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Anger function

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Title: Anger function  
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Subject: Bessel function, Struve function
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Anger function

In mathematics, the Anger function, introduced by C. T. Anger (1855), is a function defined as

\mathbf{J}_\nu(z)=\frac{1}{\pi} \int_0^\pi \cos (\nu\theta-z\sin\theta) \,d\theta

and is closely related to Bessel functions.

The Weber function (also known as Lommel-Weber function), introduced by H. F. Weber (1879), is a closely related function defined by

\mathbf{E}_\nu(z)=\frac{1}{\pi} \int_0^\pi \sin (\nu\theta-z\sin\theta) \,d\theta

and is closely related to Bessel functions of the second kind.

Relation between Weber and Anger functions

The Anger and Weber functions are related by

\sin(\pi \nu)\mathbf{J}_\nu(z) = \cos(\pi\nu)\mathbf{E}_\nu(z)-\mathbf{E}_{-\nu}(z)
-\sin(\pi \nu)\mathbf{E}_\nu(z) = \cos(\pi\nu)\mathbf{J}_\nu(z)-\mathbf{J}_{-\nu}(z)

so in particular if ν is not an integer they can be expressed as linear combinations of each other. If ν is an integer then Anger functions Jν are the same as Bessel functions Jν, and Weber functions can be expressed as finite linear combinations of Struve functions.

Differential equations

The Anger and Weber functions are solutions of inhomogeneous forms of Bessel's equation z^2y^{\prime\prime} + zy^\prime +(z^2-\nu^2)y = 0. More precisely, the Anger functions satisfy the equation

z^2y^{\prime\prime} + zy^\prime +(z^2-\nu^2)y = (z-\nu)\sin(\pi z)/\pi

and the Weber functions satisfy the equation

z^2y^{\prime\prime} + zy^\prime +(z^2-\nu^2)y = -((z+\nu) + (z-\nu)\cos(\pi z))/\pi.


  • .
  • C.T. Anger, Neueste Schr. d. Naturf. d. Ges. i. Danzig, 5 (1855) pp. 1–29
  • G.N. Watson, "A treatise on the theory of Bessel functions", 1–2, Cambridge Univ. Press (1952)
  • H.F. Weber, Zurich Vierteljahresschrift, 24 (1879) pp. 33–76
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