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Abbreviated Injury Scale

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Title: Abbreviated Injury Scale  
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Subject: Injury Severity Score, Traumatology, Revised Trauma Score, Crush injury, Degloving
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Abbreviated Injury Scale

The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) is an anatomical-based coding system created by the [3] It represents the threat to life associated with the injury rather than the comprehensive assessment of the severity of the injury.[4] AIS is one of the most common anatomic scales for traumatic injuries.[5] The first version of the scale was published in 1969[6] with major updates in 1976, 1980, 1985, 1990, 1998, 2005, and 2008.[7]


The score describes three aspects of the injury using 7 numbers written as 12(34)(56).7[4]

  • Type
  • Location
  • Severity

Each number signifies

  • 1- body region
  • 2- type of anatomical structure
  • 3,4- specific anatomical structure
  • 5,6- level
  • 7- Severity of score
1. Body region
AIS Code Region
1 Head
2 Face
3 Neck
4 Thorax
5 Abdomen
6 Spine
7 Upper Extremity
8 Lower Extremity
9 Unspecified
2. Type of Anatomic Structure
AIS Code Region
1 Whole Area
2 Vessels
3 Nerves
4 Organs (inc. muscles/ligaments)
5 Skeletal (inc. joints)
6 Loss of Consciousness (head only)
3/4 Specific Anatomic Structure }-
Whole Area
AIS Code Region
02 Skin Abrasion
04 Contusion
06 Laceration
08 Avulsion
10 Amputation
20 Burn
30 Crush
40 Degloving
50 Injury - NFS
60 Penetrating
Head - Loss of Consciousness (LOC)
02 Length of loss of consciousness
04-08 Level of consciousness
10 Concussion
02 Cervical
04 Thoracic
06 Lumbar
Vessels, Nerves, Organs, Bones, Joints
02 Vessels
04 Nerves
06 Organs
08 Bones
10 Joints
5/6 Level }-
Specific Injuries are assigned consecutive two-digit numbers beginning with 02

Fractures, rupture, laceration, etc.


Abbreviated Injury Score-Code is on a scale of one to six, one being a minor injury and six being maximal (currently untreatable).[1] An AIS-Code of 6 is not the arbitrary code for a deceased patient or fatal injury, but the code for injuries specifically assigned an AIS 6 severity.[1] An AIS-Code of 9 is used to describe injuries for which not enough information is available for more detailed coding, e.g. crush injury to the head.

The AIS scale is a measurement tool for single injuries. A universally accepted injury aggregation function has not yet been proposed, though the injury severity score and its derivatives are better aggregators for use in clinical settings.[1][5] In other settings such as automotive design and occupant protection, MAIS is a useful tool for the comparison of specific injuries and their relative severity and the changes in those frequencies that may result from evolving motor vehicle design.[1]

Abbreviated injury Score
AIS-Code Injury Example AIS % prob. of death
1 Minor superficial laceration 0
2 Moderate fractured sternum 1 – 2
3 Serious open fracture of humerus 8 – 10
4 Severe perforated trachea 5 – 50
5 Critical ruptured liver with tissue loss 5 - 50
6 Maximum total severance of aorta 100
9 Not further specified (NFS)

See also

External links

  • Official website


  1. ^ a b c d e Thomas A. Gennarelli, Elaine Wodzin (Hrsg.): The Abbreviated Injury Scale 2005. Update 2008. American Association for Automotive Medicine (AAAM), Des Plaines, IL 2008.
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ a b
  5. ^ a b
  6. ^ John D. States: The Abbreviated and the Comprehensive Research Injury Scales. In: STAPP Car Crash Journal. 13, Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., New York 1969, ISSN 1532-8546, S. 282–294, LCCN 67-22372.
  7. ^
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