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CIA cryptonym

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CIA cryptonym

CIA cryptonyms are code names or code words used by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) to refer to projects, operations, persons, agencies, etc. Most of the cryptonyms described in this article were in use at least from the 1950s to the 1980s and have since been retired from use.


The term "code word" was used by the CIA during the 1960s as a partial designation for a Top Secret report on a highly classified and sensitive intelligence topic, and for compartmenting information. In the context of discussing code words used in the President's Daily Brief (PDB) during the Johnson and Nixon administrations, former CIA Director Richard Helms wrote:[1]

"At the time, the highest security classification was known as Top Secret/Code Word. In practice, the slug — as we called it — 'Top Secret/Code Word' was followed by a noun, so scrupulously chosen that even the most intuitive intruder could not associate a glimpse of the code word with the subject matter it protected. In my day there were a dozen or more of these tightly compartmented classifications of information. Aside from the President and a few others — usually the Secretary of State, Secretary of Defense, and National Security Advisor — no other government official was automatically cleared for 'all source' reports. The lesser recipients of specific code word data had to have a clearly established 'need to know' the substance of the compartmentalized report. Compartmentation, as we called it, is one of the most effective means of protecting sensitive data. Even today, I hesitate to pick a typical code word to illustrate the system. As surely as Heaven gave us little green apples, it would be my luck to pick a five-letter noun that is in current use."

Top Secret/Code Word documents contained "highly classified and sensitive intelligence."[1]

Format of cryptonyms

Each CIA cryptonym contains a two character prefix called a digraph, which designates a geographical or functional area.[2] Certain digraphs were changed over time; for example, the digraph for the Soviet Union changed at least twice.

The rest is either an arbitrary dictionary word, or occasionally the digraph and the cryptonym combine to form a dictionary word (e.g. AEROPLANE) or can be read out as a simple phrase (e.g., WIBOTHER, read as "Why bother!"). Cryptonyms are sometimes written with a slash after the digraph, e.g., ZR/RIFLE, and sometimes in one sequence, e.g., ZRRIFLE. The latter format is the more common style in CIA documents.

Examples from publications by former CIA personnel show that the terms "code name" and "cryptonym" can refer to the names of operations as well as to individual persons. TRIGON, for example, was the code name for Aleksandr Ogorodnik, a member of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in what was then the Soviet Union, whom the CIA developed as a spy;[3] HERO was the code name for Col. Oleg Penkovsky, who supplied data on the nuclear readiness of the Soviet Union during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962.[4] According to former CIA Director Richard M. Helms: "The code names for most Agency operations are picked in sequence from a sterile list, with care taken not to use any word that might give a clue to the activity it covers. On some large projects, code names are occasionally specially chosen — GOLD, SILVER, PBSUCCESS, CORONA. When Bob Kennedy requested a code name for the government-wide plan that Richard Goodwin was drafting, an exception was made. Goodwin was on the White House staff, and the plan concerned Cuba. Occasionally the special code names come close to the nerve, as did MONGOOSE."[5] A secret joint program between the Mexico City CIA station and the Mexican secret police to wiretap the Soviet and Cuban embassies was code-named ENVOY.[6]

Some cryptonyms relate to more than one subject, e.g., a group of people. In this case, the basic cryptonym, e.g., LICOZY, will designate the whole group, while each group member is designated by a sequence number, e.g., LICOZY/3, which can also be written LICOZY-3, or just L-3.


