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For other uses, see Bangalore (disambiguation).

Metropolitan City
Bagmane Tech Park
Nickname(s): Silicon valley of India.

Coordinates: 12°58′N 77°34′E / 12.967°N 77.567°E / 12.967; 77.567Coordinates: 12°58′N 77°34′E / 12.967°N 77.567°E / 12.967; 77.567

Country India
State Karnataka
Region Bayaluseemē
District Bangalore Urban
Native Language Kannada
Established 1537
 • Type Mayor–Council
 • Body BBMP
 • Mayor B S Satyanarayana
 • Commissioner H.Siddaiah[1]
 • Metropolitan City 1,276 km2 (493 sq mi)
Elevation[3] 920 m (3,020 ft)
Population (2011)[4]
 • Metropolitan City 9,621,551
 • Rank 3rd
 • Density 7,500/km2 (20,000/sq mi)
 • Metro[5] 8,499,399
 • Metro rank 5th
 • Metropolitan 8,728,906 (5th)
Demonym Bangalorean
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Pincode(s) 560 xxx
Area code(s) 91-(0)80-XXXX XXXX
Vehicle registration KA 01-05, KA 41, KA 50, KA 51, KA 53
Official language Kannada
Climate BW (Köppen)

Bangalore (or ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು Bengaluru [ˈbeŋɡəɭuːɾu]) is the capital city of the Indian state of Karnataka. Located on the Deccan Plateau in the south-eastern part of Karnataka. Bangalore is India's third most populous city and fifth-most populous urban agglomeration. Bangalore is known as the Silicon Valley of India because of its position as the nation's leading Information technology (IT) exporter.[6][7][8] Located at a height of over 3,000 feet (914.4 m) above sea level, Bangalore is known for its pleasant climate throughout the year.[9] The city is amongst the top ten preferred entrepreneurial locations in the world.[10]

A succession of South Indian dynasties, the Western Gangas, the Cholas, and the Hoysalas ruled the region of Bangalore until in 1537 CE, Kempé Gowdā — a feudatory ruler under the Vijayanagara Empire — established a mud fort considered to be the foundation of modern Bangalore. Following transitory occupation by the Marāthās and Mughals, the city remained under the Mysore Kingdom. It later passed into the hands of Hyder Ali and his son Tipu Sultan, and was captured by the British after victory in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799), who returned administrative control of the city to the Maharaja of Mysore. The old city developed in the dominions of the Maharaja of Mysore, and was made capital of the Princely State of Mysore, which existed as a nominally sovereign entity of the British Raj. In 1809, the British shifted their cantonment to Bangalore, outside the old city, and a town grew up around it, which was governed as part of British India. Following India's independence in 1947, Bangalore became the capital of Mysore State, and remained capital when the new Indian state of Karnataka was formed in 1956. The two urban settlements of Bangalore — City and Cantonment — which had developed as independent entities merged into a single urban centre in 1949. The city was renamed Bengaluru in 2006.

Bangalore is home to many well-recognised educational and research institutions in India, such as the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Indian Institute of Management (Bangalore) (IIMB), and National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS). Numerous public sector heavy industries, technology companies, aerospace, telecommunications, and defence organisations, such as Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL), Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), Infosys, and Wipro are headquartered in the city. A demographically diverse city, Bangalore is a major economic and cultural hub and the second-fastest growing major metropolis in India.[11] The city also houses the Kannada film industry. As a growing metropolitan city in a developing country, Bangalore confronts substantial pollution and other logistical and socio-economic problems.[12][13] With a Gross domestic product (GDP) of US$83 billion, Bangalore is listed fourth among the top 15 cities contributing to India's overall GDP.[14]


The name "Bangalore" represents an anglicised version of the Kannada language name, "Bengaḷūru" [ˈbeŋɡəɭuːru]. The earliest reference to the name "Bengaluru" was found in a ninth-century Western Ganga Dynasty stone inscription on a "vīra gallu" (ವೀರಗಲ್ಲು) (literally, "hero stone", a rock edict extolling the virtues of a warrior). In this inscription found in Begur, "Bengaluru" is referred to as a place in which a battle was fought in 890 CE. It states that the place was part of the Ganga Kingdom until 1004 and was known as "Bengaval-uru", the "City of Guards" in Halegannada (Old Kannada).[15][16]

An apocryphal, though popular, anecdote recounts that the 12th century Hoysala king Veera Ballala II, while on a hunting expedition, lost his way in the forest. Tired and hungry, he came across a poor old woman who served him boiled beans. The grateful king named the place "benda-kaal-uru" (literally, "town of boiled beans"), which eventually evolved into "Bengalūru".[15][17][18] Suryanath Kamath has put forward an explanation of a possible floral origin of the name, being derived from benga, the Kannada term for Pterocarpus marsupium (also known as the Indian Kino Tree), a species of dry and moist deciduous trees, that grew abundantly in the region.[19]

On 11 December 2005, the Government of Karnataka announced that it had accepted a proposal by Jnanpith Award winner U. R. Ananthamurthy to rename Bangalore to Bengaluru.[20] On 27 September 2006, the Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP) passed a resolution to implement the proposed name change.[21] The government of Karnataka accepted the proposal, and it was decided to officially implement the name change from 1 November 2006.[22][23] However, this process has stalled due to delays in getting clearances from the Union Home Ministry.[24]


Main article: History of Bangalore

Early and medieval history

The Begur Nageshwara Temple was built in Bangalore around c. 860, during the reign of the Western Ganga Dynasty.
Someshwara Temple (c. 1890), dates from the Chola era

A recent discovery of Stone Age artifacts during the 2001 census of India at Jalahalli, Sidhapura and Jadigenahalli, all of which are located on Bangalore's outskirts today, suggest probable human settlement around 4,000 BCE.[25] Around 1,000 BCE (Iron Age), burial grounds were established at Koramangala and Chikkajala on the outskirts of Bangalore. Coins of the Roman emperors Augustus, Tiberius, and Claudius found at Yeswanthpur and HAL indicate that Bangalore was involved in trans-oceanic trade with ancient civilisations in 27 BCE.[26]

