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Beijing Subway

Beijing Subway
Owner Beijing Municipal Government
Locale Beijing
Transit type Rapid transit
Number of lines 18
Number of stations 319[a]
Daily ridership 9.2786 million (2014 daily avg.)[1]
10.0876 million (2014 weekday avg.)[1]
11.78 million (Peak record)[2]
Annual ridership 3.41 billion (2014)[3]
Began operation 1 October 1969 (1969-10-01)
Operator(s) Beijing Mass Transit Railway Operation Corp., Ltd
Beijing MTR Corp. Ltd.
Number of vehicles 4688 Revenue Railcars[3]
System length 527 km (327 mi)[3]
Track gauge 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) (standard gauge)
Beijing Subway
Simplified Chinese 北京地铁
Traditional Chinese 北京地鐵

The Beijing Subway is a rapid transit rail network that serves the urban and suburban districts of Beijing municipality. The network has 18 lines, 319 stations[a] and 527 km (327 mi) of track in operation,[4] and is the second longest subway system in the world after the Shanghai Metro. The subway is the world's busiest in annual ridership, with 3.41 billion trips delivered in 2014,[3] averaging 9.2786 million per day, with peak single-day ridership reaching 11.5595 million.[1]

The Beijing Subway opened in 1969 and is the oldest metro system in mainland China. The subway has undergone rapid expansion since 2002, as only two lines were in service before then. The most recent expansion came into effect on December 28, 2014 with the opening of Line 7, and sections of Lines 6, 14, and 15. The existing network still cannot adequately meet the city's mass transit needs and extensive expansion plans call for 1,050 km (650 mi) of track by 2020.[5][6]

The Beijing Subway is owned by the city of Beijing and has two operators, the wholly state-owned Beijing Mass Transit Railway Operation Corp., which operates 15 lines, and the Beijing MTR Corp., a public–private joint venture with the Hong Kong MTR, which manages the other three lines.


  • Fares 1
    • Distance-based fare 1.1
    • Fare collection 1.2
    • Previous fare schedules 1.3
  • Hours of operation 2
  • Lines 3
    • Lines serving the urban core 3.1
    • Lines to outlying suburbs 3.2
    • Future lines 3.3
      • Monorail 3.3.1
  • History 4
    • 1953–1965: origins 4.1
    • 1965–1981: the slow beginning 4.2
    • 1981–2000: two lines for two decades 4.3
    • 2001–2008: planning for the Olympics 4.4
    • 2008–present: rapid expansion 4.5
  • Ridership 5
  • Rolling stock 6
  • System upgrades 7
    • Capacity 7.1
    • Transfers 7.2
    • Cellular network coverage 7.3
    • Wheelchair access 7.4
    • Information hotline and Android App 7.5
    • Automatic fare collection 7.6
  • Safety 8
    • Passenger searches 8.1
    • Emergency planning 8.2
    • Accidents 8.3
  • Logo 9
  • Subway Culture Park 10
  • Beijing Suburban Railway 11
  • See also 12
  • Notes 13
  • References 14
  • External links 15


Distance-based fare

Distance-based fare schedule
Fare Trip distance
¥3 <6 km
¥4 6–12 km
¥5 12–22 km
¥6 22–32 km
¥7 32–52 km
¥8 52–72 km
¥9 72–92 km
¥10 92–112 km

The Beijing Subway switched from a fixed-fare to a distance-based fare schedule for all lines except the Airport Express on December 28, 2014.[7] Fares start at ¥3 for a trip up to 6 km in distance, with ¥1 added for the next 6 km, for every 10 km thereafter until the trip distance reaches 32 km, and for every 20 km beyond the first 32 km.[7] For example, a 40 km trip would cost ¥7. The Airport Express cost ¥25 per ride.[8]

Riders can look up fares by checking fare schedules posted in stations, calling the subway hotline 96165, going to the Beijing Subway website, or using the subway's smartphone app.

Children below 1.3 metres (51 in) in height ride for free when accompanied by a paying adult.[9] Senior citizens over the age of 65, individuals with physical disabilities, retired revolutionary cadres, police and army veterans who had been wounded in action, military personnel and People's Armed Police can ride the subway for free.[10]

Fare collection

Discounts for Yikatong card users
Net expenditure
after credit rebate
Net discount
¥50 ¥50 0%
¥100 ¥100 0%
¥150 ¥140 6.67%
¥200 ¥165 17.5%
¥250 ¥190 24%
¥300 ¥215 28.3%
¥350 ¥240 31.4%
¥400 ¥265 33.75%
¥450 ¥315 30%
¥500 ¥365 27%

The subway's fare collection gates accept single-ride tickets and the Yikatong fare card. The Yikatong, also known as the One Card Through Card, is an integrated circuit card that stores credit for the subway, urban and suburban buses and e-money for other purchases.[11] Riders can purchase tickets and add credit to Yikatong card at ticket counters or vending machines in every station. The Yikatong card itself must be purchased at the ticket counter.

Beijing Subway fare media
The Yikatong card

Riders must insert the ticket or tap the card at the gate both before entering and exiting the station. To prevent fraud, riders are required to complete their journeys within four hours upon entering the subway.[10] If the four-hour limit is exceeded, a surcharge of ¥3 is imposed.[12]

To enter a station, the Yikatong card must have a minimum balance of ¥3.00.[13] Each Yikatong card is allowed to be overdrawn once. The overdrawn amount is deducted when credits are added to the card.[14]

Yikatong card users who spend more than ¥100 on subway fare in a calendar month will receive credits to their card the following month.[7] After reaching ¥100 of spending in one calendar month, 20% of any further spending up to ¥150 will be credited. When spending exceeds ¥150, 50% of any further spending up to ¥250 will be credited.[7] Once expenditures exceed ¥400, further spending will not earn any more credits.[7] The credits are designed to ease commuters' burdens of fare increases.[7]

Previous fare schedules

Prior to the December 28, 2014 fare increase, a flat rate of RMB(¥) 2.00 with unlimited transfers applied to all lines except the Airport Express, which cost ¥25.[15] The flat fare was the lowest among metro systems in China.[16]

Before the flat fare schedule was introduced on October 7, 2007, fares ranged from ¥3 to ¥7, depending on the line and number of transfers.

Hours of operation

The subway is generally closed after midnight, unless a special occasion prompts extended operating hours.[c] The first trains depart terminals at around 5 am and the last leave at around 11 pm. The Airport Express train starts at around 6 am.


Beijing Subway lines generally follow the checkerboard layout of the city. Most lines through the urban core (outlined by the Line 10 loop) run parallel or perpendicular to each other and intersect at right angles. Of the 18 lines, 12 are numbered and the other six are named after suburban destinations. One line is split into two pieces.