Partial list of digraphs and probable definitions

  • AE: Soviet Union (1960s)[7]
  • AM: Cuba (1960s)[2]
  • AV: Uruguay
  • BE: Poland
  • BG: Albania
  • BI: Argentina
  • CK: CIA Soviet and East Europe division sensitive cases (late 1970s)[7]
  • DB: Iraq
  • DI: Czechoslovakia
  • DM: SFRY / Yugoslavia
  • DN: South Korea
  • DU: Peru
  • EC: Ecuador
  • ES: Guatemala
  • GT: CIA Soviet and East Europe division sensitive cases (1980s)[7]
  • HA: Indonesia (1958)
  • IA: Angola[8]
  • JM: Cuba
  • KK: Israel[9]
  • KU: Part of CIA (1960s)
  • LC: China
  • LN: United States
  • LI: Mexico[2]
  • MH: Worldwide operation.[10]
  • MJ: Palestinian-related[11]
  • MK: CIA Technical Services Division (1950s/1960s)
  • MO: Thailand
  • OD: Other US Government Departments (1960s)
  • PB: Guatemala
  • PD: Soviet Union (1980s)[7]
  • PO: Japan
  • SD: Iran
  • SM: United Kingdom
  • ST: CIA Directorate of Operations, Far East division, China Branch[12]
  • TP: Iran (1953)
  • TU: South Vietnam
  • WI: Democratic Republic of the Congo (1960s)
  • ZR: Intelligence intercept program of CIA Staff D ops, the group that worked directly with the NSA (National Security Agency).