The region of modern day Bangalore was part of several successive South Indian kingdoms. Between the fourth and the tenth centuries, the Bangalore region was ruled by the Western Ganga Dynasty of Karnataka, the first dynasty to set up effective control over the region.[27] The Western Gangas ruled the region initially as a sovereign power (350 — 550), and later as feudatories of the Chalukyas of Badami, followed by the Rashtrakutas till the tenth century.[19] The Begur Nageshwara Temple was commissioned around 860, during the reign of the Western Ganga King Ereganga Nitimarga I and extended by his successor Nitimarga II.[28][29] At the end of the tenth century, the Cholas from Tamil Nadu began to penetrate in areas east of Bangalore; it later began to extend its control over parts of present-day Bangalore, such as Domlur on the eastern side of the city.[27] Around 1004, during the reign of Rajendra Chola I, the Cholas defeated the Western Gangas, and captured Bangalore.[28] During this period, the Bangalore region witnessed the migration of many groups - warriors, administrators, traders, artisans, pastorals, cultivators, and religious personnel from Tamil Nadu and other Kannada speaking regions.[27] The Chokkanathaswamy temple at Domlur, the Aigandapura complex near Hesaraghatta, Mukthi Natheshwara Temple at Binnamangala, Choleshwara Temple at Begur, Someshwara Temple at Madiwala, date from the Chola era.[28]

In 1117, the Hoysala king Veera Ballala II defeated the Cholas in the Battle of Talakad in south Karnataka, and extended its rule over the region.[28] With the collapse of the Cholas, especially after 1250, migrations from Andhra Pradesh began into karnataka and Tamil Nadu.[27] By the end of the 13th century, Bangalore became a source of contention between two warring cousins, the Hoysala ruler Veera Ballala III of Halebidu and Ramanatha, who administered from the Hoysala held territory in Tamil Nadu.[28] Veera Ballala III had appointed a civic head at Hudi (now within Bangalore Municipal Corporation limits), thus promoting the village to the status of a town. After Veera Ballala III's death in 1343, the next empire to rule the region was the Vijayanagara Empire, which itself saw the rise of four dynasties, the Sangamas (1336 – 1485), the Saluvas (1485 – 1491), the Tuluvas (1491 – 1565), and the Aravidu (1565 – 1646).[30] During the reign of the Vijayanagara Empire, Achyuta Deva Raya of the Tuluva Dynasty raised the Shivasamudra Dam across the Arkavati river at Hesaraghatta, whose reservoir is the present city's supply of regular piped water.[31]

City foundation and early modern history

Bangalore Fort in 1860 showing fortifications and barracks. The fort was originally built by Kempe Gowda I as a mud fort in 1537.
Bangalore Palace, built in 1887 in Tudor architectural style was modelled on the Windsor Castle in England.[32]

Modern Bangalore had its beginning in 1537 by a vassal of the Vijayanagara Empire, Kempé Gowda I, who built a mud-brick fort on the orders of Achuta Deva Raya at the site that would become the central part of modern Bangalore. Kempé Gowda referred to the new town as his "gandubhūmi" or "Land of Heroes".[18] Within the fort, the town was divided into smaller divisions—each called a "pete" (IPA: [peːteː]). The town had two main streets—Chikkapeté Street, which ran east-west, and Doddapeté Street, which ran north-south. Their intersection formed the Doddapeté Square—the heart of Bangalore. Kempé Gowda I's successor, Kempé Gowda II, built four towers that marked Bangalore's boundary. During the Vijayanagara rule, many saints and poets referred to Bangalore as "Devarāyanagara" and "Kalyānapura" or "Kalyānapuri" ("Auspicious City").[33]

After the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire in 1646, Bangalore's rule changed hands several times. Kempé Gowda declared independence, then in 1638, a large Adil Shahi Bijapur army led by Ramadulla Khan and accompanied by the Maratha emperor Shāhji Bhōnslé defeated Kempé Gowda III,[33] and Bangalore was given to Shāhji as a jagir (feudal estate). In 1687, the Mughal general Kasim Khan, under orders from Aurangzeb, defeated Ekoji I, son of Shāhji, and leased Bangalore to Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar (1673–1704), the then ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore.[34] After the death of Krishnaraja Wodeyar II in 1759, Hyder Ali, Commander-in-Chief of the Mysore Army, proclaimed himself the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore. Hyder Ali is credited with building the Delhi and Mysore gates at the northern and southern ends of the city in 1760.[35] The kingdom later passed to Hyder Ali's son Tipu Sultan. Hyder and Tipu contributed towards the beautification of the city by building Lal Bagh Botanical Gardens in 1760. Under them, Bangalore developed into a commercial and military centre of strategic importance.[33]

Bangalore fort was captured by the British armies under Lord Cornwallis on 21 March 1791 during the Third Anglo-Mysore War and formed a centre for British resistance against Tipu Sultan.[36] Following Tipu's death in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799), the British returned administrative control of the Bangalore "pētē" to the Maharaja of Mysore and was incorporated into the Princely State of Mysore, which existed as a nominally sovereign entity of the British Raj. The old city ("pētē") developed in the dominions of the Maharaja of Mysore. The Residency of Mysore State was first established in Mysore City in 1799 and later shifted to Bangalore in 1804. It was abolished in 1843 only to be revived in 1881 at Bangalore and to be closed down permanently in 1947, with Indian independence.[37] The British found Bangalore to be a pleasant and appropriate place to station their garrison and therefore moved their cantonment to Bangalore from Seringapatam in 1809 near Halsur, about four miles north-east of the City. A town grew up around the cantonment, by absorbing several villages in the area. The new centre had its own municipal and administrative apparatus, though technically it was a British enclave within the territory of the Wodeyar Kings of the Princely State of Mysore.[38] Two important developments which contributed to the rapid growth of the city, include the introduction of telegraph connections to all major Indian cities in 1853, and a rail connection to Madras in 1864.[39]

Later modern and contemporary history

A view of Bangalore Pete during the 1890s
A view of Bangalore Cantonment (c. 1895)
The Bangalore torpedo was invented in Bangalore in 1912.