Line & Colour Terminals
(# above ground)
01     Line 1 Pingguoyuan
Sihui East
1969 1999 30.4 23 (2)  2   4   5   9   10   Batong 
02     Line 2
Beijing Railway Station (Dongcheng) 1971 1987 23.1 18  1   4   5   6   8   13   Airport 
04     Line 4
Anheqiao North
2009 2010[b] 28.2 24 (1)  1   2   6   7   9   10   13   Daxing [b]
05     Line 5 Tiantongyuan North
2007 27.6 23 (7)  1   2   6   7   10   13   Yizhuang 
06     Line 6 Haidian Wuluju
2012 2014 42.8 26[a]  2   4   5   8   9   10   14 
07     Line 7 Beijing West Railway Station
2014 23.7 19[a]  4   5   9 
08     Line 8 Zhuxinzhuang
2008 2013 26.6 17 (1)[a]  2   6   10   13   15   Changping 
09     Line 9 National Library
2011 2012 16.5 13  1   4   6   7   10   14   Fangshan 
10     Line 10
2008 2013 57.1 45  1   4   5   6   8   9   13   14   Yizhuang   Airport 
13     Line 13 Xizhimen
2002 2003 40.9 16 (15)  2   4   5   8   10   15   Changping   Airport 
14     Line 14
2013 2014 12.4 07 (2)[a]  9   10 
14     Line 14
2014 14.8 10[a]  6   15 
15     Line 15 Qinghuadongluxikou
2010 2014 45.7 18 (4)[a]  8   13   14 
BT     Batong Line Sihui
2003 18.9 13 (13)  1 
CP     Changping Line Nanshao
2010 21.24 077 (6)  8   13 
DX     Daxing Line
2010 21.7 12 (1)  4 [b]
FS     Fangshan Line Guogongzhuang
2010 2011 24.79 11 (9)  9 
YZ     Yizhuang Line Songjiazhuang
2010 23.3 13 (8)[a]  5   10 
AE     Airport Express Dongzhimen
Terminal 2 (Chaoyang)
Terminal 3 (Shunyi)
2008 28.1 04 (1)  2   10   13 
Total 527 319[a]
Schematic map of Beijing Subway lines in operation. (Not to scale)

Lines serving the urban core

Lines to outlying suburbs

The following lines run from the edge of the urban core to outer suburbs beyond the Fifth Ring Road.

Future lines

There are at least seven lines under construction with work on several more lines set to begin in 2015.

In January 2010, the government of Shijingshan District disclosed plans for a Line 11 in western Beijing that would traverse the Beijing Capital Steel complex and intersect with Lines 1 and 4.[18] Construction was set to begin in 2020.

To address the city's worsening traffic congestion problem, in December 2010 city planners moved the construction of several lines from the 13th Five Year Plan to the 12th Five Year Plan. This means Lines 8 (Phase III), 3, 12, 16, the Yanfang Line, as well as additional lines to Changping, Tiantongyuan, and Haidian were to begin construction before 2015.[19] Previously, Lines 3, 11, 12 and 16 were being planned for the more distant future.[20][21]

According to expansion plans announced in January 2011, in 2015 the subway network was to reach track density of 0.51 km per km2 (0.82 mi per sq. mi.) inside the Fifth Ring Road where residents would on average have to walk 1 km (0.62 mi) to the nearest subway station.[22]

A map showing Beijing subway lines in operation by the end of 2014 (solid lines) and subway and monorail lines then projected for completion before the end of 2021 (dashed lines). This map is not drawn to scale.

The new lines will significantly expand the subway's coverage, especially south and west of the city. Line 16 will run parallel and to the west of Line 4. Line 14's two sections will be connected into an inverted L-shaped line that pivots in the southeast. The Fangshan Line will be extended to the Third Ring Road and be connected with Lines 10 and 16.[23] The Western Suburban and Yanfang Lines will link outlying districts to the Beijing Subway.

In February 2012, the city government confirmed that six new lines, including Lines 3, 12, 17, 19, and R1 were under planning.[24] Line 17, also known as R2 is planned to run north-south, parallel and to the east of Line 5, from Future Technology City to Yizhuang.[25] Line 19, also known as R3, is planned to run north-south, between Lines 16 and 4.[26]

In the latter half of 2015, Lines 3, 12, 17, 19 and the New Airport Line along with the eastern extension of Line 7 were slated to begin construction.[27]

Details of future subway lines
Line Phase & Section Terminals
Route Description Construction
Stations Refs
2015 Changping
Phase II Nanshao Ming Tombs Scenic Area
extends Changping Line to Ming Tombs. 2011 10.6 5 [28][29][30][31][32][33]
Line 14 Phase II Central Section You'anmenwai Jintailu J-shaped line, from the southwest corner of the city to the southeast corner, through Beijing South Station, then turning north to Guangqu Lu. Apr. 2010 16.3 13 [28][34][35][36][37][38]
2016 Line 6 Phase III Jin'anqiao
Haidian Wuluju
extends Line 6 east to Shijingshan District 2013 10.29 6 [33][39][40]
Line 8 Phase III South Section Zhushikou
Southern section of a new north-south axis to Daxing District. 2013 13 [33][41][42][43][44]
Line 16 Beianhe
Xiyuan Station
Section formerly known as Haidian Shanhou Line 2013 10 [33][45][45][46][47][48][49]
Fangshan Line West extension Yancun North
connects Fangshan Line to Yanfang Line 2014 2.2 1 [50]
Yanfang Line Main Line Yancun North
Yanhua extends Fangshan Line west to Yanshan Sinopec Center. 2013 14.4 8 [33][45][50][51][52]
Fragrant Hills
light rail or tram from the northwest corner of Line 10 to the Fragrant Hills. 2010 9.1 7 [31][45][53][54]
2017 Line 8 Phase III North Section Museum of Art
Central section of Line 8 through Qianmen and Yongdingmen completing the central north-south axis. 2013 3 [42]
Line 16 Xiyuan Station
Urban Section 2013 19 [55]
2018 Airport Express Western Extension Dongzhimen
Extension to Line 5 2015 1.9 1 [56][57]
2019 Line 14 Lize Section You'anmenwai
Completes Line 14 4.3 4 [58]
Line 17 (R2) Wangjing West
Yizhuang Railway Station
North-south express line via Dongdaqiao, Yonganli and Shilihe 49.7 20 [25][59][60]
Fangshan Line North extension Guogongzhuang
connects Fangshan Line to Line 16 2016 4.6 4 [50][61]
New Airport Line Mudanyuan Beijing Daxing International Airport Connecting to a proposed new Beijing Airport 59.2 5 .[31][60][62][63][64]
Line 19 (R3) 1st Phase Xingong
North South express line 2015 22.4 10 [60]
Before 2020 Line 3 Tiancun Dongba East-west line parallel to line 6 37 29
Line 7 Jiaohuachang Universal Studios Eastern extension 17.2 7 [60]
Line 9 Phase 2 North Extension National Library Xi'erqi Extends Line 9 north 17.1 10 [65]
Line 12 Tiancun Jiuxianqiao Following the North Third Ring Road 24 20 [60]
Line 18 (R1) Shang'ancun
An express line, running under Line 1 55 15


Beijing planning authorities are also assessing mass transit monorail lines for areas of the city in which subway construction or operation is difficult.[66] Straddle beam monorail trains have lower transport capacity and operating speed (60 km/h) than conventional subways, but they are quieter to operate, have smaller turning radius and better climbing capability, and cost only one-third to one-half of subways to build.[66][67] According to the initial environmental assessment report by the Chinese Academy of Rail Sciences, the Yuquan Lu Line is planned to have 21 stations over 24.966 km in western Beijing.[68] The line was to begin construction in 2014 and would take two years to complete.[66] Another monorail line, the Dongsihuan Line (named for the Eastern Fourth Ring Road it was to follow), was planned to have 21 stations over 36 km.[67][67] In early 2015, projects of both monorail lines were indefinitely shelved, due to resident opposition.[69] Both lines remain on the city's 2020 transportation plan, and may be built as conventional below-ground subway lines.