Unidentified digraphs


Known cryptonyms

  • AEFOXTROT: Yuri Ivanovich Nosenko, a Soviet defector.
  • AELADLE: Anatoliy Golitsyn, a Soviet defector.
  • AESCREEN: Soviet Bloc division's translation and analysis unit[13]
  • AMBIDDY-1: Manuel Artime.[14]
  • AMBLOOD-1: Luis Torroella y Martin Rivero, a CIA agent.[15]
  • AMCLATTER-1: Bernard Barker, one of the Watergate burglars.[16]
  • AMCOBRA[17]
  • AMCROW[17]
  • AMCRUZ or AMCRUX?[17]
  • AMFOX[17]
  • AMGLOSSY[17]
  • AMHALF[17]
  • AMJUDGE[17]
  • AMLASH: Plan to assassinate Fidel Castro associated mainly with Rolando Cubela. AMLASH has been referred to as a "basically one-person Cubela operation".[18]
  • AMLASH-1: Rolando Cubela Secades, a Cuban official involved in plot to kill Fidel Castro in 1963.
  • AMOT: Cuban exile informants of David Sánchez Morales.[19]
  • AMPALM-4[20]
  • AMQUACK: Che Guevara, Argentinian (later Cuban) guerrilla leader.
  • AMTHUG: Fidel Castro, Prime Minister of Cuba 1959-1976.[21]
  • AMTRUNK: A CIA plan by New York Times journalist Tad Szulc initiated in February 1963, also called the "Leonardo Plan," that was "an attempt to find disgruntled military officials in Cuba who might be willing to recruit higher military officials in a plot to overthrow Castro",[22] as well as to overthrow the Cuban government "by means of a conspiracy among high-level ... leaders of the government culminating in a coup d'etat".[18] AMTRUNK has also been described as a "CIA-DIA Task Force on Cuba",[23] and as "a plodding bureaucratic effort" that "had worked for months to identify Cuban leaders who might be able to stage a coup".[22]
  • AMWHIP-1: Business associate of Santo Trafficante, Jr. who was in contact with Rolando Cubela (AMLASH) in 1963.[24]
  • AMWORLD: A plan initiated June 28, 1963, to overthrow the Castro regime in a coup on December 1, 1963 (C-Day), that would have installed Juan Almeida Bosque, a top ranking Cuban military officer, as the new head of state.[20][25] Some Cuban exiles referred to C-Day as "Plan Omega".[26]
  • DBACHILLES: 1995 effort to support a military coup in Iraq.[27]
  • DBROCKSTARS: Iraqi spy ring recruited by the CIA shortly before the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[28]
  • CKGULL: CIA Polish agent Ryszard Kukliński (also QTGULL)[29]
  • DYCLAIM: CIA[30]
  • GROSSBAHN: Otto von Bolschwing, Sicherheitsdienst officer who later served as a spy for CIA[30]
  • HTAUTOMAT: Photointerpretation center for the Lockheed U-2 reconnaissance aircraft project.
  • HTKEEPER: Mexico City
  • HTLINGUAL: Mail interception operation 1952-1973.
  • HTNEIGH: National Committee for Free Albania (NCFA) [1949-mid1950s]
  • HTPLUME: Panama
  • JMADD: CIA air base near city of Retalhuleu, Guatemala 1960-1961
  • JMATE: CIA Air operations office for the Bay of Pigs Invasion 1961
  • JMBELL: CIA office (location unknown) 1961
  • JMBLUG: John Peurifoy, U.S. Ambassador to Guatemala.
  • JMFURY: Preparatory strikes against Cuban airfields before Bay of Pigs Invasion 1961
  • JMGLOW: CIA Washington 1961
  • JMTIDE: CIA air base in Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua 1961
  • JMTRAX: CIA covert air base/training camp in Guatemala 1960-1961
  • JMWAVE: CIA station in Miami (that operated against Cuba).
  • JMZIP: CIA office (location unknown) 1961
  • KKMOUNTAIN: CIA-Mossad cooperation in the 1960s[9]
  • KMFLUSH: Nicaragua
  • KMPAJAMA: Mexico
  • KMPLEBE: Peru
  • KUBARK: CIA Headquarters, Langley[30]
  • KUBASS: CIA Directorate of Science and Technology (DS&T)[31]
  • KUCAGE: CIA Overseas Paramilitary / Propaganda Operations
  • KUCLUB: CIA Office of Communications
  • KUDESK: CIA Counterintelligence department
  • KUDOVE: CIA Deputy Director for Operations (DDO)[31]
  • KUFIRE: CIA Foreign Intelligence Staff[31]
  • KUGOWN: CIA Psychological and Paramilitary Operations Staff[31]
  • KUHOOK: CIA Paramilitary Operations Staff[31]
  • KUJAZZ: CIA Office of National Estimates[31]
  • KUJUMP: CIA Contact Division[31]
  • KUKNOB: CIA Office of Scientific Intelligence (OSI)[31]
  • KUMONK: CIA Office of Political Analysis (OPA)[31]
