World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Allan Holdsworth

Allan Holdsworth
Holdsworth in 2007
Background information
Born (1946-08-06) 6 August 1946
Bradford, West Yorkshire, England[1]
Genres Jazz fusion, jazz, instrumental rock, progressive rock
Occupation(s) Musician, composer, producer
Instruments Guitar, SynthAxe
Years active 1969–present
Labels Eidolon Efformation
Associated acts 'Igginbottom, Tempest, Bill Bruford, U.K., The New Tony Williams Lifetime, Gordon Beck, Chad Wackerman, HoBoLeMa, Soft Machine, Gong, Gary Husband, Nucleus, Jean-Luc Ponty, John Stevens, Planet X
Notable instruments

Allan Holdsworth (born 6 August 1946) is a British guitarist and composer. He has released twelve studio albums as a solo artist and played a variety of musical styles spanning a period of more than four decades, but is best known for his work in jazz fusion.

Holdsworth is noted for his advanced knowledge of music, through which he incorporates a vast array of complex chord progressions and intricate solos; the latter comprising myriad scale forms often derived from those such as the diminished, augmented, whole tone, chromatic and altered scales, among others, resulting in an unpredictable and "off" sound. His unique legato soloing technique stems from his desire to originally play the saxophone, but having been unable to afford one he thus intentionally utilised the guitar in order to make it sound like a different instrument. He has also become associated with playing an early form of guitar synthesizer called the SynthAxe, a company which he endorsed in the 1980s.

Holdsworth has been cited as an influence by such renowned rock, metal and jazz guitarists as Eddie Van Halen,[2] Joe Satriani,[3] Greg Howe,[4] Shawn Lane,[5] Richie Kotzen,[6] John Petrucci,[7] Alex Lifeson,[8] Kurt Rosenwinkel,[9] Yngwie Malmsteen,[10] and Michael Romeo.[11] Frank Zappa once lauded him as "one of the most interesting guys on guitar on the planet".[12]


  • Recording career 1
    • Early career and 1970s 1.1
    • 1980s 1.2
    • 1990s 1.3
    • 2000s–present 1.4
  • Compositions and style 2
  • Influence and reception 3
  • Equipment 4
  • Personal life 5
  • Discography 6
    • Solo albums 6.1
    • With other artists 6.2
    • Videos 6.3
    • Books 6.4
  • References 7
  • External links 8

Recording career

Early career and 1970s

Holdsworth first recorded in 1969 with the band 'Igginbottom on their lone release, 'Igginbottom's Wrench (later reissued under the group name of "Allan Holdsworth & Friends"). In 1971 he joined Sunship, an improvisational band featuring keyboardist Alan Gowen, future King Crimson percussionist Jamie Muir and bassist Laurie Baker. They played live but would never release any recorded material.[13] Next came a brief stint with jazz rock band Nucleus, with whom Holdsworth played on their 1972 album, Belladonna; likewise with progressive rock band Tempest, on their self-titled first studio album in 1973.[14] His playing can also be heard on a live BBC Radio concert from that year, which was released several decades later in 2005 as part of Under the Blossom: The Anthology, a Tempest compilation album. There has been an urban myth, propagated in part by the singer Donovan, that Holdsworth played the fuzztone solo on Donovan's 1968 hit "Hurdy Gurdy Man"; however it has since been established that Alan Parker was the session guitarist responsible.

During the middle part of the decade, Holdsworth went on to work with various well-known progressive rock and jazz fusion artists. These included Soft Machine (Bundles), The New Tony Williams Lifetime (Believe It and Million Dollar Legs), Pierre Moerlen's Gong (Gazeuse! and Expresso II) and Jean-Luc Ponty (Enigmatic Ocean). He has often since expressed his enjoyment of the experience gained with all of these groups, in particular his time spent with drummer Tony Williams.[13][14][15] 1976 brought about the first of Holdsworth's many frustrations with the music industry, when CTI Records released a recording of a rehearsal session with which he was involved, passing it off as an official studio album entitled Velvet Darkness. This angered Holdsworth, who says he still loathes the album intensely and wishes it was never made public.[13]