Schema showing the development of the Beijing Subway from 1971 to 2014

1953–1965: origins

The subway was proposed in September 1953 by the city's planning committee and experts from the Soviet Union.[70] After the end of the Korean War, Chinese leaders turned their attention to domestic reconstruction. They were keen to expand Beijing's mass transit capacity but also valued the subway as an asset for civil defense. They studied the use of the Moscow Metro to protect civilians, move troops and headquarter military command posts during the Battle of Moscow, and planned the Beijing Subway for both civilian and military use.[70]

The Chinese lacked expertise in building subways and drew heavily on Soviet and East German technical assistance. In 1954, a delegation of Soviet engineers, including some who had built the Moscow Metro, was invited to plan the subway in Beijing.[70] From 1953 to 1960, several thousand Chinese students were sent to the Soviet Union to study subway construction.[70] An early plan unveiled in 1957 called for one ring route and six other lines with 114 stations and 172 km (107 mi) of track.[70] Two routes vied for the first to be built. One ran east-west from Wukesong to Hongmiao, underneath Changan Avenue. The other ran north-south from the Summer Palace to Zhongshan Park, via Xizhimen and Xisi. The former was chosen due to more favorable geological foundation and greater number of government bureaus served. The second route would not be built until construction on Line 4 began forty years later.

The deterioration of relations between China and Soviet Union disrupted subway planning. Soviet experts began to leave in 1960, and were completely withdrawn by 1963.[71] In 1961, the entire project was halted temporarily due to severe hardships caused by the Great Leap Forward. Eventually, planning work resumed. The route of the initial line was shifted westward to create an underground conduit to move personnel from the heart of the capital to the Western Hills. On February 4, 1965, Chairman Mao Zedong personally approved the project.[72]

1965–1981: the slow beginning

Many areas of Beijing's city walls were torn down during the construction of the subway. The route of the initial subway line was slightly altered to save Qianmen gate (above) and its archery tower (visible at far right).
Satellite image of the construction of initial line shot by US spy satellite Corona KH-4B on 20 September 1967.
Entrance to the Fushouling Station, once designated terminus of Line 1 but never opened to the public.
Entrance to the Wukesong Station on Line 1

Construction began on July 1, 1965, at a ceremony attended by national leaders including Zhu De, Deng Xiaoping, and mayor Peng Zhen.[73] The most controversial outcome of the initial subway line was the demolition of the Beijing's historic inner city wall to make way for the subway. Construction plans for the subway from Fuxingmen to the Beijing Railway Station called for the removal of the wall, as well as the gates and archery towers at Hepingmen, Qianmen, and Chongwenmen. Leading architect Liang Sicheng argued for protecting the wall as a landmark of the ancient capital. Chairman Mao favored demolishing the wall over demolishing homes. In the end, Premier Zhou Enlai managed to preserve several walls and gates, such as the Qianmen gate and its arrow tower by slightly altering the course of the subway.[74]

Plans of the Beijing Subway network

The initial line was completed and began trial operations in time to mark the 20th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic on October 1, 1969.[72][75] It ran 21 km (13 mi) from the army barracks at Fushouling to the Beijing Railway Station and had 16 stations.[72] This line forms parts of present-day Lines 1 and 2. It was the first subway to be built in China, and predates the metros of Hong Kong, Seoul, Singapore, San Francisco, and Washington, D.C., but technical problems would plague the project for the next decade.

Initially, the subway hosted guest visits.[72] On November 11, 1969, an electrical fire killed three people, injured over 100 and destroyed two cars.[72] Premier Zhou Enlai placed the subway under the control of the People's Liberation Army in early 1970, but reliability problems persisted.[72]

On January 15, 1971, the initial line began operation on a trial basis between the Beijing Railway Station and Gongzhufen.[76] Single ride fare was set at ¥0.10 and only members of the public with credential letters from their work units could purchase tickets.[76] The line was 10.7 km in length, had 10 stations and operated more than 60 train trips per day with a minimum wait time of 14 minutes.[76] On August 15, the initial line was extended to Yuquan Lu and had 13 stations over 15.6 km.[76] On November 7, the line was extended again, to Gucheng Lu, and had 16 stations over 22.87 km.[76] The number of trains per day rose to 100. Overall, the line delivered 8.28 million rides in 1971, averaging 28,000 riders per day.[76]

From 1971 to 1975, the subway was shut down for 398 days for political reasons.[e] On December 27, 1972, the riders no longer needed to present credential letters to purchase tickets.[76] In 1972, the subway delivered 15 million rides and averaged 41,000 riders per day.[76] In 1973, the line was extended to Pingguoyuan and reached 23.6 km in length with 17 stations and 132 train trips per day.[76] The line delivered 11 million rides in 1973, averaging 54,000 riders per day.[76]

Despite its return to civilian control in 1976, the subway remained prone to closures due to fires, flooding, and accidents. Annual ridership grew from 22.2 million in 1976 and 28.4 million in 1977 to 30.9 million in 1978, and 55.2 million in 1980.[76]

1981–2000: two lines for two decades

On April 20, 1981, the

  • a. ^ As of December 28, 2014, the number of unique stations in operation is 268. The unique station count treats the multiple platforms of a station complex as one station. If each station complex's platforms are counted as separate stations, then the total number of stations in operation as of December 28, 2014 would be 319.
    The unique station count of 268 excludes: the Erligou, Tongyunmen and Beiyunhe East Stations on Line 6, the Shuangjing and Fatou Stations on Line 7, the Andelibeijie and National Art Museum Stations on Line 8, the Chaoyang Park and Gaojiayuan Stations on Line 14, the Datunlu East and Wangjing East Stations on Line 15 and the Yizhuang Railway Station on the Yizhuang Line, which were not in use as of December 28, 2014. Also excluded are the three restricted stations of Line 1, which are no longer used.
    The total station count of 319 excludes the stations listed above and treats the Gongyixiqiao Station as two stations, as the southern terminus for Line 4 and northern terminus for the Daxing Line, even though through-train service have effectively transformed the two lines into a single line for which the Gongyixiqiao Station is (usually) not a terminus but a single station.
  • b. ^ With the opening of the Daxing Line on December 30, 2010 the Beijing MTR Corporation operates service on Lines 4 and Daxing as follows:[169][170]
    • A loop that covers both lines, from Anheqiao North, the northern terminus of Line 4, to Tiangongyuan, the southern terminus of the Daxing Line.
    • A loop that covers Line 4 plus one stop on the Daxing Line, from Anheqiao North to Xingong, the northernmost stop on the Daxing Line. Travelers wishing to proceed further south on the Daxing Line have to switch to a south-bound full-route train.
  • c. ^ The subway operated throughout the night from Aug. 8-9, 2008 to accommodate the Opening Ceremonies of the Olympic Games, and is extending evening operations of all lines by one to three hours (to 1-2 a.m.) through the duration of the Games.[171]
  • d. ^ There is no subway stop at the 12th gate, Deshengmen, between Jishuitan Station and Gulou Dajie Station.
  • e. ^ From August 12, 1973 to June 30, 1974 and in January 1975, the subway was closed due to defense mobilization.[172] It was closed from September 13 to November 6, 1971 in the aftermath of the Lin Biao Incident and on September 18, 1976 after the death of Chairman Mao.[172]
  • f. ^ As of December 28, 2014, Line 14 has two sections in operation—from Zhangguozhuang to Xiju in the west and Jintailu to Shan'gezhuang in the east. The two sections operate separately but will eventually be connected and is therefore counted as a single line.