  • KURIOT: CIA Technical Services Division.[31]
  • KUSODA: Center for CIA Security.]).[31]
  • KUTUBE: CIA Foreign Intelligence Staff.]).[31]
  • LCFLUTTER: Polygraph,[30] sometimes supplanted by truth drugs: Sodium Amytal (amobarbital), Sodium Pentothal (thiopental), and Seconal (secobarbital) to induce regression in the subject.
  • LCPANGS: Costa Rica
  • LNHARP: United States Government
  • LIENVOY: Wiretap or intercept program.
  • LINCOLN: Ongoing operation involving Basque separatist group ETA.
  • LIONIZER: Guatemalan refugee group in Mexico.
  • LITEMPO: Spy network, operated between 1956–1969, to exchange information with Mexican top officers.[32]
  • LITEMPO-1 Emilio Bolanos, nephew of Gustavo Díaz Ordaz (Secretary of Government in the cabinet of president Adolfo López Mateos)
  • LITEMPO-2: Gustavo Díaz Ordaz, Secretary of Government in the cabinet of president Adolfo López Mateos and President of Mexico 1964-1970.[33]
  • LITEMPO-4 : Fernando Gutiérrez Barrios, Head of the Dirección Federal de Seguridad, the top Mexican intelligence agency, at the midst of the dirty war (1964 – 1970).
  • LITEMPO-8 (later LITEMPO-14): Luis Echeverría, Secretary of Government in the cabinet of president Gustavo Díaz Ordaz and President of Mexico 1970-1976.[33]
  • MHCHAOS: Surveillance of antiwar activists during the Vietnam War.
  • MJTRUST/2 : Ali Hassan Salameh[11]
  • MKCHICKWIT: Identify new drug developments in Europe and Asia and obtain samples, part of MKSEARCH.
  • MKDELTA: Stockpiling of lethal biological and chemical agents, subsequently became MKNAOMI.
  • MKNAOMI: Stockpiling of lethal biological and chemical agents, successor to MKDELTA.
  • MKOFTEN: Testing effects of biological and chemical agents, part of MKSEARCH.
  • MKSEARCH: MKULTRA after 1964, mind control research.
  • MKULTRA: Mind control research. Renamed MKSEARCH in 1964.
  • ODACID: United States Department of State/U.S. embassy
  • ODEARL: United States Department of Defense
  • ODENVY: Federal Bureau of Investigation[2]
  • ODEUM: [30][34]
  • ODOATH: United States Navy
  • ODOPAL: Counterintelligence Corps, United States Army
  • ODUNIT: United States Air Force
  • ODURGE: Immigration and Naturalization Service[30]
  • ODYOKE: Federal government of the United States[20]
  • PBFORTUNE: CIA project to supply forces opposed to Guatemala's President Arbenz with weapons, supplies, and funding; predecessor to PBSUCCESS.
  • OFFSPRING: Gehlen Organization (1949-1950)[34]
  • PBHISTORY: CIA project to gather and analyze documents from the Arbenz government in Guatemala that would incriminate Arbenz as a communist.
  • PBJOINTLY: Operation that built a tunnel from the American sector of Berlin, to the Russian sector.
  • PBPRIME: the United States[20]
  • PBRUMEN: Cuba
  • PBSUCCESS: (Also PBS) CIA covert operation to overthrow the Arbenz government in Guatemala in 1954.
  • POCAPON: Taketora Ogata, Japanese politician in the 1950s.
  • PODAM: Matsutarō Shōriki, Japanese businessman and politician.
  • QJWIN: European assassin.[35] Also described as an "assassin recruiter".[36]
  • QKCIGAR: United States Government
  • QKELUSION: West German Social Democratic Party (SPD)[31]
  • QKENCHANT: CIA program associated with E. Howard Hunt (1918–2007), who with G. Gordon Liddy and others, was one of the White House's "plumbers" — a secret team of operatives charged with fixing "leaks".[37]
  • QKFLOWAGE: United States Information Agency
  • QTGULL: CIA Polish agent Ryszard Kukliński (also CKGULL)[29]
  • SMOTH: UK Secret Intelligence Service (MI6)
  • TPBEDAMN: U.S. operation to counter communist subversion in Iran with propaganda and bribes.
  • TPAJAX: Joint US/UK operation to overthrow Mohammed Mossadeq, Prime Minister of Iran.
  • TPCREDO: Italy
  • TPROACH: Yugoslavia
  • TPTONIC: National Committee for Free Europe (NCFE)
  • UNREST: Otto von Bolschwing[30]
  • USAGE: Otto von Bolschwing[30]
  • UTILITY: Reinhard Gehlen, first president of the Bundesnachrichtendienst[30][34]
  • ZIPPER: Gehlen Organization (1951-1956)[30][34]
  • ZRRIFLE: An assassination plot targeting Fidel Castro