In the 19th century, Bangalore essentially became a twin city, with the "pētē", whose residents were predominantly Kannadigas, and the "cantonment" created by the British, whose residents were predominantly Tamils.[40] Throughout the 19th century, the Cantonment gradually expanded and acquired a distinct cultural and political salience as it was governed directly by the British and was known as the Civil and Military Station of Bangalore. While it remained in the princely territory of Mysore, Cantonment had a large military presence and a cosmopolitan civilian population that came from outside the princely state of Mysore, including Britons, Anglo-Indians, and migrant Tamil labourers and contractors. City, on the other hand, had a largely Kannada-speaking population.[41]

Bangalore was hit by a plague epidemic in 1898 that claimed nearly 3,500 lives. The crisis caused by the outbreak catalysed the city's sanitation process. Telephone lines were laid to help coordinate anti-plague operations. Regulations for building new houses with proper sanitation facilities came into effect. A health officer was appointed and the city divided into four wards for better coordination. Victoria Hospital was inaugurated in 1900 by Lord Curzon, the then Governor-General of British India.[42] New extensions in Malleswaram and Basavanagudi were developed in the north and south of the pētē.[43] In 1903, motor vehicles came to be introduced in Bangalore.[44] In 1906, Bangalore became one of the first cities in India to have electricity from hydel power, powered by the hydroelectric plant situated in Shivanasamudra.[45] The Indian Institute of Science was established in 1909, which subsequently played a major role in developing the city as a science research hub.[46] In 1912, the Bangalore torpedo, a defensive explosive weapon widely used in World War I and World War II, was devised in Bangalore by British army officer Captain McClintock of the Madras Sappers and Miners.[47]

Bangalore's reputation as the "Garden City of India" began in 1927 with the Silver Jubilee celebrations of the rule of Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. Several projects such as the construction of parks, public buildings and hospitals were instituted to improve the city.[48] Bangalore played an important role during the Indian independence movement. Mahatma Gandhi visited the city in 1927 and 1934 and addressed public meetings here.[26] In 1926, the labour unrest in Binny Mills due to demand by textile workers for payment of bonus resulted in lathi charging and police firing, resulting in the death of four workers, and several injuries.[49] In July 1928, there were notable communal disturbances in Bangalore, when a Ganesh idol was removed from a school compound in the Sultanpet area of Bangalore.[50] In 1940, the first flight between Bangalore and Bombay took off, which placed the city on India's urban map.[46]

After India's independence in August 1947, Bangalore remained in the newly carved Mysore State of which the Maharaja of Mysore was the Rajapramukh (appointed governor).[51] The "City Improvement Trust" was formed in 1945, and in 1949, the "City" and the "Cantonment" merged to form the Bangalore City Corporation. The Government of Karnataka later constituted the Bangalore Development Authority in 1976 to co-ordinate the activities of these two bodies.[52] Public sector employment and education provided opportunities for Kannadigas from the rest of the state to migrate to the city. Bangalore experienced rapid growth in the decades 1941–51 and 1971–81, which saw the arrival of many immigrants from northern Karnataka. By 1961, Bangalore had become the sixth largest city in India, with a population of 1,207,000.[33] In the decades that followed, Bangalore's manufacturing base continued to expand with the establishment of private companies such as MICO (Motor Industries Company), which set up its manufacturing plant in the city.

By the 1980s, it was clear that urbanization had spilled over the current boundaries, and in 1986, the Bangalore Metropolitan Region Development Authority, was established to co-ordinate the development of the entire region as a single unit.[52] On 8 February 1981, a major fire broke out at Venus Circus in Bangalore, where more than 92 lives were lost, the majority of them being children.[53] Bangalore experienced a growth in its real estate market in the 1980s and 1990s, spurred by capital investors from other parts of the country who converted Bangalore's large plots and colonial bungalows into multi-storied apartments.[54] In 1985, Texas Instruments became the first multinational corporation to set up base in Bangalore. Other information technology companies followed suit and by the end of the 20th century, Bangalore had established itself as the Silicon Valley of India.[33] During the 21st century, Bangalore has suffered terrorist attacks in 2008, 2010, and 2013.


Bangalore lies in the southeast of the South Indian state of Karnataka. It is in the heart of the Mysore Plateau (a region of the larger Precambrian Deccan Plateau) at an average elevation of 900 m (2,953 ft).[55]:8 It is located at 12°58′N 77°34′E / 12.97°N 77.56°E / 12.97; 77.56 and covers an area of 741 km2 (286 sq mi).[56] The majority of the city of Bangalore lies in the Bangalore Urban district of Karnataka and the surrounding rural areas are a part of the Bangalore Rural district. The Government of Karnataka has carved out the new district of Ramanagara from the old Bangalore Rural district.

The topology of Bangalore is flat except for a central ridge running NNE-SSW. The highest point is Vidyaranyapura Doddabettahalli, which is 962 metres (3,156 feet) and lies on this ridge.[57] No major rivers run through the city, though the Arkavathi and South Pennar cross paths at the Nandi Hills, 60 kilometres (37 miles) to the north. River Vrishabhavathi, a minor tributary of the Arkavathi, arises within the city at Basavanagudi and flows through the city. The rivers Arkavathi and Vrishabhavathi together carry much of Bangalore's sewage. A sewerage system, constructed in 1922, covers 215 km2 (83 sq mi) of the city and connects with five sewage treatment centres located in the periphery of Bangalore.[58]

In the 16th century, Kempe Gowda I constructed many lakes to meet the town's water requirements. The Kempambudhi Kere, since overrun by modern development, was prominent among those lakes. In the earlier half of 20th century, the Nandi Hills waterworks was commissioned by Sir Mirza Ismail (Diwan of Mysore, 1926–41 CE) to provide a water supply to the city. Currently, the river Kaveri provides around 80% of the total water supply to the city with the remaining 20% being obtained from the Thippagondanahalli and Hesaraghatta reservoirs of the Arkavathi river.[59] Bangalore receives 800 million litres (211 million US gallons) of water a day, more than any other Indian city.[60] However, Bangalore sometimes does face water shortages, especially during the summer season- more so in the years of low rainfall. A random sampling study of the Air Quality Index (AQI) of twenty stations within the city indicated scores that ranged from 76 to 314, suggesting heavy to severe air pollution around areas of traffic concentration.[61]