Holdsworth in 1975

As the 1970s wore on, Holdsworth was recruited by drummer and

  • Official website
  • Allan Holdsworth discography at MusicBrainz

External links

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Milkowski, Bill (2005-10-05). "A Conversation with Allan Holdsworth (#80)". Abstract Logix. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  2. ^ a b Obrecht, Jas (April 1980). "Young Wizard of Power Rock". Guitar Player. NewBay Media. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  3. ^ Brown, Pete (2007). "3 Questions – Joe Satriani". The Punch-In. TrueFire. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  4. ^ Burk, Greg (2008-07-10). "Record review and artist interview: Greg Howe.". MetalJazz. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  5. ^ Hallebeek, Richard (March–April 2001). "Shawn Lane + lesson". Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  6. ^ Hallebeek, Richard (2002-03-19). "Richie Kotzen". Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  7. ^ "Biography". Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  8. ^ Guitar World Staff (2012-01-12). "Alex Lifeson and Geddy Lee of Rush Choose 22 Songs That Inspired Them Most". Guitar Player. NewBay Media. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  9. ^ Milkowski, Bill (2010-02-01). "Kurt Rosenwinkel". Guitar Player. NewBay Media. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  10. ^ Rosen, Steven (late 1995/early 1996). "Rock Chronicles. 1990s: Yngwie Malmsteen". Ultimate Guitar Archive. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  11. ^ Edwards, Owen (2008-03-04). "Michael Romeo Interview – A Perfect Symphony Part One: 1970's to 2000.". All Out Guitar. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  12. ^ Goldwasser, Noë (April 1987). "Zappa's Inferno". Guitar World. NewBay Media. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  13. ^ a b c d e f Prasad, Anil (1993-01-15). "Creating imaginary backdrops". Innerviews. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  14. ^ a b c d e Prasad, Anil (2008). "Harnessing momentum". Innerviews. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  15. ^ a b c d e f Brinn, David (2010-11-10). "Fusion, rock and something else". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  16. ^ a b Newton, Steve (2013-11-13). "30 years ago today: Van Halen-praised guitar phenom Allan Holdsworth plays Vancouver's Soft Rock Cafe". The Georgia Straight. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  17. ^ a b "Bio & History". Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  18. ^ a b Mycock, Martin (March 1990). "Allan Holdsworth: In the 80's". Facelift (3). Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  19. ^ Stix, John (January 1981). "Eddie Van Halen Opens Up in his First Guitar World Interview From 1981, Part 2". Guitar World. NewBay Media. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  20. ^ Hollis, John (1997-12-12). "SynthAxe". Hollis Communications. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  21. ^ Monk, Laurie (2010-06-13). "Mark Varney: Legato interview with Laurie Monk". Truth in Shredding. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  22. ^ a b c d Hoard, Chris; Preston, Jeff (February 1994). "Allan Holdsworth: An Interview". The Allan Holdworth Information Center. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  23. ^ a b Douse, Cliff (December 1996). "Legato Land". Guitar Techniques. Future plc. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  24. ^ a b Feuillerat, Olivier (June 2003). "Interview with Allan Holdsworth". Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  25. ^ Administrator (2011-09-26). "Virgil Donati Band in India feat. Allan Holdsworth". Virgil Donati Messageboard. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  26. ^ "Allan Holdsworth: Tales from the Vault". PledgeMusic. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  27. ^ Mulhern, Tom (December 1982). "A Style Apart". Guitar Player. NewBay Media. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  28. ^ Admin (2010-01-29). "Allan Holdsworth on Not Sweep-Picking...". WoodyTone!. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  29. ^ Warnock, Matt (2010-01-24). "Allan Holdsworth Style Legato Pattern". Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  30. ^ Holdsworth, Allan (1992). "Legato Playing" on YouTube. REH Video: Allan Holdsworth. CPP Media Group. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  31. ^ a b c Adelson, Steve (2000-09-01). "Interview with Allan Holdsworth" at the Wayback Machine (archived 14 December 2006). Twentieth Century Guitar. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  32. ^ a b Hallebeek, Richard (2003-03-17). "Allan Holdsworth (2003)". Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  33. ^ a b c Morrison, Mike (2006-02-09). "Allan Holdsworth Interview". Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  34. ^ a b c Abstract Logix Staff (2004-08-19). "Allan Holdsworth Interview (#15)". Abstract Logix. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  35. ^ a b c d e Washburn, Jim (1990-03-06). "For Guitarist Allan Holdsworth, Perfection Is the Goal : Jazz: He's not well known outside musicians' circles, but that's all right with him. He just wants to make his music--and make sure it's the best it can be.". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  36. ^ Edwards, Owen (2006-08-30). "Guthrie Govan Interview - The Virtuoso's Virtuoso". All Out Guitar. Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  37. ^ Hoard, Chris (1987). Allan Holdsworth: Reaching for the Uncommon Chord. Hal Leonard Corporation. pp. 23–25. ISBN 978-0-634-07002-0.
  38. ^ "Semi-Hollow & Acoustic Electric Guitars" at the Wayback Machine (archived 8 July 2011). Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  39. ^ "The Nyle Steiner Homepage". Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  40. ^ Prown, Pete; Newquist, Harvey P. (1997). Legends of Rock Guitar: The Essential Reference of Rock's Greatest Guitarists. Hal Leonard. p. 194.  
  41. ^ Laukens, Dirk. "Allan Holdsworth's Guitar Gear". Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  42. ^ a b c d Hallebeek, Richard (1996-05-11). "Allan Holdsworth (1996)". Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  43. ^ "The SynthAxe". Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  44. ^ "News" at the Wayback Machine (archived 17 July 2011). Retrieved 2015-03-30.
  45. ^


