffe, Peter, The Other Battle: Luftwaffe Night Aces Versus Bomber Command, Edison, New Jersey: Castle Books, 2001, ISBN 978-0-7858-1418-4, p. 58.
  115. ^ Polar, Norman, "'There's a Ford in Your Future'," Naval History, December 2015, p. 15.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.