Bangalore has a handful of freshwater lakes and water tanks, the largest of which are Madivala tank, Hebbal lake, Ulsoor lake and Sankey Tank. Groundwater occurs in silty to sandy layers of the alluvial sediments. The Peninsular Gneissic Complex (PGC) is the most dominant rock unit in the area and includes granites, gneisses and migmatites, while the soils of Bangalore consist of red laterite and red, fine loamy to clayey soils.[61]

Vegetation in the city is primarily in the form of large deciduous canopy and minority coconut trees. Though Bangalore has been classified as a part of the seismic zone II (a stable zone), it has experienced quakes of magnitude as high as 4.5.[62]


Bangalore experiences a tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Aw) with distinct wet and dry seasons. Due to its high elevation, Bangalore usually enjoys a more moderate climate throughout the year, although occasional heat waves can make things very uncomfortable in the summer.[63] The coolest month is December with an average low temperature of 15.4 °C and the hottest month is April with an average high temperature of 32.8 °C.[64] The highest temperature ever recorded in Bangalore is 38.9 °C (102.0 °F) (recorded in March 1931) and the lowest ever is 7.8 °C (46.0 °F) (recorded in January 1884).[65][66] Winter temperatures rarely drop below 12 °C (54 °F), and summer temperatures seldom exceed 34–35 °C (<100 °F). Bangalore receives rainfall from both the northeast and the southwest monsoons and the wettest months are September, October and August, in that order.[64] The summer heat is moderated by fairly frequent thunderstorms, which occasionally cause power outages and local flooding. The heaviest rainfall recorded in a 24-hour period is 179 millimetres (7.0 in) recorded on 1 October 1997.[67]

Climate data for Bangalore
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 32.1
Average high °C (°F) 27.6
Daily mean °C (°F) 21.3
Average low °C (°F) 15.3
Record low °C (°F) 8.0
Rainfall mm (inches) 1.8
Avg. rainy days 0.2 0.5 0.8 3.0 6.9 6.0 7.4 10.0 10.3 7.9 3.9 1.6 58.5
 % humidity 60 52 45 51 60 72 76 79 76 73 70 68 65.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 263.5 248.6 272.8 258.0 241.8 138.0 111.6 114.7 144.0 173.6 189.0 211.8 2,367.4
Source #1: India Meteorological Department,[68] NOAA (1971–1990)[69]
Source #2: HKO (sun only, 1971–1990)[70]

Civic administration

Bangalore City Important officials
Municipal Commissioner: Lakshminarayana IAS[71]
Chief Commissioner of Income Tax: K Satya Narayana IRS[72]
Mayor: B S Satyanarayana (Katte Satyanarayana)[73]
Police Commissioner: Raghavendra H.Aruadkar IPS,[72]
The Karnataka High Court is the supreme judicial body in Karnataka and is located in Bangalore.
The Vikasa Soudha, situated adjacent to the Vidhana Soudha, houses many state ministries.
A typical traffic speed interceptor used by the Bangalore City Traffic Police

The Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP, Greater Bangalore Municipal Corporation) is in charge of the civic administration of the city. It was formed in 2007 by merging 100 wards of the erstwhile Bangalore Mahanagara Palike, with seven neighbouring City Municipal Councils, one Town Municipal Council and 110 villages around Bangalore. The number of wards increased to 198 in 2009.[74][75] The BBMP is run by a city council composed of 250 members, including 198 corporators representing each of the wards of the city and 52 other elected representatives, consisting of members of Parliament and the state legislature. Elections to the council are held once every five years, with results being decided by popular vote. Members contesting elections to the council usually represent one or more of the state's political parties. A mayor and deputy mayor are also elected from among the elected members of the council.[76] Elections to the BBMP were held on 28 March 2010, after a gap of three and a half years since the expiry of the previous elected body's term, and the Bharatiya Janata Party was voted into power – the first time it had ever won a civic poll in the city.[77]

Bangalore's rapid growth has created several problems relating to traffic congestion and infrastructural obsolescence that the Bangalore Mahanagara Palike has found challenging to address. The unplanned nature of growth in the city resulted in massive traffic gridlocks that the municipality attempted to ease by constructing a flyover system and by imposing one-way traffic systems. Some of the flyovers and one-ways mitigated the traffic situation moderately but were unable to adequately address the disproportionate growth of city traffic.[78] A 2003 Battelle Environmental Evaluation System (BEES) evaluation of Bangalore's physical, biological and socioeconomic parameters indicated that Bangalore's water quality and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems were close to ideal, while the city's socioeconomic parameters (traffic, quality of life) scored poorly.[79] The BBMP works in conjunction with the Bangalore Development Authority (BDA) and the Agenda for Bengaluru Infrastructure and Development Task Force (ABIDe) to design and implement civic and infrastructural projects.[80]

The Bangalore City Police (BCP) has six geographic zones, includes the Traffic Police, the City Armed Reserve, the Central Crime Branch and the City Crime Record Bureau and runs 86 police stations, including two all-women police stations.[81] As capital of the state of Karnataka, Bangalore houses important state government facilities such as the Karnataka High Court, the Vidhana Soudha (the home of the Karnataka state legislature) and Raj Bhavan (the residence of the Governor of Karnataka). Bangalore contributes four members to the lower house of the Indian Parliament, the Lok Sabha, from its four constituencies: Bangalore Rural, Bangalore Central, Bangalore North, and Bangalore South,[82] and 28 members to the Karnataka Legislative Assembly.[83]

Electricity in Bangalore is regulated through the Bangalore Electricity Supply Company (BESCOM),[84] while water supply and sanitation facilities are provided by the Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board (BWSSB).[85]

Pollution control

Bangalore generates about 3,000 tonnes of solid waste per day, of which about 1,139 tonnes are collected and sent to composting units such as the Karnataka Composting Development Corporation. The remaining solid waste collected by the municipality is dumped in open spaces or on roadsides outside the city.[86] In 2008, Bangalore produced around 2,500 metric tonnes of solid waste, and increased to 5000 metric tonnes in 2012, which is transported from collection units located near Hesaraghatta Lake, to the garbage dumping sites.[87] The city suffers significantly with dust pollution, hazardous waste disposal, and disorganized, unscientific waste retrievals.[88] The IT hub, Whitefield region is the most polluted area in Bangalore.[89]


