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Avilés

Avilés
City and Municipality
Camposagrado Palace
Flag of Avilés
Flag
Coat of arms of Avilés
Coat of arms
Avilés is located in Spain
Avilés
Location in Spain
Coordinates:
Country  Spain
Autonomous community Asturias
Province Asturias
Comarca Avilés
Capital Avilés
Government
 • Mayor Pilar Varela (PSOE)
Area
 • Total 26.81 km2 (10.35 sq mi)
Elevation 139 m (456 ft)
Population (2008)
 • Total 83,517
 • Density 3,100/km2 (8,100/sq mi)
Demonym(s) avilesino
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 33401 to 33403
Official language(s) Asturian, Spanish
Website Official website

Avilés is a city in Asturias, Spain. Avilés is with Oviedo and Gijón, one of the main towns in the Principality of Asturias.

The town occupies the flattest land in the municipality, in a land that belonged to the sea, surrounded by small promontories, all of them having an altitude of less than 140 metres. Situated in the Avilés estuary, in the Northern Central area of the Asturian coast, west of Peñas Cape, it has a national seaport and is an industrial city. It is close to popular beaches such as Salinas.

Contents

  • Climate 1
  • History 2
  • Culture 3
    • Architecture 3.1
    • Museums and arts centres 3.2
    • Sculptures 3.3
    • Feasts and traditions 3.4
    • Festivals 3.5
  • Parishes 4
  • Notable people 5
  • Sister cities 6
  • References 7
    • Bibliography 7.1
  • External links 8

Climate

The area experiences an oceanic climate,[1] warm summers with both overcast and sunny days. In winter the weather is moderate, with significant rains and wind, although sometimes the cold climate of Asturias results in snowfall at sea level. The temperature is rarely below zero or over 30 °C (86 °F). Summer highs are exceptionally low by Spanish standards due its heavy maritime features and northerly position in the country.

Climate data for Avilés
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 23.5
(74.3)
24.3
(75.7)
26.7
(80.1)
28.6
(83.5)
33.6
(92.5)
36.0
(96.8)
33.0
(91.4)
31.6
(88.9)
36.0
(96.8)
31.0
(87.8)
25.6
(78.1)
25.6
(78.1)
36
(96.8)
Average high °C (°F) 12.9
(55.2)
13.1
(55.6)
14.6
(58.3)
15.1
(59.2)
17.3
(63.1)
19.6
(67.3)
21.5
(70.7)
22.2
(72)
21.2
(70.2)
18.7
(65.7)
15.3
(59.5)
13.3
(55.9)
17.1
(62.8)
Daily mean °C (°F) 9.4
(48.9)
9.4
(48.9)
10.7
(51.3)
11.3
(52.3)
13.6
(56.5)
16.2
(61.2)
18.2
(64.8)
18.8
(65.8)
17.4
(63.3)
15.1
(59.2)
11.8
(53.2)
9.9
(49.8)
13.5
(56.3)
Average low °C (°F) 5.9
(42.6)
5.7
(42.3)
6.8
(44.2)
7.5
(45.5)
10.0
(50)
12.8
(55)
14.8
(58.6)
15.3
(59.5)
13.7
(56.7)
11.3
(52.3)
8.4
(47.1)
6.5
(43.7)
9.9
(49.8)
Record low °C (°F) −3.0
(26.6)
−2.6
(27.3)
−2.4
(27.7)
−0.6
(30.9)
2.0
(35.6)
5.6
(42.1)
8.0
(46.4)
8.4
(47.1)
6.5
(43.7)
3.0
(37.4)
−0.8
(30.6)
−3.0
(26.6)
−3.0
(26.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 103
(4.06)
88
(3.46)
82
(3.23)
99
(3.9)
79
(3.11)
61
(2.4)
47
(1.85)
60
(2.36)
73
(2.87)
116
(4.57)
134
(5.28)
117
(4.61)
1,062
(41.81)
Mean monthly sunshine hours 98 109 142 151 166 163 173 182 170 130 96 76 1,670
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[2]

History

St. Thomas church
Ferrera Park

Archaeological excavations have shown that the area was already settled in the upper palaeolithic era.

The existence of the town proper date is documented only in the early Middle Ages, although the name "Avilés" is thought to come from a local Roman landowner, Abilius.

The first well known document is an endowment of two churches by Asturias King Alfonso III, in 905. During the Middle Ages, it was one of the most important ports of the Biscay Bay, trading mainly with French ports, the main trade was salt. At this time, it had two nuclei: a fishermen's district, Sabugo, and the aristocratic centre, La Villa, standing each other across a small water inlet at the site of present-day Avilés' main Park. La Villa was surrounded by strong walls, which demonstrated its strategic and commercial importance. On 15 January 1479 the Catholic Monarchs granted a free market on each Monday of the year, which still takes place. The importance of the town as a naval centre is supported by the building of ships with wood harvested from nearby forests, and with the participation of local sailors in the conquest of Seville by the Castilian army, which is reflected in Avilés's coat of arms.