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  37. ^ "地铁14号线". 北京市重大项目建设指挥部办公室. 2010-05-17. Retrieved 2011-01-08. 
  38. ^ "地铁14号线". 北京市重大项目建设指挥部办公室. 2010-03-09. Retrieved 2012-10-27. 
  39. ^ "北京地铁6号线西延工程变更公示". 中国铁道科学研究院. 2013-11-21. Retrieved 2013-11-21. 
  40. ^ "北京地铁6号线西延段放弃采用磁悬浮形式". 2011-04-03. Retrieved 2012-10-27. 
  41. ^ 韩旭 (2014-02-20). "8号线三期南延线首次进行环评公示". 京华时报. Retrieved 2014-03-01. 
  42. ^ a b "关于北京地铁8号线三期规划展览的说明". 北京市规划委员会. Retrieved 2013-10-03. 
  43. ^ "北京市城市轨道交通近期建设规划调整(2007~2016年)通过批准". 中华人民共和国国家发展和改革委员会. 2012-11-16. Retrieved 2012-11-16. 
  44. ^ "地铁8号线三期拟年内开工". 2011-04-17. Retrieved 2012-10-27. 
  45. ^ a b c d "2015年底前陆续投入运营 在建215公里创历年之最". 北京日报. 2011-03-01. Retrieved 2011-03-02. 
  46. ^ "北京地铁16号线工程环境影响报告信息公告". 铁道第三勘察设计院集团有限公司. 2011-04-08. Retrieved 2011-04-10. 
  47. ^ "北京地铁16号线工程环境影响报告书简本". 铁道第三勘察设计院集团有限公司. 2012-10-26. Retrieved 2012-10-27. 
  48. ^ "地铁下月开工16号线". 京华时报、京华网. 2013-02-17. Retrieved access. 
  49. ^ "北京地铁十六号线二期(原海淀山后线)工程环境影响评价信息二次公示". 铁道第三勘察设计院集团有限公司. 2013-12-10. Retrieved 2013-12-10. 
  50. ^ a b c "我区全力推进轨道交通燕房线建设". 北京市房山区新闻中心. 2013-08-14. Retrieved 2013-08-29. 
  51. ^ "燕房线环评公示预计三年后通车". 2010-12-26. Retrieved 2011-04-27. 
  52. ^ 陈琳 (2013-03-29). "燕房线调整方案环评公示". 北京晨报. Retrieved 2013-08-29. 
  53. ^ "北京现代有轨电车西郊线规划方案公告". 北京市规划委员会. Retrieved 2011-09-30. 
  54. ^ 涂露芳 (2013-11-20). "2015年北京巴沟直通香山的西郊线或开通运营". 北京日报. Retrieved 2013-12-06. 
  55. ^ 曹政 (2015-04-03). "16号线北段有望明年底开通". 北京日报. Retrieved 2015-05-30. 
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  57. ^ "《北京市轨道交通首都机场线西延工程》环境影响评价公众参与第二次公示". 北京市环境保护科学研究院. Retrieved 2014-06-18. 
  58. ^ 曹政 王飞雁 (2015-01-29). "地铁14号线中段大部分年内开通". 北京日报. Retrieved 2015-01-29. 
  59. ^
  60. ^ a b c d e 黄海蕾 (2015-04-23). "3号线一期等6条地铁年内开建". 京华时报. Retrieved 2015-05-30. 
  61. ^
  62. ^ 蒲长廷 (2011-11-17). "新机场线跑7站半小时到城区". 法制晚报. Retrieved 2012-10-28. 
  63. ^ 陈琳 (2013-02-16). "北京新机场线三套方案公布 计划明年开工". 新华网. Retrieved 2013-02-16. 
  64. ^ (Chinese)Beijing Daily"新机场线城区起点为牡丹园站" 2014.2.9
  65. ^ "北京地铁的微博 9號綫二期". Retrieved 2013-12-04. 
  66. ^ a b c (Chinese) 北京首条"空中小火车"拟今年开工 新京报 2014-02-24
  67. ^ a b c (Chinese) 北京建空中东四环:跨座式单轨 造价为地铁1/3 法制晚报 2012-02-24
  68. ^ (Chinese) 北京轨道交通玉泉路线工程环境影响评价公众参与第一次公示 - 中国铁道科学研究院新闻中心通知公告正文 2014-01-07
  69. ^ Beijing canceled air train monorail line construction program 2015-02-03
  70. ^ a b c d e "北京地铁诞生记:周总理称筹建地铁是为备战" Part 1,北京日报 September 28, 2007
  71. ^ Id. Part 2
  72. ^ a b c d e f (Chinese) 北京市地铁公司地铁大事记"地铁公司1965 -- 1970年" 2009-04-24
  73. ^ The ceremony was not publicized at the time because the project was classified for its national security implications.
  74. ^ (Part 3)北京日报北京地铁诞生记:周总理称筹建地铁是为备战 Sept. 28, 2008
  75. ^ The initial line, originally slated for completion by 1968, was delayed by the onset of the Cultural Revolution. The original director of the project, General Yang Yong and much of the city government were purged in 1967. 毛泽东瞩目的著名将帅(二)"杨勇小传(5)" in (2003)
  76. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k (Chinese) 北京市地铁公司地铁大事记"地铁公司1971 -- 1980年" 2009-04-24
  77. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l (Chinese)地铁大事记"地铁公司1981 -- 1990年" 2009-04-24
  78. ^ a b c (Chinese) 地铁公司1991 -- 2000年" P1:1991-1993 2009-04-24
  79. ^ a b (Chinese) 北京市地铁公司"地铁公司1991 -- 2000年" P2: 1994-1997 2009-04-24
  80. ^ a b (Chinese) 北京市地铁公司"地铁公司1991 -- 2000年" P3:1998-2000 2009-04-24
  81. ^ (Chinese) 地铁大事记"地铁公司1991 – 2000年" 118
  82. ^ (Chinese) "北京地铁四号、十号线年底开工 征地拆迁已启动" Nov. 14, 2003
  83. ^ "H.K. subway operator seeks Beijing projects". International Herald Tribune. 2009-03-29. Retrieved 2011-01-05. 
  84. ^ a b 第一财经日报到2015年北京地铁建设静态投资将达2000亿元 Oct. 29, 2008
  85. ^ 地铁大事记"地铁公司2001 – 2004年"
  86. ^ Id.
  87. ^ (Chinese) 地铁大事记"地铁公司1991 – 2000年" 103 & 122
  88. ^ 中广网2007年北京地铁运送乘客6.55亿人次 Jan. 2, 2008
  89. ^ China Daily"Beijing opens three new subways ahead of Olympics" July 19, 2008
  90. ^ XinhuaBeijing subway system busy during Olympics Aug. 27, 2008
  91. ^ (Chinese) Beijing Subway Official Website"北京地铁2008年运送乘客突破12亿人次" . Retrieved January 3, 2009.
  92. ^ (Chinese) 北京晚报Zhang, Nan and Meng Huan, "西郊线通往香山两年内有望开通" Dec. 11, 2008
  93. ^ Line 4 was originally scheduled to be completed by the end of 2007 see (Chinese) "北京地铁4号和10号线获审批2007年底投入运营" September 4, 2004; &; 北京地铁4号线特许经营案例 "北京地铁4号线今日开通 站内设施服务全接触"
  94. ^ Including 1.372 billion passengers of eight lines operated by Beijing Subway Operating Company, and 52.60 million passengers of Line 4 operated by Beijing MTR Corporation (Chinese)"北京地铁公司为轨道交通大发展做好充分准备". Archived from the original on 10 January 2010. Retrieved Jan 1, 2010. ; "北京地铁4号线元旦期间运送乘客超过180万人次" Jan. 1, 2010
  95. ^ (Chinese) 财经文摘"谁的地铁,谁做主?" Mar. 23, 2010
  96. ^ 5 new lines take metro to the edge China Daily
  97. ^ China DailyXu Wei, "Beijing launches three new subway sections" 2012-01-01
  98. ^ "Beijing Subway largest in the world". Voice of Russia. 30 December 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2013. 
  99. ^ "北京市2012年国民经济和社会发展统计公报". Beijing Stats. 2013-02-07. Retrieved 2013-02-18. 