According to a 2012 report submitted to the World Bank by Karnataka Slum Clearance Board, Bangalore has 862 slums from total of around 2000 slums in Karnataka. The families living in the slum are not ready to move into the temporary shelters.[90][91] 42% of the households migrated from different parts of India and 43% of the households had remained in the slums for over 10 years. The Karnataka Municipality, works to shift 300 families annually to newly constructed buildings. One third of these slum clearance projects lack basic service connexions, 60% of slum dwellers lack complete water supply lines and share BWSSB water supply. [90][92]


Main article: Economy of Bangalore

Bangalore city skyline showing UB City to the left and Richmond area to the right

Bengaluru's INR52346 crore () economy (2006–07 Net District Income) makes it one of the major economic centres in India,[93] with the value of city's exports totalling INR43221 crore () in 2004–05.[94] With an economic growth of 10.3%, Bangalore is the second fastest growing major metropolis in India,[95] and is also the country's fourth largest fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) market.[96] The Forbes magazine considers the city as one of "The Next Decade's Fastest-Growing Cities".[97] With a per capita income of INR74709 () in 2006–07,[93] the city is the third largest hub for high-net-worth individuals and is home to over 10,000 dollar millionaires and about 60,000 super-rich people who have an investable surplus of INR4.5 crore () and INR50 lakh () respectively.[98]

The headquarters of several public sector undertakings such as Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL), Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) and HMT (formerly Hindustan Machine Tools) are located in Bangalore. In June 1972 the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was established under the Department of Space and headquartered in the city.

Bangalore is called as the Silicon Valley of India because of the large number of information technology companies located in the city which contributed 33% of India's INR144214 crore () IT exports in 2006–07.[99] Bangalore's IT industry is divided into three main clusters — Software Technology Parks of India (STPI); International Tech Park, Bangalore (ITPB); and Electronics City. UB City, the headquarters of the United Breweries Group, is a high-end commercial zone.[100] Infosys and Wipro, India's third and fourth largest software companies are headquartered in Bangalore, as are many of the global SEI-CMM Level 5 Companies.

The growth of IT has presented the city with unique challenges. Ideological clashes sometimes occur between the city's IT moguls, who demand an improvement in the city's infrastructure, and the state government, whose electoral base is primarily the people in rural Karnataka.[101] The encouragement of high-tech industry in Bangalore, for example, has not favoured local employment development, but has, instead, increased land values and forced out small enterprise.[102] The state has also resisted the massive investments required to reverse the rapid decline in intra-city transport which has already begun to drive new and expanding businesses to other centres across India. Bengaluru is a hub for biotechnology related industry in India and in the year 2005, around 47% of the 265 biotechnology companies in India were located here; including Biocon, India's largest biotechnology company.[103][104]



Bangalore is served by the KempeGowda International Airport (IATA: BLRICAO: VOBL) which started operations from 24 May 2008. The city was earlier served by the HAL Airport which was India's fourth busiest airport.[106][107][108] It is now the fourth busiest airport in India in terms of passenger traffic and the number of air traffic movements (ATMs) with about 280 per day.[109] The airport is around 40 kilometres (25 miles) from the city centre. The most hassle-free way to commute is by taxi. Meru cabs and Easy cabs have taxis present in the rank at the airport. There are also certain private cab companies.


A rapid transit system called the Namma Metro is being built. A 7 kilometres (4 miles) stretch from Bayappanahalli to MG Road was opened to public on 20 October 2011.[110] Once completed, this will encompass a 42.3 km (26.3 mi) elevated and underground rail network comprising 41 stations. It is expected to connect central locations in Bangalore to Devanahalli and the Chikballapur regions.[111] [112] This much-delayed project is the city's primary response to the worsening intra-city transport infrastructure which has become a major deterrent to continued business growth.

Bangalore comes under Bangalore railway division of the South Western Railway zone of the Indian Railways. Bangalore City Railway station and Yeshvantpur Junction connect it to the rest of the country through the Indian Railways. The Bangalore Rajdhani Express connects the city to New Delhi, the capital of India. Bangalore is also connected by rail to most cities in Karnataka, as well as Mumbai, Kochi, Chennai, Coimbatore, Kolkata, Hyderabad, Indore, Belgaum, Hubli, Mysore, Bhagalpur, Tatanagar, Bhopal, and other major cities in India.[113] The sprawling Rail Wheel Factory is Asia's second largest manufacturer of Wheel & Axle for Railways and headquartered in Yelahanka, Bangalore.


Buses operated by Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC) are an important and reliable means of public transport available in the city.[114] While commuters can buy tickets on boarding these buses, BMTC also provides an option of a bus pass to frequent users.[114] BMTC runs air-conditioned luxury buses on major routes, and also operates shuttle services from various parts of the city to the Bengaluru International Airport.[115] The Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation operates 6,918 buses on 6,352 schedules, connecting Bangalore with other parts of Karnataka as well as other states. The main bus depots that KSRTC maintains are the Kempegowda Bus Station, locally known as "Majestic bus stand", where most of the out station buses ply from. Some of the KSRTC buses to Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh ply from Shantinagar Bus Station, Satellite Bus Station at Mysore road and Baiyappanahalli satellite bus station.[116] BMTC is the first metropolitan transport corporation to introduce air conditioned buses in India.

Three-wheeled, green and black auto-rickshaws, referred to as autos, are a popular form of transport. They are metered and can accommodate up to three passengers. Taxis, commonly called City Taxis, are usually available only on call. Taxis are metered and are generally more expensive than auto-rickshaws.[117]

There are currently 1,000 vehicles being registered daily in Bangalore RTOs. The total number of vehicles as on date are 38.8 lakh vehicles, with a road length of 11,000 kilometres (6,835 miles).


Population Growth 
Source: Census of India[118] [119]
Religion in Bangalore
Distribution of religions
Includes Sikhs (<0.1%), Buddhists (<0.1%).

