World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Anterior segment mesenchymal dysgenesis

Article Id: WHEBN0024321966
Reproduction Date:

Title: Anterior segment mesenchymal dysgenesis  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Atrichia with papular lesions, PITX2, Tooth and nail syndrome, Limb–mammary syndrome, Enlarged vestibular aqueduct
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Anterior segment mesenchymal dysgenesis

Anterior segment mesenchymal dysgenesis
Classification and external resources
OMIM 107250

Anterior segment dysgenesis (ASD) is a failure of the normal development of the tissues of the anterior segment of the eye. It leads to anomalies in the structure of the mature anterior segment, associated with an increased risk of glaucoma and corneal opacity.

Peters' (frequently misspelled Peter's) anomaly is a specific type of mesenchymal anterior segment dysgenesis, in which there is central corneal leukoma, adhesions of the iris and cornea, and abnormalities of the posterior corneal stroma, Descemet's membrane, corneal endothelium, lens, and anterior chamber.[1]

History

This congenital anomaly was first described by Albert Peters, a German ophthalmologist (1862-1938).[2]

Pathophysiology

Several gene mutations have been identified underlying these anomalies with the majority of ASD genes encoding transcriptional regulators. In this review, the role of the ASD genes, PITX2 and FOXC1, is considered in relation to the embryology of the anterior segment, the biochemical function of these proteins, and their role in development and disease aetiology. The emerging view is that these genes act in concert to specify a population of mesenchymal progenitor cells, mainly of neural crest origin, as they migrate anteriorly around the embryonic optic cup. These same genes then regulate mesenchymal cell differentiation to give rise to distinct anterior segment tissues. Development appears critically sensitive to gene dosage, and variation in the normal level of transcription factor activity causes a range of anterior segment anomalies. Interplay between PITX2 and FOXC1 in the development of different anterior segment tissues may partly explain the phenotypic variability and the genetic heterogeneity characteristic of ASD.

References

  1. ^
  2. ^ doctor/3158 at Who Named It?
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.