  100. ^ a b c d (Chinese) "北京地铁10号线一圈57公里 创地下铁之最" 北京日报 2013-05-06
  101. ^ (Chinese) "京地铁8号线南北新线周六开通 中国美术馆站暂缓开通" <北京晚报> 2013-12-25
  102. ^ 杜燕 (2014-01-02). "北京地铁一年运客超32亿人次 同比增长近30%". 中国新闻网. Retrieved 2014-01-02. 
  103. ^ (Chinese) 北京地铁4条新线全景图公布(图) 2014-12-26
  104. ^ a b 北京地铁平价时代终结 将按里程收费(双语) 2014-09-25
  105. ^ a b (Chinese) "北京地铁建设投入已达2500亿 每公里成本超10亿" 中国网 2015-04-10
  106. ^ (Chinese) "发改委:北京地铁每公里造价已超过10亿元" 中国新闻网 2015-06-30
  107. ^
  108. ^ a b CNR website"Linear Motor Commuter for Beijing" Accessed Mar. 27, 2010
  109. ^ (Chinese) 北京14号线5月初先开7站 "大肚列车"可并肩站5人 Xinhua 2014-04-29
  110. ^ The M-series train that appeared on Lines 2 and 13 were made by Japan's Tokyu Car Corporation "东急" Accessed Mar. 28, 2010
  111. ^ (Chinese) 吉林日报 July 31, 2009
  112. ^ (Chinese) 中国南车中标北京地铁大兴线、八号线 July 30, 2009
  113. ^ (Chinese) 北京地铁再添"青岛造" 最高运营时速100公里 December 31, 2009
  114. ^ (Chinese) 新民晚报申通地铁集团董事长学习北京地铁应对客流之法 Mar. 9, 2010
  115. ^
  116. ^ "我市轨道交通网络化运营效果凸显". 北京市交通委员会. 2013-02-07. Retrieved 2013-09-15. 
  117. ^
  118. ^ "地铁2号线发车间隔将缩短为2分钟". 北京市地铁运营有限公司. 2009-04-16. Retrieved 2013-06-14. 
  119. ^ "地铁4号线晚高峰最小间隔缩短至2分10秒 早高峰最小行车间隔为2分钟". 北京京港地铁有限公司. 2012-03-26. Retrieved 2013-06-14. 
  120. ^ "1号线最小行车间隔缩短至2分05秒 早高峰运力提高8%". 北京市地铁运营有限公司. 2011-03-30. Retrieved 2013-06-14. 
  121. ^ "3月12日起1号线实施新编平日列车运行图运力再提高". 北京市地铁运营有限公司. 2012-03-11. Retrieved 2013-06-14. 
  122. ^ (Chinese) 北京地铁5号线下周起最快2分15秒一趟 北京日报 2014-12-27
  123. ^ (Chinese) 下周一起北京地铁8号线早高峰列车间隔缩短15秒 2014-12-26
  124. ^ (Chinese) Xinhuanet三条新线将开 北京地铁奥运最高日客流将达587万 July 17, 2008
  125. ^ (Chinese) Beijing Youth Daily13号线加挂两节车厢 July 21, 2008
  126. ^ (Chinese) 新京报北京地铁2号线全部更换空调车 Aug. 8, 2008
  127. ^ a b (Chinese) "北京四条新地铁线30日开通 首末车时间确定)" 2012-12-26
  128. ^ (Chinese) 法制晚报4条地铁线将装屏蔽门" Jan. 20, 2010
  129. ^ (Chinese)"首列北京地铁14号线A型地铁车辆在青岛下线" 2012-12-12
  130. ^ (Chinese) 北京市重大项目建设指挥部办公室"北京地铁十四号线工程列车编组7B改6A方案专题报告论证会召开" 2010-12-30
  131. ^ a b (Chinese) sina"北京地铁16号线有望用A型车 每趟多运500人" 2009-10-26
  132. ^ (Chinese) 新京报北京地铁重点车站为应对大客流早晚高峰将限流" Nov. 11, 2007
  133. ^ (Chinese) 京华时报"北京25个地铁站高峰常态限流" 2011-08-31
  134. ^ (Chinese video) 中国新闻网"北京八通线公布早高峰拥挤度与限流挂钩" 2011-09-05
  135. ^ (Chinese) 新京报"北京41地铁站公布常态限流时间 将精确到分钟" 2013-01-07
  136. ^
  137. ^ a b c (Chinese) Zhengwu"国贸东直门等四大换乘站拟择机改造 换乘不超5分钟" 2012-07-07
  138. ^ (Chinese) CCTV北京:地铁西直门站换13号线不再绕大圈" August 28, 2009
  139. ^ (Chinese) 北京地铁"24日地铁西直门站地下换乘通道正式启用 换乘方式变化大" 2011-09-22
  140. ^ (Chinese)"南锣鼓巷地铁站可双向同台换乘" 2012-05-17
  141. ^ (Chinese) Zhengwu"公主坟地铁站新建四个换乘厅 换乘不超过100米" 2012-03-28
  142. ^ (Chinese) "北京地铁"最复杂换乘站"开通:用时最少7分钟" 北京晨报 2013-12-23
  143. ^ "Mobile network to be accessible in Beijing subway". Retrieved 2011-01-05. 
  144. ^ xinhuaBeijing promises integrated subway service for disabled Aug. 27, 2008
  145. ^ All stations on Line 5 have elevators. Some of the older stations on Lines 1 and 2 have escalators that descend from the station entrances to the ticket counters one level below ground level but do not extend to the platform two levels below. In the summer of 2008, mechanical wheelchair lifts were installed next to staircases in these stations. Xinhua"北京地铁安装轮椅升降平台(组图)", June 20, 2008.
  146. ^ Beijing2008"New Beijing Subway Line 5 is passenger-friendly", Sept. 30, 2007
  147. ^ a b (Chinese) 北京地铁热线25日开通 解答8类问题 北京日报 2008-07-24
  148. ^ (Chinese) 北京地铁开通服务热线可查询地铁公交换乘信息 2008-07-24
  149. ^ (Chinese) 8号新线通了 地铁热线改成96165 北京青年报 2013-12-29
  150. ^ CityWeekend: The Official Beijingology Subway AFC Cheat Sheet (Part 3)/
  151. ^ The AFC machines are supplied by the following companies: Thales (Lines 1 & 2), Samsung SDS (Lines 4, 8 and 10, Founder, OMRON (Line 5), Nippon Signal (Lines 13 & Airport Express)
  152. ^"Beijing starts passenger security checks in all subway stations", June 29, 2008
  153. ^ (Chinese) 千龙网"元旦期间地铁客流将达840万 恢复"逢包必检" Dec. 31, 2008
  154. ^ (Chinese) "北京:拒不接受地铁安全检查将被处理" 《京华时报》 Mar. 18, 2009
  155. ^ Backgrounder: Major metro accidents in China
  156. ^ For example, 北京地铁一号线一男子跳轨事故最新情况 2009-07-17 and 北京地铁一号线因乘客跳下站台晚点 已恢复运营 2014-02-14
  157. ^ (Chinese)"北京地铁五号线"10•8"事故"
  158. ^ (Chinese) 法制晚报"北京地铁实习生误操作 一维修工电梯内被挤死" 2009-06-21
  159. ^ "Two killed in Beijing subway construction site accident" Xinhua 2010-07-14
  160. ^ a b (Chinese) Legal Daily北京地铁透水事故涉事官员贪贿近6千万被判死缓 2014-01-30
  161. ^ (Chinese) "北京地铁6号线工地发生塌方 一工人被埋身亡" 2011-06-01
  162. ^ "Xinhuan News - One dead, 28 injured in Beijing subway escalator accident" 2011-07-05
  163. ^
  164. ^ "South China Morning Post — Beijing subway passengers tried to raise alarm before accident victim was dragged to her death"
  165. ^ (Chinese) "中国地铁标志花样迭出 地铁建设如火如荼" 中国建筑新闻网 2012-06-04
  166. ^ a b (Chinese) XinhuaLi Zhiyong, "北京建成首座地铁主题文化公园" 2010-10-28
  167. ^ (Chinese) 千龙网本市规划建设6条市郊铁路 满足郊区市民出行 July 22, 2008
  168. ^ (Chinese) 千龙网本市首条市郊铁路8月初通车 记者体验"动车"S2线 July 22, 2008
  169. ^ "北京京港地铁有限公司". 2010-12-29. Retrieved 2011-01-05. 
  170. ^ "Beijing MTR Corporation Limited". 2010-09-27. Retrieved 2011-01-05. 
  171. ^ "北京地铁今起至23日延长运营时间". 2008-08-13. 
  172. ^ a b (Chinese)地铁大事记"地铁公司1971 -- 1980年" 1