With an estimated population of 8.5 million in 2011,[5] Bangalore is the third most populous city in India and the 18th most populous city in the world.[120] Bangalore was the fastest-growing Indian metropolis after New Delhi between 1991 and 2001, with a growth rate of 38% during the decade. Residents of Bangalore are referred to as Bangaloreans in English and Bengaloorinavaru in Kannada.[121] As per the 1991 census, the linguistic demographics of Bangalore were: Kannada (38.38%), Tamil (21.38%), Telugu (16.66%), Urdu (12.65%), Malayalam (2.99%), Hindi (2.64%), and others.[122] The cosmopolitan nature of the city has resulted in the migration of people from other states to Bangalore,[123] which has in recent years given rise to tensions between immigrants and locals.[124]

According to the 2001 census of India, 79.4% of Bangalore's population is Hindu, roughly the same as the national average.[125] Muslims comprise 13.4% of the population, which again is roughly the same as the national average, while Christians and Jains account for 5.8% and 1.1% of the population, respectively, double that of their national averages. The city has a literacy rate of 89%.[126] Roughly 10% of Bangalore's population lives in slums[127]—a relatively low proportion when compared to other cities in the developing world such as Mumbai (50%) and Nairobi (60%).[128] The 2008 National Crime Records Bureau statistics indicate that Bangalore accounts for 8.5% of the total crimes reported from 35 major cities in India which is a cascadial increase in the crime rate when compared to the number of crimes fifteen years ago.[129]

Bangalore suffers from the same major urbanisation problems seen in many fast growing cities in developing countries: rapidly escalating social inequality, mass displacement and dispossession, proliferation of slum settlements, and epidemic public health crises dur to severe water shortage and sewage problems in poor and working-class neighbourhoods.[130] The most common languages spoken in Bangalore are Kannada, Urdu, English, Tamil, Telugu, and Hindi.[131] A vernacular dialect of Kannada, known as Bangalore Kannada (or the southern dialect of Kannada) is spoken in Bangalore and the adjoining Mysore regions.[132] English is extensively spoken and is the principal language of the professional and business class.[133]

The Mysore Gazetteer By B L Rice lists the census data of Bangalore in 1881.[134] Here is an extract: The classes which number over 10,000 are the following, in order of strength. These account for 716,289, or 89.35 percent of the population: Wokkaliga (225,511), Holeya (81,369), Musalmans (69,227), Madiga (46,128), Kuruba (41407), Lingayita (32894), Brahmana (29,882), Tigala (29,192), Banajiga (28,437), Native Christians (15,656), Beda (15,339), Panchala (14,046), Agasa (11,447), Marata (10,616). Besides the above the following are important trading classes :Nagarta (5,289), Komati (4,766),and Mudali (1,625). Tamil speakers were the Mudali (1625) and the partly Tigala (29,882). The Marati speakers numbered 10616. The Hindustani speakers were Musalmans (69,227). The rest of the classes had both Kannada and Telugu populations.

According to the New Cambridge History of India by Burton Stein [135] the north of the future core of the (Mysore) Kingdom was the area called Marasu-Nadu (Modern day Bangalore and Tumkur districts) dominated by one of the large sections of Telugu speaking Karnataka peasantry the Morasu Vokkaligas. To the South of the future core of the Mysore empire was Kongu Nadu with its mixed population of Kannada, Telugu and principally Tamils. To the east and north east were Telugu chieftains the most powerful of whom was the lord of Mulbagal.

Further according to the The Mysore Gazetteer By B L Rice.[134] The Reddi are chiefly in the east and north and have numerous subdivisions. To some extent they seem to be of Telugu origin, and represent the subjects of the ancient Rattavadi, or kingdom of the Rattas.

The major communities of Bangalore who share a long history in the city are the Kannadigas, Tamilians, and the Telugus.[136] Already in the 16th century, Bangalore had speakers of Tamil, Telugu, and Marathi, besides those who spoke Kannada.[137] Tamil-speaking settlers migrated to Bangalore in three major waves, the first after the 10th century, when the Cholas of Tamil Nadu captured the city; the second during the Vijayanagara period, and the third, in the 18th century, after the need for militia increased for the Mysore rulers, Nawabs of Arcot, and the British East India Company.[138][139] An article in the Hindu states as follows: While the migration of Tamil-speaking population to Bangalore was a result of the presence of British troops, people from the Telugu-speaking region initially came to Bangalore on invitation by the Mysore royalty (a few of them have lineage dating back to Krishnadevaraya), while the arrival of the Marathi speakers in Bangalore was a historical process when Bangalore was under Maratha rule.[140]

Other communities include the Tuluvas and Konkanis of coastal Karnataka, Malayalees, Rajasthanis, Gujaratis, Sindhis, and Bengalis.[136] Bangalore once had a large Anglo-Indian population, the second largest after Calcutta. Today, there are around 10,000 Anglo-Indians in Bangalore.[141] Christians form a sizeable section of Bangalorean society, with Mangalorean and Goan Catholics forming a significant portion of the city's Christian community.[142] Muslims form a very diverse population, consisting of Dakhini and Urdu-speaking Muslims, Kutchi Memons, Labbay, and Mappilas.[143]


Main article: Culture of Bangalore
Bangalore Karaga, one of the oldest and most important festivals in Bangalore
Yakshagana – a theatre art of coastal Karnataka is often played in town hall

Bangalore is known as the "Garden City of India" because of its gentle climate, broad streets, greenery and the presence of many public parks, such as Lal Bagh and Cubbon Park.[144] Bangalore is sometimes called as the "Pub Capital of India" and the "Rock/Metal capital of India" because of its underground music scene and it is one of the premier places to hold international rock concerts.[145] In May 2012, Lonely Planet ranked Bangalore 3rd among the world's top 10 cities to visit.[146]

Biannual flower shows are held at the Lal Bagh Gardens during the week of Republic Day (26 January) and Independence Day (15 August). Bangalore Karaga or "Karaga Shaktyotsava" is one of the most important and oldest festivals of Bangalore dedicated to the Hindu Goddess Draupadi. It is celebrated annually by the Thigala community, over a period of nine days in the month of March or April. The Someshwara Car festival is an annual procession of the idol of the Halasuru Someshwara Temple (Ulsoor) led by the Vokkaligas, a farming community in southern Karnataka, occurring in April. Karnataka Rajyotsava is widely celebrated on November 1 and is a public holiday in the city, to mark the formation of Karnataka state on 1 November 1956. Other popular festivals in Bangalore are Ugadi, Ram Navami, Eid ul-Fitr, Ganesh Chaturthi, St. Mary's feast, Dusshera, Diwali and Christmas.[147][148]

