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Bride of Christ

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Title: Bride of Christ  
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Subject: Christian Church, Ecclesiology, Sophiology, Hosea, Sophia (Gnosticism)
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Bride of Christ

An 1880 Baxter process illustration of Revelation 22:17 by Joseph Martin Kronheim.

The Bride of Christ or bride, the Lamb's wife is a term used in reference to a group of related verses in the Bible—in the Gospels, Revelation, the Epistles and related verses in the Old Testament. Sometimes the Bride is implied through calling Jesus a Bridegroom. For over fifteen hundred years the Church was identified as the bride betrothed to Christ. However, there are instances where the interpretation of the usage of bride varies from Church to Church. The majority believe it always refers to the Church.

Christ is a bridegroom

In the Gospel of John, John the Baptist speaks of Jesus Christ as the bridegroom and mentions the bride.

This is the only place in the Gospels where the bride is mentioned, but because a bridegroom must have a bride all other mentions of the bridegroom imply the bride.

In the three Synoptic Gospels, when Jesus is asked why his disciples do not fast while the followers of John and the Pharisees do, Jesus answers:

In Matthew 9:15, Mark 2:19 and Luke 5:34, the Apostles are referred to as the friends, guests, or children depending on the translation, of the Bridegroom commonly accepted to be Jesus Christ.

The Bridegroom is also mentioned in the Parable of the Ten Virgins.[Mt 25:1-13]

Mentions of the bride

The bride's appearance

The Book of Revelation in multiple instances shows the appearance of the Bride.

In the above quotes, John, the author of the Book of Revelation, speaks of seeing the bride revealed and refers to her as the New Jerusalem, first mentioned in Revelation 3:12.

The bride giving water of life

Towards the end of the Book of Revelation John describes the spirit and the bride giving access to the water of life

Comparing the church to a bride

Ephesians 5:22-33 compares the union of husband and wife to that of Christ and the church.[1] The central theme of the whole Ephesians letter is reconciliation of the alienated within the unity of the church.[1] Ephesians 5 begins by calling on Christians to imitate God and Christ, who gave himself up for them with love.[5:2] Ephesians 5:1-21 contains a rather strong warning against foolishness and letting down one's guard against evil. Rather, the author encourages the readers to constantly give thanks with song in their hearts because of what God has done for all in Christ. That prelude to the subject's text takes up again the theme of loving submission that began with the example of Christ in 5:2 where all are called upon to "Be submissive to one another out of reverence for Christ."5:21 It implies, but is not specific, that the "Bride" is the body of believers that comprise the universal Christian Ekklēsia (Church) (lit. "called-out ones").

The ekklēsia is never explicitly called "the bride of Christ" in the New Testament. That is approached in Ephesians 5:22-33. A major analogy is that of the body. Just as husband and wife are to be "one flesh,"[Eph. 5:31] this analogy for the writer describes the relationship of Christ and ekklēsia.[Eph. 5:32] Husbands were exhorted to love their wives "just as Christ loved the ekklēsia and gave himself for it.[Eph. 5:25] When Christ nourishes and cherishes the ekklēsia, he nourishes and cherishes his own flesh. Just as the husband, when he loves his wife is loving his own flesh.[Eph. 5:28] Members of the ekklēsia are "members of his own body" because it is written in Genesis 2:4 "and the two shall become one flesh". In [Eph. 5:31] Paul quotes the Genesis passage as what has been called a "divine postscript".[2]

In writing to the Church of Corinth in 2 Corinthians 11 Paul writes to the Corinthians warning them of false teachers who would teach of another Christ and confessing his worry that they will believe someone who teaches a false christ; other than Christ Jesus of Nazareth whom they preached; and referred to the Church in Corinth as being espoused to Christ. "For I am jealous over you with godly jealousy: for I have espoused you to one husband, that I may present you as a chaste virgin to Christ. But I fear, lest by any means, as the serpent beguiled Eve through his subtlety, so your minds should be corrupted from the simplicity that is in Christ. For if he that cometh preacheth another Jesus, whom we have not preached, or if ye receive another spirit, which ye have not received, or another gospel, which ye have not accepted, ye might well bear with him".[2 Cor. 11:2-4]

In the writing to the Church in Rome,Paul writes, "Wherefore, my brethren, ye also are become dead to the law by the body of Christ; that ye should be married to another, even to him who is raised from the dead, that we should bring forth fruit unto God" (emphasis added).[Romans 7] Here, Paul seems to suggest that the Church is to be married to Jesus Christ of Nazareth, who was raised from the dead.

Other Interpretations of the bride

While the most commonly accepted interpretation of the bride of Christ is the Church, other interpretations exist uncommonly. The World Mission Society Church of God believes the bride to be God the Mother. Also, the Jehovah's Witnesses, along with other ministries such as the Shepherd's Chapel, preach the Bride to be the 144,000 mentioned in Revelation 7 and 14.

The wedding of the lamb

The World Mission Society Church of God believes that the Bride of Christ has another meaning hidden in the parables of Jesus Christ, not to be revealed until the last day.[3] They point to the fact the Bride gives the water of life in Revelation 22:17 and that because John 4:10-14 explains that water of life is eternal life, only God can give eternal life. Also, in Jeremiah 2:13 and Revelation 21:6, it is written that God said that he is the source of living water.

They believe that Jesus is the father of all, so his wife must be the mother of all. They further believe that the Bride is the New Jerusalem, and point out that the apostle Paul, in his Epistle to the Galatians, stated that Jerusalem was their mother.

144,000 anointed

The Jehovah's Witnesses believe that the 144,000 are the only ones who will enter the Kingdom of Heaven and as such believe the Bride is another term among many to refer to the 144,000 who will be allowed to enter.[4]

Old Testament

The earliest Christian tradition identifies Old Testament texts as symbolic of the divine love of God and people. The love poems of the Song of Songs and the Latter prophet Hosea have many references to the sexual correspondence of God and his people.[5] The Prophet Hosea notes his bride in chapter 2 verses 16 and following. The theme of bridal love is central in the dramatic marriage of Hosea to a prostitute.

See also


  1. ^ a b Osiek, Carolyn. "The Bride of Christ: a problematic wedding - Ephesians 5:22-33." Biblical Theology Bulletin, Spring, 2002. Web: 20 Oct 2010. [1]{dead-link}
  2. ^ Stagg, Frank. New Testament Theology. Broadman, 1962. ISBN 0-8054-1613-7
  3. ^ World Mission Society Church of God: Heavenly Mother
  4. ^ Jehovah's Witnesses and salvation#The .27anointed.27
  5. ^ May, Herbert G. and Metzger, Bruce M. editors. (1977). "The Song of Solomon." The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha. Expanded Edition. Revised Standard Version. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 815
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