External links

  • Official Beijing Subway Website (Chinese)
  • Official Beijing Subway Website (English)
  • Beijing Subway Schedule Timetable
  • Official Beijing MTR Website
  • Beijing Subway Information on
  • The Beijing Guide
  • Beijing Subway at
  • Beijing subway map (to scale)
  • Official Beijing Subway Model Train
Diagram showing distinct line labels for the Daxing Line and Line 4 with continuous train service


See also

The Beijing Suburban Railway, a suburban commuter train service, is managed separately from the Beijing Subway and has a different fare structure. Six "S"-numbered lines have been planned.[167] Line S2, opened August 6, 2008, runs from the Beijing North Railway Station to Yanqing County, and provides direct urban rail access to the Great Wall at Badaling.[168] The Beijing North Station is served by Xizhimen Subway Station (Subway Lines 2, 4, 13).

Beijing Suburban Railway

The Beijing Subway Culture Park, located near Xihongmen in Daxing District, opened in 2010 to commemorate the 40-year history of the Beijing Subway.[166] The 19 ha (47 acres) park was built using dirt and debris removed from the construction of the Daxing Line and contains old rolling stock, sculpture, and informational displays.[166] Admission to the park is free.

A decommissioned Line 1 car in the Beijing Subway Culture Park

Subway Culture Park

The subway's logo, a capital letter "G" encircling a capital letter "D" with the letter "B" silhouetted inside the letter D, was designed by Zhang Lide, a subway employee, and officially designated in April 1984.[165] The letters B, G, and D form the abbreviation for Běijīng gāosù diànchē or "Beijing high-speed electric carriage".

The logo of the Beijing Subway contains the subway's abbreviation, B.G.D.

On November 6, 2014, a woman was killed when she tried to board the train at Huixinxijie Nankou Station on Beijing Subway's Line 5. She became trapped between the train door and the platform edge door and was crushed to death by the departing train. The accident happened on the second day of APEC China 2014 meetings in the city during which the municipal government has banned cars from the roads on alternate days to ease congestion and reduce pollution during the summit – measures which the capital’s transport authorities have estimated would lead to an extra one million passengers on the subway every day.[164]

On May 4, 2013, a train derailed when it overran a section of track on Line 4. The section was not open to the public and was undergoing testing. There were no injuries.[163]

There have been several reported fatal incidents at subway construction sites in recent years. On October 8, 2003, the collapse of steel beams at the construction site of Line 5's Chongwenmen Station killed three workers and injured one.[157] On March 29, 2007, the construction site at the Suzhoujie Station on Line 10 collapsed, burying six workers. On June 6, 2008, prior to the opening of Line 10, a worker was crushed to death inside an escalator in Zhichunlu Station when an intern turned on the moving staircase.[158] On July 14, 2010, two workers were killed and eight were injured at the construction site of Line 15's Shunyi Station when the steel support structure collapsed on them.[159] On September 17, 2010, Line 9 tunnels under construction beneath Yuyuantan Lake were flooded, killing one worker.[160] A city official who oversaw waterworks contracts at the site was convicted of corruption and given a death sentence with reprieve.[160] On June 1, 2011, one worker was killed when a section of Line 6 under construction in Xicheng District near Pinganli collapsed.[161] A collapse of an escalator at the Beijing Zoo Station on July 5, 2011, caused the death of one 13-year-old boy and injuries to 28 others.[162]

The subway was plagued by numerous accidents in its early years, including a fire in 1969 that killed six people and injured over 200.[155] But its operations have improved dramatically and there have been few reported accidents in recent years. Most of the reported fatalities on the subway are the result of suicides.[156] Authorities have responded by installing doors on platforms of newer lines.


After witnessing several serious subway accidents in South Korea (e.g. Daegu subway fire in February 2003), the subway removed all shops and vendors from the inside of stations and installed self-illuminating exit signs to facilitate emergency evacuation. The popular underground mall at Xidan station was closed.

Emergency planning

To ensure public safety during the 2008 Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games, the subway initiated a three-month heightened security program from June 29 to September 20, 2008. Riders were subject to searches of their persons and belongings at all stations by security inspectors using metal detectors, X-Ray machines and sniffer dogs. Items banned from public transportation such as "guns, ammunition, knives, explosives, flammable and radioactive materials, and toxic chemicals" were subject to confiscation.[152] The security program was reinstituted during the 2009 New Year Holiday[153] and has since been made permanent through regulations enacted in February 2009.[154] Only bags are generally X-rayed (as of 2012), riders are checked only occasionally.

Since the 2008 Olympics, security checks of riders and bags have become mandatory on the Beijing Subway.

Passenger searches


Each station has two to 15 ticket vending machines.[150] Ticket vending machines on Line 4, 5, 6, 8, 10 and 14 and several on Line 1 and 2 can add credit to Yikatong cards.[151]

Automatic fare collection

The Beijing Subway has an official Android-based mobile application and a number of third-party apps.

The Beijing Subway telephone hotline was initiated on the eve of the 2008 Summer Olympic Games to provide traveler information, receive complaints and suggestions, and file lost and found reports.[147] The hotline combined the nine public service telephones of various subway departments.[148] On December 29, 2013, the hotline number was switched from (010)-6834-5678 to (010)-96165 for abbreviated dialing.[149] In December 2014, the hotline began offering fare information, as the subway switched to distance-based fare.[8] The hotline has staffed service from 5 am to midnight and has automated service during unstaffed hours.[147]

Information hotline and Android App

Each station is equipped with ramps, lifts, or elevators to facilitate wheelchair access.[144][145] Newer model train cars now provide space to accommodate wheelchairs.[146] Automated audio announcements for incoming trains are available in all lines except for Line 1. On all lines, station names are announced in Mandarin Chinese and English.