The diversity of cuisine is reflective of the social and economic diversity of Bangalore.[149] Bangalore has a wide and varied mix of restaurant types and cuisines and Bangaloreans deem eating out as an intrinsic part of their culture. Roadside vendors, tea stalls, and South Indian, North Indian, Chinese and Western fast food are all very popular in the city.[150] Udupi restaurants are very popular and serve predominantly vegetarian, regional cuisine.[151]

Art and literature

Bangalore did not have an effective contemporary art representation, as compared to Delhi and Mumbai, until recently during the 1990s, several art galleries sprang up, notable being the government established National Gallery of Modern Art.[152] Bangalore's international art festival, Art Bengaluru, was established in 2010, and is South India's only art festival.[153]

Kannada literature appears to have flourished in Bangalore even before Kempe Gowda laid the foundations of the city. During the 18th and 19th centuries, Kannada literature was enriched by the Vachanas (a form of rhythmic writing) composed by the heads of the Veerashaiva Mathas in Bangalore. As a cosmopolitan city, Bangalore has also encouraged the growth of Telugu, Urdu, and English literatures. The headquarters of the Kannada Sahitya Parishat, a non-profit organisation that promotes the Kannada language, is located in Bangalore.[154] The city has its own literary festival, known as the "Bangalore Literature Festival", which was inaugurated in 2012.[155]

Theatre, music, and dance

Bangalore is home to the Kannada film industry, which churns out about 80 Kannada movies each year.[156] Bangalore also has a very active and vibrant theatre culture with popular theatres being Ravindra Kalakshetra[157] and the more recently opened Ranga Shankara.[158] The city has a vibrant English and foreign language theatre scene with places like Ranga Shankara and Chowdiah Memorial Hall leading the way in hosting performances leading to the establishment of the Amateur film industry.[158]

Kannada theatre is very popular in Bangalore, and consists mostly of political satire and light comedy. Plays are organized mostly by community organizations, but there are some amateur groups which stage plays in Kannada. Drama companies touring India under the auspicies of the British Council and Max Müller Bhavan also stage performances in the city frequently.[159]

Bangalore is also a major centre of Indian classical music and dance.[160] The cultural scene is very diverse due to Bangalore's mixed ethnic groups, which is reflected in its music concerts, dance performances and plays. Performances of Carnatic (South Indian) and Hindustani (North Indian) classical music, and dance forms like Bharat Natyam, Kuchipudi, Kathakali, Kathak, and Odissi are very popular.[161] Yakshagana, a theatre art indigenous to coastal Karnataka is often played in town halls.[162] The two main music seasons in Bangalore are in April–May during the Ram Navami festival, and in September–October during the Dusshera festival, when music activities by cultural organizations are at their peak.[161] Though both classical and contemporary music are played in Bangalore, the dominant music genre in urban Bangalore is rock music. Bangalore has its own sub-genre of music, "Bangalore Rock", which is an amalgamation of classic rock, hard rock and heavy metal, with a bit of jazz and blues in it.[163] Notable bands from Bangalore include Raghu Dixit Project, Kryptos, Inner Sanctum, Agam, All The Fat Children, and Swaratma.


Indian Institute of Science – one of the premier institutes of science in India
Indian Institute of Management Bangalore, one of the premier management institutes in India

Until the early 19th century, education in Bangalore was mainly run by religious leaders and restricted to students of that religion.[164] The western system of education was introduced during the rule of Mummadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar. Subsequently, the British Wesleyan Mission established the first English school in 1842, and the Bangalore High School was started by the Mysore Government in 1858.[165][166]

In post-Independent India, schools for young children (16 Month- 5 years) are called Nursery, kindergarten or Play school which are broadly based on Montessori or Multiple Intelligence[167] methodology of education.[168] Primary and secondary education in Bangalore is offered by various schools which are affiliated to one of the boards of education, such as the Secondary School Leaving Certificate (SSLC), Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE), International Baccalaureate (IB),International general certificate of secondary education (IGCSE) and National Institute of Open Schooling (NIOS).[169] Schools in Bangalore are either government run or are private (both aided and un-aided by the government).[170][171] Bangalore has a significant number of International Schools due to expats and IT crowd.[172] After completing their secondary education, students either attend Pre University (PUC) or continue High School in one of three streams – Arts, Commerce or Science.[173] Alternatively, students may also enroll in Diploma courses. Upon completing the required coursework, students enroll in general or professional degrees in universities through lateral entry.[174][175]

The Bangalore University, established in 1886, provides affiliation to over 500 colleges, with a total student enrolment exceeding 300,000. The university has two campuses within Bangalore – Jnanabharathi and Central College.[176] University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering was established in the year 1917, by Bharat Ratna Sir M. Visvesvaraya, At present, the UVCE is the only engineering college affiliated to Bangalore University.UVCE is one of the prestigious institution in India. Bangalore also has a large number of private Engineering Colleges affiliated to Visvesvaraya Technological University. Notable among them particularly for undergraduate degrees are BMS College of Engineering, R.V. College of Engineering, P.E.S. Institute of Technology, M. S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Sir M. Visvesvaraya Institute of Technology and Bangalore Institute of Technology.

