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Biotic material

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Title: Biotic material  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
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Subject: Natural resources of Cambodia, Acquired characteristic, Incense, Biotic, Natural material
Collection: Biomolecules, Composting, Natural Materials, Sustainable Technologies
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Biotic material

Biotic material or biological derived material is any material that originates from carbon and are capable of decay.

The earliest life on Earth arose at least 3.5 billion years ago.[1][2][3] Earlier physical evidences of life include graphite, a biogenic substance, in 3.7 billion-year-old metasedimentary rocks discovered in southwestern Greenland,[4] as well as, "remains of biotic life" found in 4.1 billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia.[5][6] Earth's biodiversity has expanded continually except when interrupted by mass extinctions.[7] Although scholars estimate that over 99 percent of all species of life (over five billion)[8] that ever lived on Earth are extinct,[9][10] there are still an estimated 10–14 million extant species,[11][12] of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86% have not yet been described.[13]

Examples of biotic materials are wood, linoleum, straw, humus, manure, bark, crude oil, cotton, spider silk, chitin, fibrin, and bone.

The use of biotic materials, and processed biotic materials (bio-based material) as alternative natural materials, over synthetics is popular with those who are environmentally conscious because such materials are usually biodegradable, renewable, and the processing is commonly understood and has minimal environmental impact. However, not all biotic materials are used in an environmentally friendly way, such as those that require high levels of processing, are harvested unsustainably, or are used to produce carbon emissions.

When the source of the recently living material has little importance to the product produced, such as in the production of biofuels, biotic material is simply called biomass. Many fuel sources may have biological sources, and may be divided roughly into fossil fuels, and biofuel.

In

  1. ^ Schopf, JW, Kudryavtsev, AB, Czaja, AD, and Tripathi, AB. (2007). Evidence of Archean life: Stromatolites and microfossils. Precambrian Research 158:141–155.
  2. ^ Schopf, JW (2006). Fossil evidence of Archaean life. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 29;361(1470) 869-85.
  3. ^ Hamilton Raven, Peter; Brooks Johnson, George (2002). Biology. McGraw-Hill Education. p. 68.  
  4. ^ Ohtomo, Yoko; Kakegawa, Takeshi; Ishida, Akizumi; et al. (January 2014). "Evidence for biogenic graphite in early Archaean Isua metasedimentary rocks".  
  5. ^ Borenstein, Seth (19 October 2015). "Hints of life on what was thought to be desolate early Earth".  
  6. ^ Bell, Elizabeth A.; Boehnike, Patrick; Harrison, T. Mark; et al. (19 October 2015). "Potentially biogenic carbon preserved in a 4.1 billion-year-old zircon" (PDF). Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences).   Early edition, published online before print.
  7. ^ Sahney, S., Benton, M.J. and Ferry, P.A. (27 January 2010). "Links between global taxonomic diversity, ecological diversity and the expansion of vertebrates on land" (PDF). Biology Letters 6 (4): 544–47.  
  8. ^ Kunin, W.E.; Gaston, Kevin, eds. (31 December 1996). The Biology of Rarity: Causes and consequences of rare—common differences.  
  9. ^ Stearns, Beverly Peterson; Stearns, S. C.; Stearns, Stephen C. (1 August 2000). Watching, from the Edge of Extinction.  
  10. ^ Novacek, Michael J. (8 November 2014). "Prehistory's Brilliant Future".  
  11. ^ May, Robert M. (1988). "How many species are there on earth?". Science 241 (4872): 1441–1449.  
  12. ^ Miller, G.; Spoolman, Scott (1 January 2012). "Biodiversity and Evolution". Environmental Science.  
  13. ^ Mora, C.; Tittensor, D.P.; Adl, S.; Simpson, A.G.; Worm, B. (23 August 2011). "How many species are there on Earth and in the ocean?".  

References

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