Wheelchair access

Mobile phones can currently be used throughout, except in the tunnels between stations on Lines 1 and 2. There are plans for all lines and stations to have cellular coverage.[143]

Cellular network coverage

In newer interchange stations, which are designed to permit more efficient transfers, the average transfer distance is 63 meters.[137] Many of the newer interchange stations including Guogongzhuang Station (Lines 9 and Fangshan), Nanluoguxiang (Lines 8 and 6), Zhuxinzhuang (Changping and Line 8), Beijing West Station (Lines 9 and 7), and National Library (Lines 9 and 4) feature cross platform transfers.[140] Nevertheless, longer transfer corridors must still be used when the alignment of the lines do not permit cross-platform transfer.[141] The transfer corridors between Lines 1 and 9 at the Military Museum, which opened on December 23, 2013, are 160 m in one direction and just under 300 m in the other.[142]

Interchange stations that permit transfers across two or more subway lines receive heavy traffic passenger flow. The older interchange stations are notorious for lengthy transfer corridors and slow transfers during peak hours. The average transfer distance an older interchange stations is 128 meters[137] The transfer between Lines 2 and 13 at Xizhimen was over 200 meters long and required 15 minutes to complete during rush hours.[138] In 2011, this station was rebuilt to reduce the transfer distance.[139] There are plans to rebuild other interchange stations such as Dongzhimen.[137]

At Wangjing West, an interchange station for Lines 13 and 15, passengers transferring between the two lines must pass through a lengthy transfer corridor that includes a pedestrian footbridge.


Despite these efforts, during the morning rush hour, conductors at line terminals and other busy stations must routinely restrict the number of passengers who can board each train to prevent the train from becoming too crowded for passengers waiting at other stations down the line.[132] As of August 31, 2011, 25 stations mainly on Lines 1, 5, 13, and Batong have imposed such restrictions.[133] Some of these stations have built queuing lines outside the stations to manage the flow of waiting passengers.[134] By January 7, 2013, 41 stations on Lines 1, 2, 5, 13, Batong, and Changping had instituted passenger flow restrictions during the morning rush hour.[135] The number of stations with passenger flow restrictions reached 69 in October 2015, mostly affecting Lines 1, 5, 6, 10, 13, Batong, and Changping.[136]

The articulated cars of Line 5 trains have greater carrying capacity.

Lines 13 and Batong have converted 4-car to 6-car trains.[125][126] Lines 6[127] and 7 have longer platforms that can accommodate 8-car B size trains,[128] while line 14 uses high capacity wide-body A size trains in 6 car sets.[129][130] Lines 3, 11, 12, 16[131] and Haidian Shanhou[131] under planning will adopt high capcity 8-car A size trains.[127]

A crowded transfer corridor on Line 10.

With new lines drawing more riders to the network, the subway has experienced severe overcrowding, especially during the rush hour.[114] As of 2015, significant sections of Lines 1, 4 - Daxing, 5, 10,[115] 13, Batong and Changping are officially over capacity during rush hour.[116] In short term response, the subway upgraded signal equipment to increase the frequency of trains which added additional capacity to the subway lines. Average headways has been reduced to 2 min. on Lines 2, 4, and 10;[117][118][119] 2 min. 05 sec. on Line 1;[120][121] 2 min. 15 sec. on Lines 5[122] 3 min. on Lines 13 and Batong; 3 min. 30 sec. on Line 8;[123] and 15 min. on the Airport Express.[124]

Queuing barriers outside the Beijing Railway Station are used to restrict the flow of passengers into the subway at peak times.


System upgrades

The Beijing Subway Rolling Stock Equipment Co. Ltd., a wholly owned subsidiary of the Beijing Mass Transit Railway Operation Corp. Ltd., provides local assemblage, maintenance and repair services.

Until 2003 nearly all trains were manufactured by the Changchun Railway Vehicles Company Ltd., now a subsidiary of the China CNR Corporation.[110] Currently, all trains on Lines 2, 5, 8, 10, 13, Airport Express and older models on Line 1 are made by Changchun RVC, which is under contract to supply trains for Lines Yizhuang, 9 and 10 (Phase II).[108][111] The newest Line 1 trains and those on Lines 4, 8, Batong, Changping and Daxing are made by Qingdao Sifang Locomotive & Rolling Stock Co., a subsidiary of China South Locomotive and Rolling Stock Industry Corp..[112][113]

Most Beijing Subway rolling stock, such as this DKZ5 Line 13 train, draw power from the third rail.
Line 6 and 14 trains (pictured above) draw power from overhead electrical lines.

All subway trains run on 1,435 millimetres (56.5 in) standard gauge rail and draw power from the 750 V DC third rail, with the exception of trains on Lines 6 and 14, which use overhead wires. All lines operate 6-car train sets with a maximum speed of 80 km/h (50 mph), except Lines 6 and 7, which use 8-car sets that can reach 100 km/h (62 mph), and the Airport Express, which has 4-car sets with a maximum speed of 110 km/h (68 mph).[107][108] Line 14 trains feature wide-bodied Type-A cars that have a designed capacity of 430 passengers per car, 30% greater than Type-B cars with 310 passengers per car.[109] Type-B cars are used on all other lines except the Airport Express, whose cars can seat 230 passengers.

Rolling stock


From 2007 to 2014, the cost of subway construction in Beijing rose sharply from ¥0.571 billion per km to ¥1.007 billion per km.[105][106] The cost includes land acquisition, compensation to relocate residents and firms, actual construction costs and equipment purchase. In 2014, city budgeted ¥15.5 billion for subway construction, and the remainder of subway building costs was financed by the Beijing Infrastructure Investment Co. LTD, a city-owned investment firm.[105]

On December 28, 2014, the subway network expanded by 62.2 km (38.6 mi) to 18 lines and 527 km (327 mi) with the opening of Line 7, the eastern extension of line 6 (from Caofang to Lucheng), the eastern section of line 14 (from Jintailu to Shan'gezhuang), and the western extension of line 15 (from Wangjing West to Qinghuadonglu Xikou).[4][103] At the same time, the ¥2 flat-rate fare was replaced with a variable-rate fare (a minimum of ¥3), to cover operation costs.[104][104] In 2014, the subway delivered 3.387 billion rides, an increase of 5.68% from the year before.[3] Average daily and weekday ridership also set new highs of 9.2786 million and 10.0876 million, respectively.[1]

On December 28, 2013, two sections were added to Line 8, which extended the line north to Zhuxinzhuang and south to Nanluoguxiang.[101] In 2013, the subway delivered 3.209 billion rides, an increase of 30% from the year before.[102]

On May 5, 2013, the Line 10 loop was completed with the opening of the Xiju-Shoujingmao section and the Jiaomen East Station.[100] The 57 km (35 mi) loop line became the longest underground subway loop in the world.[100] On the same day, the first section of Line 14 from Zhangguozhuang to Xiju also entered operation, ahead of the opening of the Ninth China International Garden Expo in Fengtai District.[100] The subway's total length reached 456 km (283 mi).[100]

On December 30, 2012, Line 6 (Phase I from Haidian Wuluju to Caofang), the extension of Line 8 from Beitucheng south to Gulou Dajie (except Andelibeijie Station), the remainder of Line 9 (except Military Museum Station) and the remainder of the Line 10 loop (except the Xiju-Shoujingmao section and Jiaomen East Station) entered service. The addition of 69.8 km (43 mi) of track increased the network length to 442 km (275 mi) and allowed the subway to overtake the Shanghai Metro, for several months, as the world’s longest metro.[98] The subway delivered 2.46 billion rides in 2012.[99]

Beijing Television interviewed subway officials on December 30, 2012, when over 40 new stations were open, and the subway became the longest in the world. The interview took place on Guloudajie Station, Line 8, one of the new stations opened on that day
Nanluoguxiang Station on Line 6 blends into the traditional courtyard neighborhood of central Beijing.
Line 8’s concourse in Guloudajie Station with drum-shaped lights inspired by nearby Drum Tower.
Interior décor of Beihai North Station evokes the white stupa of Beihai Park.
Mural in Chaoyangmen Station depicting the shipment of grain from the Grand Canal to the granaries inside Chaoyangmen during imperial times.