Indian Institute of Science, which was established in 1909 in Bangalore, is the premier institute for scientific research and study in India. Nationally renowned professional institutes such as the National Centre for Biological Sciences (NCBS), University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore (UASB), Institute of Bio-informatics and Applied Biotechnology [IBAB], National Institute of Design(NID), National Institute of Fashion Technology (NIFT), National Law School of India University (NLSIU), the Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore (IIM-B), the Indian Statistical Institute and International Institute of Information Technology, Bangalore (IIIT-B) are located in Bangalore. The city is also home to the premier mental health institution in India National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS). Bangalore also has some of the best medical colleges in the country, like St. John's Medical College (SJMC) and Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute (BMCRI).[177][178] The M. P. Birla Institute of Fundamental Research research institute has a branch located in Bangalore.[179]


The first printing press in Bangalore was established in 1840 in Kannada by the Wesleyan Christian Mission. In 1859, Bangalore Herald became the first English bi-weekly newspaper to be published in Bangalore and in 1860, Mysore Vrittanta Bodhini became the first Kannada newspaper to be circulated in Bangalore.[180][181] Currently, Vijaya Karnataka and The Times of India are the most widely circulated Kannada and English newspapers in Bangalore respectively, closely followed by the Prajavani and Deccan Herald both owned by the Printers (Mysore) Limited – the largest print media house in Karnataka.[182][183] Other newspapers like Mid-Day, Bangalore Mirror, and Udayavani provide localised news updates. On the web, Explocity provides listings information in Bangalore.[184]

Bangalore got its first radio station when All India Radio, the official broadcaster for the Indian Government, started broadcasting from its Bangalore station on 2 November 1955.[185] The radio transmission was AM, until in 2001, Radio City became the first private channel in India to start transmitting FM radio from Bangalore.[186] In recent years, a number of FM channels have started broadcasting from Bangalore.[187] The city probably has India's oldest Amateur (Ham) Radio Club – Bangalore Amateur Radio Club (VU2ARC), which was established in 1959.[188][189]

Bangalore got its first look at television when Doordarshan established a relay centre here and started relaying programs from 1 November 1981. A production centre was established in the Doordarshan's Bangalore office in 1983, thereby allowing the introduction of a news program in Kannada on 19 November 1983.[190] Doordarshan also launched a Kannada satellite channel on 15 August 1991 which is now named DD Chandana.[190] The advent of private satellite channels in Bangalore started in September 1991 when Star TV started to broadcast its channels.[191] Though the number of satellite TV channels available for viewing in Bangalore has grown over the years,[192] the cable operators play a major role in the availability of these channels, which has led to occasional conflicts.[193] Direct To Home (DTH) services are also available in Bangalore now.[194]

The first Internet service provider in Bangalore was STPI, Bangalore which started offering internet services in early 1990s.[195] This Internet service was, however, restricted to corporates until VSNL started offering dial-up internet services to the general public at the end of 1995.[196] Currently, Bangalore has the largest number of broadband Internet connexions in India.[197] In April 2013, Bangalore became the first Indian city to get free Wi-Fi hotspots, when free Wi-Fi was launched in M.G. Road and Brigade Road.[198]


The M. Chinnaswamy Stadium is Bangalore's premier cricket stadium.
Bangalore Marathon 2006

Bangalore's pleasant climate makes it a suitable place for a variety of outdoor sports. Cricket is by far the most popular sport in Bangalore. Bangalore has many parks and gardens which provide excellent pitches for an impromptu game of cricket.[199] A significant number of national cricketers have come from Bangalore, including former Indian cricket team captains Rahul Dravid and Anil Kumble. Some of the other players who have represented India include Javagal Srinath, Gundappa Vishwanath, Syed Kirmani, E. A. S. Prasanna, B.S Chandrashekar, Venkatesh Prasad, Sunil Joshi, Robin Uthappa, Vinay Kumar, Roger Binny and Abhimanyu Mithun. Many children play gully cricket on the roads and in the city's many public fields. Bangalore's international cricket stadium is the M. Chinnaswamy Stadium, which has a seating capacity of 55,000[200] and has hosted matches during the 1987 Cricket World Cup, 1996 Cricket World Cup and the 2011 Cricket World Cup. The Chinnaswamy Stadium is also the home of India's National Cricket Academy[201]

The Indian Premier League franchise Bangalore Royal Challengers, the Premier Hockey League franchise Bangalore Hi-fliers, and the Karnataka Premier League franchisees Bangalore Brigadiers and Provident Bangalore are based in the city. India's Davis Cup team members, Mahesh Bhupathi[202] and Rohan Bopanna[203] also reside in Bangalore. The city hosts the Women's Tennis Association (WTA) Bangalore Open tournament annually. Beginning September 2008, Bangalore has also been hosting the Kingfisher Airlines Tennis Open ATP tournament annually.[204] Bangalore is also home to the Bangalore Rugby Football Club (B.R.F.C)[205]

Bangalore has a number of elite clubs, like Century Club, The Bangalore Golf Club, the Bowring Institute and the exclusive Bangalore Club, which counts among its previous members Winston Churchill and the Maharaja of Mysore.[206] The Hindustan Aeronautics Limited SC is based in Bangalore. Other sports personalities from Bangalore include national swimming champion Nisha Millet, world snooker champion, Pankaj Advani and former All England Open badminton champion Prakash Padukone.[207]

City based Clubs

Club Sport League Stadium Span
Royal Challengers Bangalore Cricket IPL M. Chinnaswamy Stadium 2008 –
Bangalore Hi-fliers Field hockey PHL Bangalore Hockey Stadium 2005–2008
Karnataka Lions Field hockey WSH Bangalore Hockey Stadium 2011 –
Karnataka Bulls Volleyball IVL Kanteerava Indoor Stadium 2011 –
HAL Bangalore Football I-League Bangalore Football Stadium N/A
Bengaluru FC Football I-League Bangalore Football Stadium 2013 –
Banga Beats Badminton IBL Kanteerava Indoor Stadium 2013 –
Karnataka Bulldozers Cricket Celebrity Cricket League M. Chinnaswamy Stadium 2010 -

Sister cities

Bangalore is currently twinned with four sister cities:[208][209][210][211]

City Region Country
Minsk Minsk Region  Belarus
San Francisco  California  United States
Chengdu  China
Cleveland[212]  Ohio  United States

See also

India portal
Karnataka portal
Bangalore portal


Bibliography and sources

Further reading

  • Hasan, Fazlul. Bangalore Through The Centuries. Bangalore: Historical Publications, 1970.
  • Plunkett, Richard. South India. Lonely Planet, 2001. ISBN 1-86450-161-8
  • Vagale, Uday Kumar. "Public Space in Bangalore: Present and Future Projections" PDF (773 KB). Digital Libraries and Archives. 2006. Virginia Tech. 27 April 2004.
  • Hunter, Cotton, Burn, Meyer. Clarendon Press. 1909.
  • "Bangalore." Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911 ed.

External links

  • Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike – (Municipal government)
  • Official website of Bangalore Development Authority
  • DMOZ

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