  • 1987: Reaching for the Uncommon Chord. Hal Leonard Corporation. ISBN 978-0-634-07002-0.
  • 1994: Just for the Curious. Warner Bros. ISBN 978-0-7692-2015-4.
  • 1997: Melody Chords for Guitar. Centerstream Publications. ISBN 978-1-57424-051-1.


  • 1992: REH Video: Allan Holdsworth (VHS, reissued on DVD in 2007)
  • 2002: Live at the Galaxy Theatre (DVD)
  • 2007: Live at Yoshi's (DVD)


Level 42
Chad Wackerman
Stanley Clarke
Jean-Luc Ponty
Pierre Moerlen's Gong
The New Tony Williams Lifetime
Soft Machine
  • 1972: Belladonna (released as a solo album by Ian Carr)

With other artists


Solo albums


Holdsworth has lived in California permanently since the early 1980s, and often mentions cycling as one of his favourite pastimes.[33][42] He is also a keen aficionado of beer, with a particular fondness for Northern English cask ale.[31][34] Such is his taste for ale that he went as far as experimenting with brewing his own in the 1990s and inventing a specialised beer pump named "The Fizzbuster" which, in his own words, creates "a beautiful creamy head".[23][42] Holdsworth became a grandfather in December 2010 when his daughter Louise gave birth to a baby girl named Rori.[44]

Personal life

On Atavachron, Holdsworth first recorded with the SynthAxe—a fretted, guitar-like MIDI controller with keys, string triggers, and an additional tube-like input device named 'Masters Touch' (designed by Nyle Steiner, inventor of the EWI)[39] which dynamically alters volume and tone using breath velocity.[40][41] Sound-wise, he uses patches which are mainly Oberheim synthesizers, as he considers them to have "great sounds".[42] Although he has used the SynthAxe on all his solo releases since Atavachron and still enjoys using his two remaining ones in the studio, he says he no longer wishes to make it such an integral part of his playing—especially live—mainly because of it being so rare (less than 100 units are said to still exist),[43] and difficult to maintain and repair as a result.[1][13][33][42]

In 1984 he developed his first signature guitars with Ibanez, known as the AH-10 and AH-20. These instruments have a semi-hollow body made from basswood with a hollow cavity underneath the pickguard, and can be heard on Metal Fatigue and Atavachron. His long association with Steinberger guitars began in 1987: these are made from graphite and carbon fibre, and distinctively have no headstock. With designer Ned Steinberger, he developed the GL2TA-AH signature model. He started playing customised headless guitars made by luthier Bill DeLap in the 1990s, which included an extended-range baritone model with a 38-inch scale length.[22] However, he has since said that he only owns one of the latter instruments (with a 34-inch scale).[1] He has also developed a line of signature guitars with Carvin, including the semi-hollow H2 in 1996, the completely hollow HF2 Fatboy in 1999,[38] and the headless HH1 and HH2 models in 2013.