On December 30, 2010, five suburban lines: Lines 15 (Phase I from Wangjing West to Houshayu except Wangjing East Station), Changping, Fangshan (except Guogongzhuang Station), Yizhuang (except Yizhuang Railway Station), and Daxing, commenced operation.[96] The addition of 108 km (67 mi) of track, a nearly 50% increase, made the subway the fourth longest metro in the world. One year later, on December 31, 2011, the subway surpassed the New York City Subway to become the third longest metro in revenue track length with the extension of Line 8 north from the Olympic Green to Huilongguan, the opening of Line 9 in southwest Beijing from Beijing West Railway Station to Guogongzhuang (except Fengtai Dongdajie Station, which opened on October 12, 2012), the extension of the Fangshan Line to Guogongzhuang, and the extension of Line 15 from Houshayu to Fengbo in central Shunyi.[97] Ridership reached 2.18 billion in 2011.

Shahe Station on the Changping Line
Changyang Station on the Fangshan Line
Yizhuang Culture Park Station on the Yizhuang Line
On December 30, 2010, Lines 15, Changping, Fangshan, Yizhuang and Daxing, all suburban lines, commenced operation.

Line 4 started operation on September 28, 2009, bringing subway service to much of western Beijing.[93] It is managed by the Hong Kong MTR through a joint venture with the city. In 2009, the subway delivered 1.457 billion rides,[94] 19.24% of mass transit trips in Beijing.[95]

All stations built since 2007 have platform doors, including the Weigongcun Station on Line 4, which opened September 28, 2009.
Entrance D to Xisi Station on Line 4. Each station entrance has an entrance label
Elevated viaduct on the Fangshan Line

After the Chinese government announced a ¥4 trillion economic stimulus package in November 2008, the Beijing urban planning commission further expedited subway building plans, especially for surface light rail to suburban districts that are cheaper to build. In December 2008, the commission moved completion dates of the Yizhuang and Daxing Lines to 2010 from 2012, finalized the route of the Fangshan Line, and unveiled the Changping and Western Suburban Lines.[92]

2008–present: rapid expansion

In the summer of 2008, in anticipation of the Summer Olympic Games, three new lines—Line 10, the Olympic Branch Line and the Airport Express—opened on July 19 for trial operation.[89] The use of paper tickets, hand checked by clerks for 38 years, was discontinued and replaced by electronic tickets that are scanned by automatic fare collection machines upon entry and exit of the subway. Stations are outfitted with touch screen vending machines that sell single-ride tickets and multiple-ride Yikatong fare cards. The subway set a daily ridership record of 4.92 million on August 22, 2008, the day of the Games' closing ceremony[90] In 2008, total ridership rose by 75% to 1.2 billion.[91]

Line 5 came into operation on October 7, 2007. It was the city's first north-south line, extending from the Songjiazhuang in the south to Tiantongyuan in the north. On the same day, subway fares were reduced from between ¥3 and ¥7 per trip, depending on the line and number of transfers, to a single flat fare of ¥2 with unlimited transfers. The lower fare policy caused the Beijing Subway to run a deficit of ¥600 million in 2007, which was expected to widen to ¥1 billion in 2008.[84] The Beijing municipal government covered these deficits to encourage mass transit use, and reduce traffic congestion and air pollution. On a total of 655 million rides delivered in 2007, the government's subsidy averaged ¥0.92 per ride.[88]

The next additions to the subway were surface commuter lines that linked to the north and east of the city. Line 13, a half loop that links the northern suburbs, first opened on the western half from Huilongguan to Xizhimen on September 28, 2002 and the entire line became operational on January 28, 2003.[85] Batong Line, built as an extension to Line 1 to Tongzhou district, was opened as a separate line on December 27, 2003.[86] Work on these two lines had begun respectively in December 1999 and 2000.[87] Ridership hit 607 million in 2004.

Line 13 train between Wudaokou and Shangdi
Line 13 station at Longze. Line 13 opened in two parts in 2002 and 2003.
A model SFX01 Batong Line train at Shuangqiao. The Batong Line opened in Dec. 2003

In the summer of 2001, the city won the bid to host the 2008 Summer Olympics and accelerated plans to expand the subway. From 2002 to 2008, the city planned to invest ¥63.8 billion (US$7.69 billion) in subway projects. Work on Line 5 had already begun on September 25, 2000.[81] Land clearing for Lines 4 and 10 began in November 2003 and construction commenced by the end of the year.[82] Most new subway construction projects were funded by loans from the Big Four state banks. Line 4 was funded by the Beijing MTR Corporation, a joint-venture with the Hong Kong MTR.[83] To achieve plans for 19 lines and 561 km (349 mi) by 2015, the city planned to invest a total of ¥200 billion ($29.2 billion).[84]

2001–2008: planning for the Olympics

Despite little track expansion in the early 1990s, ridership grew rapidly to reach a record high of 558 million in 1995, but fell to 444 million the next year when fares rose from ¥0.50 to ¥2.00. After fares rose again to ¥3.00 in 2000, annual ridership fell to 434 million from 481 million in 1999.[80]

On January 26, 1991, planning began on the eastward extension of Line 1 under Chang'an Avenue from Fuxingmen.[78] The project was funded by a 19.2 billion yen low-interest development assistance loan from Japan.[78] Construction began on the eastern extension on June 24, 1992, and the Xidan station opened on December 12, 1992.[78] The remaining extension to Sihui East was completed on September 28, 1999.[79] National leaders Wen Jiabao, Jia Qinglin, Yu Zhengsheng and mayor Liu Qi were on hand to mark the occasion.[79] The full-length of Line 1 became operational on June 28, 2000.[80]

On December 28, 1987, the two existing lines were reconfigured into Lines 1, which ran from Pingguoyuan to Fuxingmen and Line 2, in its current loop, tracing the Ming city wall.[77] Fares doubled to ¥0.20 for single-line rides and ¥0.30 for rides with transfers.[77] Ridership reached 307 million in 1988.[77] The subway was closed from June 3–4, 1989 during the suppression of the Tiananmen Square demonstrations. In 1990, the subway carried more than one million riders per day for the first time, as total ridership reached 381 million.[77] After a fare hike to ¥0.50 in 1991, annual ridership declined slightly to 371 million.

Entrance to the Wangfujing Station on Line 1. The Wangfujing station opened in 1999 as part of Line 1's eastward extension from Fuxingmen.

On September 20, 1984, a second line was opened to the public.[77] This horseshoe-shaped line was created from the eastern half of the initial line and corresponds to the southern half of the present-day Line 2.[77] It ran 16.1 km (10.0 mi) from Fuxingmen to Jianguomen with 16 stations.[77] Ridership reached 105 million in 1985.[77]

Paper tickets for Lines 1 & 2

[77] Investment in the project totaled ¥706 million. Annual ridership rose from 64.7 million in 1981 and 72.5 million in 1982 to 82 million in 1983.[77] to the Beijing Railway Station.Western Hills It had 19 stations and ran 27.6 kilometres (17.1 miles) from Fushouling in the [77] On September 15, 1981, the initial line passed its final inspections, and was handed over to the Beijing Subway Company, ending a decade of trial operations.[77]

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