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Adzuki bean

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Title: Adzuki bean  
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Subject: Red bean paste, Vigna, Yunnan cuisine, Sekihan, Five Grains
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Adzuki bean

Adzuki bean
Adzuki beans
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Genus: Vigna
Species: V. angularis
Binomial name
Vigna angularis
(Willd.) Ohwi & H. Ohashi

The adzuki bean (Vigna angularis; from the Japanese アズキ(小豆) (azuki), sometimes transliterated as azuki or aduki) is an annual vine widely grown throughout East Asia and the Himalayas for its small (approximately 5 mm) bean. The cultivars most familiar in Northeast Asia have a uniform red colour. However, white, black, gray and variously mottled varieties are also known. Scientists presume Vigna angularis var. nipponensis is the progenitor.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Names 2
  • Uses 3
  • Nutritional information 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

History

Genetic evidence indicates that the adzuki bean first became domesticated in East Asia and later crossbred with native species in the Himalayas. The earliest known archaeological evidence of the bean comes from the Awazu-kotei Ruin (Shiga prefecture) of the Japanese mid-Jōmon period of 4000 BC, and later occurs commonly in many Jomon sites of between 4000 BC and 2000 BC in Japan.[1] The analysis of the unearthed beans indicates that it was first cultivated in Japan during the period from 4000 BC to 2000 BC. In China and Korea, specimens from ruins date from 3000 BC to 1000 BC, and these are thought to be cultivated ones.

Names

Adzuki beans, cooked, no salt
Nutritional value per 1 Cup 230 g
Energy 1,233 kJ (295 kcal)
56.97 g
Dietary fiber 16.8 g
Fat
0.23 g
17.3 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1)
(23%)
0.264 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(12%)
0.147 mg
Niacin (B3)
(11%)
1.649 mg
(20%)
0.989 mg
Vitamin B6
(17%)
0.221 mg
Folate (B9)
(70%)
278 μg
Minerals
Calcium
(6%)
64 mg
Iron
(35%)
4.6 mg
Magnesium
(34%)
120 mg
Phosphorus
(55%)
386 mg
Potassium
(26%)
1224 mg
Sodium
(1%)
18 mg
Zinc
(43%)
4.07 mg

Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database
Yōkan (羊羹, Yōkan) is a thick Japanese jellied dessert made of adzuki bean paste, agar and sugar.

The name adzuki is a transliteration of the native Japanese name. Japanese also has a Chinese loanword, shōzu (小豆), which means "small bean", its counterpart "large bean" (大豆 daizu) being the soybean. It is common to write 小豆 in kanji but pronounce it as azuki    , an example of ateji.

In China, the corresponding name (Chinese: 小豆; pinyin: xiǎodòu) is still used in botanical or agricultural parlance. However, in everyday Chinese, the more common terms are hongdou (紅豆; hóngdòu) and chidou (赤豆; chìdòu), both meaning "red bean", because almost all Chinese cultivars are uniformly red. In English-language discussions of Chinese topics, the term "red bean" is often used (especially in reference to red bean paste), but in other contexts this usage can cause confusion with other beans that are also red. In normal contexts, "red cowpeas" have been used to refer to this bean.

The Korean name is pat (hangul: ), and in Vietnamese it is called đậu đỏ (literally: red bean). In some parts of India, they are referred to as "Red Chori".[2] In Punjabi it is called "ravaa'n" and is a common ingredient of chaat. In Marathi, it is known as Lal Chavali (लाल चवळी)- literally means 'red cowpea'.

Uses

Bag of traditional Somali cambuulo (adzuki beans), a staple of Somalian cuisine.

In East Asian cuisine, the adzuki bean is commonly eaten sweetened. In particular, it is often boiled with sugar, resulting in red bean paste (an), a very common ingredient in all of these cuisines. It is also common to add flavoring to the bean paste, such as chestnut.

Matcha muffin with sweetened adzuki beans.

Red bean paste is used in many Chinese dishes, such as tangyuan, zongzi, mooncakes, baozi and red bean ice. It also serves as a filling in Japanese sweets like anpan, dorayaki, imagawayaki, manjū, monaka, anmitsu, taiyaki and daifuku. A more liquid version, using adzuki beans boiled with sugar and a pinch of salt, produces a sweet dish called red bean soup. Adzuki beans are also commonly eaten sprouted, or boiled in a hot, tea-like drink. Some Asian cultures enjoy red bean paste as a filling or topping for various kinds of waffles, pastries, baked buns or biscuits.

In Japan, rice with adzuki beans (赤飯; sekihan) is traditionally cooked for auspicious occasions. Adzuki beans are also used to produce amanattō, and as a popular flavour of ice cream either paste, or whole bean such as the 'Cream & Red Bean' product produced by IMEI.

On October 20, 2009, Pepsi Japan released an adzuki-flavored Pepsi product.[3]

Adzuki beans, along with butter and sugar, form the basis of the popular Somali supper dish cambuulo.

In Gujarat, India, they are known as chori.[2]

In Malaysia and Singapore, red beans are a major component of the dessert Ais kacang.

Nutritional information

Adzuki beans display phototropism

Adzuki beans are a good source for a variety of minerals, with 1 cup of cooked beans providing 4.6 mg of Iron (~25% RDI[4]), 119.6 mg of magnesium (~30% RDI[5]), 1.223 g of potassium (~25 % AI[6]), 4.0 mg of zinc (~25% RDI[7]) and 278 µg of folic acid (~70% RDI[8]).[9]

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.mame.or.jp/library/pdf_z/051/MJ051-06-TK.pdf
  2. ^ a b "Indian beans". Seedsofindia.com. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-25. 
  3. ^ "Pepsi Azuki". Japan Probe. 2009-09-29. Retrieved 2011-08-25. 
  4. ^ "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Iron". Ods.od.nih.gov. 2007-08-24. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-25. 
  5. ^ "Magnesium". Ods.od.nih.gov. 2009-07-13. Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 2011-08-25. 
  6. ^ "Rda Guidelines For Potassium". Livestrong.Com. Retrieved 2011-08-25. 
  7. ^ "Zinc". Ods.od.nih.gov. 2011-06-24. Retrieved 2011-08-25. 
  8. ^ "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Folate". Ods.od.nih.gov. Retrieved 2011-08-25. 
  9. ^ "Adzuki Bean: Health Benefits and Nutrition Information •". Knowingfood.com. Retrieved 2011-08-25. 

External links

  • Illustrated Plant Genetic Resources Database
  • Alternative Field Crop Manual
  • Multilingual taxonomic information from the University of Melbourne
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