It is the birthplace of Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, a soldier on the army of Felipe II, who explored Florida in the 16th century and founded in 1565 the first successful (continuously populated) European town in what is now the United States, San Augustín (now St. Augustine, Florida). St. Augustine and Avilés are now sister cities. Avilés is also the birthplace of Juan Carreño Miranda, court painter to the king Charles II.

Los Franciscanos church.
Traditional Asturian dancers, in the annual 'Interceltic Festival of Avilés'
Port of Avilés.

The estuary, which had been closed to navigation since the early modern era, was partially drained and cleared in the 19th century. The water inlet dividing the place was covered, so that the two nuclei, Sabugo and La Villa, could be joined together. Then the city began to grow outside the medieval wall, which had been demolished in 1818. In the 20th century, there was an enormous growth in population due to the arrival of several large factories to the town. In 1953 were started the first earthworks for the construction of the factory of ENSIDESA, a large steel mill, currently Aceralia (part of ArcelorMittal); other companies in the area are Cristalería Española, which together with ENDASA, currently Alcoa, transformed Avilés into one of Spain's industrial centres. Nowadays, the city is trying to focus on new industries, particularly cultural tourism, and recover its antique flavour.

Culture

Architecture

Sights include:

  • St. Thomas of Canterbury church (dating from the 13th century)
  • Church of Saint Nicholas of Bari (12th-13th century), in Romanesque style
  • Palacio de Valdecarzana, the sole example of civil medieval architecture in the town
  • Palacio de Llano Ponte (1700–1706)
  • Baroque Palacio de Camposagrado, fortified in its north façade against the English pirates
  • Capilla de los Alas, a 14th-century funerary monument in Romanesque-Gothic transition style
  • Old church of Sabugo (13th century)
  • Palacio de Balsera, in Modernist style
  • Palacio Valdés Theatre, in Neobaroque style.
Avilés estuary and Ruta del acero
French garden in Ferrera Park

Museums and arts centres

.

Sculptures

Throughout the town there are sculptures in various styles: the set of sculptures in El Muelle park,[3] specially the Pedro Menendez sculpture and La foca (the seal); the Ruta del acero set of sculptures along the Avilés estuary; Avilés sculpture, and different ones such as: Marta y María, El hombre que escucha la piedra (the man who listens to the stone), El eslabón, Entre bambalines,[4] etc.

Feasts and traditions

Some of the most famous are:

  • In autumn:
    • Feast of the Amagüestu (Autumn).
  • In winter:
    • The Antroxu (Carnival in Asturian language) which includes the Descenso Fluvial de Galiana (Galiana's River Descent) (winter).
  • In spring:
    • Feast of the Bollo (the bollo is a traditional cake).[5]
    • Comida en la Calle (Lunch out in the street).

Festivals

Parishes

Notable people

Sister cities

References

  1. ^ "Aviles, Spain Climate Summary". Weatherbase. Retrieved 17 March 2015. 
  2. ^ "Valores Climatológicos Normales. Asturias Aeropuerto". Aemet.es. Retrieved 17 March 2015. 
  3. ^ , in SpanishConjunto Escultórico del Parque del Muelle
  4. ^ : Sculptures in Avilés, in SpanishEl Revistín
  5. ^ (in Spanish)Fiestas del Bollo
  6. ^ El Festival de Cine y Arquitectura es una cita que busca «romper todos los esquemas»
  7. ^ Avilés Acción
  8. ^ Sol Celta
  9. ^ IndieGo Alley Festival

Bibliography

  • Paseo ilustrado por el casco histórico de Avilés, Concejalía de Turismo, Ayuntamiento de Avilés, del Río, Alberto
  • Avilés, Ediciones: Mases, Ovies Ruiz, José Ramón
  • Asturias a través de sus concejos, Ediciones: Prensa Asturiana S.A.
  • Heráldica Institucional y Vexilología del Principado de Asturias, Ediciones: Principado de Asturias, Panizo Gómez, Eduardo
  • Avilés, una historia de mil años, Ediciones Azuzel, Juan Carlos de la Madrid
  • Avilés, su fe y sus obras, author's edition, Ángel Garralda García
  • Gran Enciclopedia Asturiana, Silverio Cañada, Several authors

External links

  • Municipality of Avilés
  • Avifoto - pictures of the city(requires flash)
  • Avilés Hall Webcam
  • Oscar Niemeyer International Cultural Centre
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