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Bass saxophone

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Title: Bass saxophone  
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Subject: Bass (sound), Subcontrabass saxophone, Oscar Rabin, C soprano saxophone, Saxophone
Collection: Bass (Sound), B-Flat Instruments, Saxophones
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Bass saxophone

Bass Saxophone
A 1920s Conn bass saxophone
Classification

Wind, woodwind

Aerophone
Hornbostel–Sachs classification 422.212-71
(Single-reeded aerophone with keys)
Inventor(s) Adolphe Sax
Developed 28th June 1846[1]
Playing range

In B: sounds two octaves and a major second lower than written
Related instruments

Military band family:


Orchestral family:


Other saxophones:

Musicians
More articles

The bass saxophone is one of the largest members of the saxophone family—larger than the more commonly encountered baritone saxophone. It was the first type of saxophone presented to the public, when Adolphe Sax presented a bass saxophone in C at an exhibition in Brussels in 1841. The modern bass saxophone is a transposing instrument pitched in B, an octave below the tenor saxophone. The bass saxophone is not commonly used in any music, but it is heard on some 1920s jazz recordings; in free jazz; and in the saxophone choir or "large ensemble" tradition.

The instrument was first used in 1844, both by musical theater: Leonard Bernstein’s original score for West Side Story includes bass saxophone, as does Meredith Willson’s Music Man and Sandy Wilson’s The Boy Friend. American composer Warren Benson has championed the use of the instrument in his music for concert band.

Although bass saxophones in C were made for orchestral use, modern instruments are in B. This puts them a perfect fourth lower than the baritone sax and an octave lower than the tenor sax. The range is similar to that of the B contrabass clarinet. Music is written in treble clef, just as for the other saxophones, with the pitches sounding two octaves and a major second lower than written. As with most other members of the saxophone family, the lowest written note is the B below the staff—sounding as a concert A in the first octave (~ 51.9 Hz).

Until the start of the 21st century, the largest existing member of the saxophone family was the rare contrabass, pitched in E, a perfect fifth lower than the bass. Inventor Adolphe Sax had a patent for a subcontrabass saxophone (or bourdon saxophone), but apparently never built a fully functioning instrument. In 1999, German wind instrument maker Benedikt Eppelsheim introduced the subcontrabass tubax, a modified saxophone pitched in B an octave below the bass saxophone.

Contents

  • In jazz 1
  • In rock 2
  • In classical music 3
  • Gallery 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

In jazz

The bass saxophone enjoyed some measure of popularity in jazz combos and dance bands between World War I and World War II, primarily providing bass lines, although players occasionally took melodic solos. Notable players of this era include Billy Fowler, Coleman Hawkins, Otto Hardwicke (of the Duke Ellington orchestra), Adrian Rollini, Min Leibrook, Spencer Clark, and Vern Brown of the Six Brown Brothers.[2] The bass sax become more scarce in standard jazz band instrumentation during the mid to late 20s. Sheet music of the period shows many bands photographed with a bass sax in their collection of instruments. It was sometimes played by the tuba or string bass player rather a member of the sax section.

American bandleader Boyd Raeburn (1913–1966), who led an avant-garde big band in the 1940s, was a sometime bass saxophonist. In Britain, the leader of the Oscar Rabin Band also played it. Harry Gold, a member of Rabin's band, played bass saxophone in his own band, Pieces of Eight. American bandleader Stan Kenton's "Mellophonium Orchestra" (1960–1963) featured fourteen brass players and used a saxophone section of one alto, two tenors, baritone, and bass on Johnny Richards' compositions. Joel Kaye played baritone and bass saxophone in that band. The ensemble recorded several successful albums, winning two Grammys.[3] The Lawrence Welk Band featured Bill Page soloing on bass sax on several broadcasts during the 60s. Shorty Rogers's Swingin' Nutcracker (recorded for RCA Victor in 1960) featured a bass saxophone on four of the movements (played by Bill Hood).

The 1970s traditional jazz band The Memphis Nighthawks built their sound around diminutive bass saxophonist Dave Feinman. Some revivalist bass saxophonists performing today in the 1920s-1930s style are Vince Giordano and Bert Brandsma, leader of the Dixieland Crackerjacks. Jazz players using the instrument in a more contemporary style include Roscoe Mitchell, Anthony Braxton, Peter Brötzmann, J. D. Parran, Hamiet Bluiett, James Carter, Stefan Zeniuk, Vinny Golia, Joseph Jarman, Brian Landrus, Urs Leimgruber, Tony Bevan, and Scott Robinson, although none of these uses it as his primary instrument.

In rock

Bass saxophonists in rock include:

In classical music

The bass saxophone is sometimes used as an instrument in concert bands, typically in arrangements made before 1950. It is used most frequently in saxophone choirs, specifically those in the direct legacy of teacher-soloist Sigurd Rascher.

It is rarely used in

Gallery

References

  1. ^ "June 28, 1846: Parisian Inventor Patents Saxophone". Wired.com. Retrieved 14 February 2011. 
  2. ^ "Six Brown Brothers". Redhotjazz.com. Retrieved 2014-05-19. 
  3. ^ "Stan Kenton Biography". Wayback.archive.org. Retrieved 2014-05-19. 

External links

  • BassSax.com web site
  • Bass saxophone page at www.contrabass.com, the "Contrabass Mania" web site
  • Innovative Bass Saxophone design from Eppelsheim
  • Six Brown Brothers
  • Vince Giordano plays bass saxophone on A Prairie Home Companion radio program, 9 April 2005
  • MP3 excerpt of first movement of "Sonatina Giacosa" for bass saxophone and piano (1987) by Walter S. Hartley, performed by Jay Easton
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s-8-HwK9aEk Watch Bert Brandsma in a bass saxophone feature: Sweet Georgia Brown, recorded April 28. 2007 (YouTube)
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