Holdsworth has worked with many different guitar manufacturers in a lifelong quest to evolve his unique sound, which he feels he has never been able to perfect.[17] From the late 1960s through to his time spent with Tony Williams in the mid-1970s, his main instrument was the Gibson SG.[1][37] He then switched to playing custom Fender Stratocaster guitars that were modified with humbucker pickups, whilst also endorsing DiMarzio pickups; during this time he was pictured in a contemporary DiMarzio catalogue (around 1981) playing one of his modified Stratocasters. He continued to play this type of design in the early 1980s, developing custom models with Charvel and Jackson that feature on I.O.U. and Road Games.


However, Holdsworth remains "not well known outside musicians' circles",[35] and musically, even by guitarists, he has been criticized for not being musical enough and being too technical for the average listener. Holdsworth himself understands that his music does not gel with the majority of people and has said "I don't think everybody would like it, for sure. But if people got to hear it, if even 20% liked it, I would be really happy with that."[35] He once approached a major record label and was told by its producer that his music was "completely directionless", and how he did not approve of anything Holdsworth had ever done since he started making his own albums.[35] Guthrie Govan has said of guitarists who aspire to play like Holdsworth: "I think it's potentially dangerous when a rock type player hears a bit of Allan Holdsworth or Frank Gambale and then dives straight into that style of playing; not only is the technical aspect daunting, there's also all that musical knowledge and understanding going on behind the scenes, and it's really hard to absorb both of those aspects at once without your playing just starting to sound worse."[36]

Holdsworth has become a highly influential guitarist among advanced guitarists and is considered to be one of the most technically accomplished and most unique players in history; according to Guitar World magazine he is "as influential as Chuck Berry, Jimi Hendrix and Eddie Van Halen".[35] Eddie Van Halen, Frank Zappa, Shawn Lane, Neal Schon and Gary Moore have proclaimed Holdsworth to be one of the most advanced guitarists of his time.[35]

Influence and reception

Another of his most identifiable traits is the use of rich, fingerpicked chords (often awash with delay, chorus and other complex effects), which are articulated and sustained using volume swells to create sounds reminiscent of the horn and saxophone.[29] He has said that he prefers both of these instruments to the guitar, the latter of which was not his first choice of instrument upon receiving one from his father when beginning to play music.[30][31][32] It was because of this unfamiliarity with the guitar, combined with attempting to make it sound more like a saxophone, that he originally began to use legato without realising that it was not a common method of playing at the time.[22] Furthermore, he was influenced greatly by such saxophonists as John Coltrane, Cannonball Adderley, Michael Brecker and Charlie Parker,[32][33][34] while some of his favourite guitarists were Django Reinhardt, Joe Pass, Wes Montgomery, Jimmy Raney, Charlie Christian and Hank Marvin.[31][34]

Holdsworth is noted for his advanced knowledge of music, and has a distinctive playing style that involves a strong scalar sense, combining elements of jazz and progressive rock. He incorporates a vast array of complex chord progressions and intricate solos, the latter comprising myriad scale forms often derived from those such as the diminished, augmented, whole tone, chromatic and altered scales. In his instructional video for example he mentioned that he often plays altered scales which are unusual to the average player, such as F minor major 7th with a raised 4th, also displaying an ability to recognize such complex scales in chord form with voicings up and down the neck, with each note being a member of a "family". The harmonic structure of his pieces can be highly abstruse, with frequently shifting tonal centres, and his soloing follows from a self-taught advanced modal framework derived directly from his unusually-voiced chords. His phrasing almost always features striking yet subtle transitions between notes that often work contrary to the listener's expectations of consonance and dissonance, with wide and unpredictable intervallic leaps. In his solos he extensively uses various fast legato techniques such as slides, hammer-ons and pull-offs (the latter being a personalised method which works more akin to a 'reversed' hammer-on);[27] all of which result in an extremely fluid lead sound. One of the reasons for his renowned emphasis on legato, as opposed to picking, stems from a desire to make the sound between picked and legato notes indistinguishable.[28]

