World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article
 

Bombing of Kassel in World War II

Kassel World War II bombings
Part of Strategic bombing campaign in Europe
Fires in the Bettenhausen district
Two people observing fires ravaging the Bettenhausen district after bombing
Date 1942-1945
Location Kassel
Belligerents
 United States
 United Kingdom
 Nazi Germany
Commanders and leaders
Carl Spaatz (May 1942 - )
Arthur Harris (1941-)
Gauleiters, Karl Weinrich,
Karl Gerland

The Kassel World War II bombings were a set of Allied strategic bombing attacks which took place from February 1942 to March 1945. In a single deadliest raid on 22–23 October 1943, 150,000 inhabitants were bombed-out, at least 10,000 people died, the vast majority of the city center was destroyed, and the fire of the most severe air raid burned for seven days. The US First Army captured Kassel on 3 April 1945, where only 50,000 inhabitants remained, versus 236,000 in 1939.

Contents

  • Targets 1
  • Bombing raids 2
  • References 3
  • Sources 4
  • External sources 5

Targets

Bomb damaged buildings in Kassel, Untere Königsstraße

As well as being the capital of the provinces of Hesse-Nassau & Kurhessen, Kassel had some important targets.

  • Fieseler aircraft plant
  • Henschel facilities, maker of the Tiger I and King Tiger heavy tanks
  • locomotive plant
  • engine plant
  • motor transport plant
  • railway works
  • Military HQs at Wehrkreis IX, and Bereich Hauptsitz Kassel
  • Central Germany HQ, highway & railway construction
  • Regional Supreme Court

Bombing raids

bombing raids on Kassel during World War II
Date Target
17/18 February 1942 10 Wellingtons and 3 Stirlings to Emden, Hamburg, Kassel and Aachen.
27/28 August 1942 Henschel 306 aircraft destroyed/seriously damaged 144/317 buildings, particularly in the city southwest. Three Henschel buildings were seriously damaged, and 43/251 were killed/injured.[1]
2/3 October 1943 The Pathfinder Force (PFF) was not able to find the center of the city, and most bombs into Ihringshausen and Bettenhausen. In addition to considerable damage, an ammunition store was hit.
3–4 October 1943 547 aircraft used H2S radar; the main weight of bombs fell on the western suburbs and outlying towns and villages.
22/23 October 1943 city centre 569 bombers dropped more than 1,800 tons of bombs (including 460,000 magnesium fire sticks) in a concentrated pattern.[2] For deception, the attack used Operation Corona radio spoofing and a Frankfurt diversionary raid. The blaze caused a minor firestorm similar in nature to that at Hamburg. Damage to the main telephone exchange and the city's water pipes hindered firefighting efforts.
18–19 March 1944 11 Mosquitos on a diversionary raid.
30–31 March 1944 34 Mosquitos on diversionary raids to Aachen, Cologne and Kassel.
27–28 September 1944 46 Mosquitos on a diversionary raid.
1944-09-28 Henschel motor transport plant Mission 652: 243 of 262 dispatched B-24s bombed the Kassel/Henschel motor transport plant.[3]
3–4 October 1944 43 Mosquitos.
15/16 October 1944 2 Mosquitos on a diversionary raid.
9/10 November 1944 3 Mosquitos.
27/28 December 1944 7 Mosquitos on Oboe (navigation) trials (some flew over Kassel).
6/7 January 1945 20 Mosquitos.
18/19 January 1945 12 Mosquitos.
21/22 January 1945 76 Mosquitos
2/3 March 1945 67 Mosquitos on a training raid.
8/9 March 1945 176 aircraft; the last heavy raid by the RAF on Kassel.
18/19 March 1945 24 Mosquitos.
20/21 March 1945 16 Mosquitos on a diversionary raid.
External images

Before and after the bombings

After the bombing in 1943

References

  1. ^   February 1942, August 1942, October 1943, November 1943, December 1943 January 1944, February 1944 March 1944, September 1944, October 1944, November 1944, December 1944 January 1945, February 1945 March 1945, April 1945
  2. ^ Bomber Command October 1943
  3. ^  
    1942: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December
    1943: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December
    1944: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December
    1945: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September

Sources

  • Werner Dettmar: Die Zerstörung Kassels im Oktober 1943. Hesse, Fuldabrück 1983, ISBN 3-924259-00-3
  • Gebhard Aders: Bombenkrieg/Strategien der Zerstörung. licoverlag 2004

External sources

  • RAF bombing of Kassel (October 1943)
  • USAAF bombing of Kassel (September 1944)
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.