Holdsworth's solo compositions are primarily instrumental, but vocals were prominent on all his 1980s albums except Sand. Two of his most recurring singers were Paul Williams (featured on I.O.U., Road Games and Metal Fatigue) and Rowanne Mark (Atavachron and Secrets). Additionally, he himself sang lead vocals on 'Igginbottom's Wrench and The Things You See, something which he has not done since. Early in his career he occasionally played violin[1] (Velvet Darkness, Sunbird, The Things You See and I.O.U.) and acoustic guitar (Velvet Darkness, U.K., Gazeuse! and Metal Fatigue), but claims not to be proficient at the latter;[24] this being due to its percussive tonal quality, and hence a lack of desire to play an instrument not optimised for legato playing, as explained below.[22]

Compositions and style

In 2015, Holdsworth launched a PledgeMusic venture to release his long-awaited new studio material, as part of a collection named Tales from the Vault.[26]

Holdsworth joined Chad Wackerman for a third time on a studio album by the latter, for Dreams Nightmares and Improvisations (2012).

In 2006 he performed with pianist Alan Pasqua, Wackerman and bassist Jimmy Haslip as part of a live tribute act in honour of the late Tony Williams; a DVD (Live at Yoshi's) and double album (Blues for Tony) of this tour were released in 2007 and 2009 respectively. Throughout 2008–10 he toured with drummers Terry Bozzio and Pat Mastelotto, and bassist Tony Levin as HoBoLeMa, a supergroup playing improvised experimental music. On 3 November 2011, Holdsworth performed in Mumbai as part of drummer Virgil Donati's touring band.[25] He then toured Europe and the U.S. as a trio with Donati and Haslip in March–May 2012.

Throughout the latter half of the 2000s he extensively toured both North America and Europe, and played as a guest on albums by numerous artists. Notably, he was featured on keyboardist Derek Sherinian's 2004 album Mythology, as well as with the latter's progressive metal supergroup Planet X, on their 2007 album Quantum. Also in 2007, Holdsworth played on one track of Jean-Luc Ponty's The Atacama Experience.

His eleventh album, Flat Tire: Music for a Non-Existent Movie, was released in 2001 and remains his most recent studio effort. In a 2008 interview Holdsworth mentioned that a new studio album entitled Snakes and Ladders was slated for release in the same year through guitarist Steve Vai's Favored Nations label, but as of 2013 this has not come about. Further new material with Chad Wackerman and Jimmy Johnson was also said to be in the works.[14] In a 2010 interview he claimed to have enough material for two albums, which he planned to begin recording after a show in Tel Aviv.[15]

The decade began positively with the release of The Sixteen Men of Tain in 2000, but it would turn out to be Holdsworth's last album recorded at The Brewery. Immediately afterwards he abruptly slowed down his solo output due to events within his personal life.[14][15][24] A pair of official live albums, All Night Wrong and Then!, were released in 2002 and 2003 respectively, along with a double compilation album, The Best of Allan Holdsworth: Against the Clock, in 2005.

Holdsworth, Chad Wackerman (centre) and Jimmy Johnson (right) in 2006


Holdsworth's first solo album of the decade was 1992's Wardenclyffe Tower, which continued to feature the SynthAxe but also displayed his newfound interest in self-designed baritone guitars built by luthier Bill DeLap.[22] With the 1994 release of Hard Hat Area, Holdsworth's touring band for that and the following year was composed of Steve Hunt, Husband and bassist Skúli Sverrisson. A collaboration in 1996 with brothers Anders and Jens Johansson resulted in Heavy Machinery, an album which featured considerably more hard-edged playing from Holdsworth than was usual. In the same year, he was once again joined by Gordon Beck on None Too Soon, which comprised interpretations of some of Holdsworth's favourite jazz standards.[23]

A collaboration in 1990 with fusion guitarist Frank Gambale came about in the form of Truth in Shredding, an ambitious collaborative project put together by Mark Varney (brother of Shrapnel Records founder Mike Varney) through his Legato Records label.[21] In December of that year, following the death of Level 42 guitarist Alan Murphy in 1989, Holdsworth was recruited by the band to play as a guest musician during a series of concerts at London's Hammersmith Odeon. With former I.O.U. partner Gary Husband now being the drummer for Level 42, these factors all led to Holdsworth contributing guitar work on five tracks for their 1991 album, Guaranteed. Holdsworth would also play on Chad Wackerman's first two studio albums, Forty Reasons (1991) and The View (1993).


In the late 1980s, Holdsworth set up his own recording studio named The Brewery in North County, San Diego, which would become one of the main recording locations for all of his studio albums beginning with Secrets in 1989, and throughout the 1990s. In a 2005 interview, he stated that he no longer owned the studio following his divorce in 1999.[1][14][15] Secrets introduced pianist Steve Hunt, who went on to play keyboard as a member of Holdsworth's touring band, and for two further albums.

The Atavachron album in 1986 was a landmark, in that it was the first to feature Holdsworth's work with a brand new instrument named the SynthAxe. This unusually designed MIDI controller[20] (different to that of a guitar synthesizer) would become a staple of Holdsworth's playing for the next fifteen years, during which he would effectively become the public face of the instrument. The next year saw the release of a fourth album, Sand, which featured no vocals and showcased further SynthAxe experimentation. A second collaboration with Gordon Beck, With a Heart in My Song, followed in 1988.

Having relocated permanently to Southern California and acrimoniously parted ways with Warner Bros.,[18] Holdsworth signed to Enigma for the 1985 release of Metal Fatigue (along with the aforementioned I.O.U. reissue). It was during this time that Flim & the BB's bassist Jimmy Johnson joined the band and, like Husband and Wackerman, has remained a regular member of Holdsworth's touring bands to this day. Making his last appearance on vocals was Paul Williams, with whom Holdsworth claims to have fallen out due to the selling of live bootlegs by the former.[1]

This resulted in the Warner Bros. release of Road Games in 1983. It was produced by longtime Van Halen executive producer Ted Templeman, and received a nomination for Best Rock Instrumental Performance at the 1984 Grammy Awards. Holdsworth, however, has always disliked the EP because of creative issues which arose with Templeman.[15][16] Former Cream singer Jack Bruce provided vocal duties on Road Games (Holdsworth and Bruce had played together with Billy Cobham, Didier Lockwood and David Sancious under the name A Gathering of Minds at Montreux in 1982), whilst the latest incarnation of the I.O.U. band consisted of Paul Williams, drummer Chad Wackerman (who, along with Husband, would become a regular Holdsworth bandmember for the next three decades) and bassist Jeff Berlin.

Immediately after I.O.U.'s release, guitarist Eddie Van Halen brought Holdsworth to the attention of Warner Bros. Records executive Mo Ostin. Van Halen had previously enthused about Holdsworth in a 1980 issue of Guitar Player magazine, saying "That guy is bad! He's fantastic; I love him", and that Holdsworth was "the best, in my book".[2] Furthermore, in a 1981 interview for Guitar World magazine, he said that "To me Allan Holdsworth is number one".[19]

Holdsworth's first significant collaborator was jazz pianist Gordon Beck, with whom he first played on Beck's Sunbird album in 1979. Their first collaborative release, The Things You See, followed in 1980, and was a largely similar effort but without percussion or bass. Soon afterwards, Holdsworth joined up with drummer Gary Husband and bassist Paul Carmichael in a trio that became known as False Alarm. This was to be Holdsworth's first outing as a bandleader and, after the acquisition of former Tempest singer Paul Williams, the band was renamed I.O.U. Their self-titled debut album was released independently in 1982, followed by a mainstream reissue through Enigma Records in 1985.[18]


Whilst U.K. continued with different musicians, Bruford returned to the core line-up of his solo band now simply named Bruford, with Holdsworth retained as guitarist. Their second album, One of a Kind, was released in 1979 and featured extensive contributions by Holdsworth, but by this point he wished to pursue his own musical aspirations and soon left the group, albeit with some reluctance.[13][17]


This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.