Unidentified cryptonyms


Operations and projects

  • APPLE: Agent team seen in 1952 by CIA/OPC as best bet to successfully continue BGFIEND Project aimed to harass/overthrow Albanian communist regime. Team was arrested, communists controlled radio ops for 16 months, luring more agents into Albania in 1953, and trying and executing original agents in 1954 to suddenly end BGFIEND.[38]
  • ARTICHOKE: Anti-interrogation project. Precursor to MKULTRA.
  • AZORIAN: Project to raise the Soviet submarine K-129 from the Pacific Ocean.[39]
  • BGGYPSY: Communist.
  • BLACKSHIELD: A-12 aircraft reconnaissance missions off Okinawa.[40]
  • BLUEBIRD: mind control program
  • BOND: Puerto Barrios, Guatemala.
  • CATIDE: Bundesnachrichtendienst
  • CHARITY: Joint CIA/OSO-Italian Naval Intelligence information gathering operation against Albania (1948–1951).
  • CHERRY: Covert assassination / destabilization operation during Vietnam war, targeting Prince (later King) Norodom Sihanouk and the government of Cambodia. Disbanded.
  • DTFROGS: El Salvador
  • ESCOBILLA: Guatemalan national.
  • ESMERALDITE: Labor informant affiliated with AFL-sponsored labor movement.
  • ESQUIRE: James Bamford, author of "The Puzzle Palace".
  • ESSENCE: Guatemalan anti-communist leader.
  • FDTRODPINT : Afghan tribal agents, formerly known as GESENIOR, reactivated in the 1990s by the CIA to hunt Mir Aimal Kasi and later Osama bin Laden.[41]
  • FIR
  • FJGROUND: Grafenwöhr, West Germany paramilitary training ground.
  • FJHOPEFUL: Military base.
  • FPBERM: Yugoslavia
  • FUBELT: Project to prevent Salvador Allende rise to power, and to promote a military coup in Chile.
  • GANGPLANK: KYP, Greek Central Intelligence Service (1952–1974)
  • GESENIOR: Afghan tribal agents working with the CIA during the Soviet war in Afghanistan. Later called FDTRODPINT.[41]
  • GPFLOOR: Lee Harvey Oswald, J.F. Kennedy's assassin.
  • GPIDEAL: John F. Kennedy, US president.[42]
  • GRALLSPICE: Pyotr Popov, CIA Soviet agent[43]
  • GUSTO: Project to design a follow-on to the Lockheed U-2 reconnaissance aircraft. Succeeded RAINBOW. Succeeded by OXCART.[44]
  • HBFAIRY: France
  • HTCURIO: American or U.S. [Not Government]
  • IAFEATURE: Operation to support the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) and the National Liberation Front of Angola (FNLA) during the Angolan civil war.
  • IDIOM: Initial work by Convair on a follow-on to the Lockheed U-2 reconnaissance aircraft. Later moved into GUSTO.[45]
  • Project JBEDICT: Tripartite Stay-Behind project.
  • JENNIFER: Document control system for Project AZORIAN.[39]
  • KEMPSTER: Project to reduce the radar cross section (RCS) of the inlets of the Lockheed A-12 reconnaissance aircraft.
  • KMHYMNAL: Maine-built motor sailer JUANITA purchased by CIA to use as floating, clandestine, propaganda broadcast facility in Mediterranean/Adriatic (1950–53).
  • LNWILT: US Counterintelligence Corps (CIC)
  • LPMEDLEY: Surveillance of telegraphic information exiting or entering the United States.
  • MAGPIE: US Army Labor Service Organization
  • MATADOR: Project to recover section of Soviet submarine K-129 dropped during Project AZORIAN. Cancelled after Soviet protest.[39]
  • MOCKINGBIRD: Recruitment of American journalists for CIA work.[40]
  • MONGOOSE: "Primarily a relentless and escalating campaign of sabotage and small Cuban exile raids that would somehow cause the overthrow of Castro," which "also included plans for an invasion of Cuba in the fall of 1962".[46]
  • OAK: Operation to assassinate suspected South Vietnamese collaborators during Vietnam war.
  • PANCHO: Carlos Castillo Armas, President of Guatemala, also RUFUS.
  • PAPERCLIP: US recruiting of German scientists after World War II.
  • PHOENIX: Vietnam covert intelligence/assassination operation.
  • PINE
  • RAINBOW: Project to reduce the radar cross section (RCS) of the Lockheed U-2 reconnaissance aircraft.[47] Succeeded by GUSTO.
  • QKWAVER: Egypt
  • RUFUS: Carlos Castillo Armas, President of Guatemala, also PANCHO.
  • RYBAT: Indicates that the information is very sensitive.
  • SARANAC: Training site in Nicaragua.
  • SCRANTON: Training base for radio operators near Nicaragua.
  • SGCIDER: Germany
  • SGUAT: CIA Station in Guatemala
  • SHERWOOD: CIA radio broadcast program in Nicaragua begun on May 1, 1954.
  • SKILLET: Whiting Willauer, U.S. Ambassador to Honduras.
  • SKIMMER: The "Group" CIA cover organization supporting Castillo Armas.
  • SLINC: Telegram indicator for PBSUCCESS Headquarters in Florida.
  • STANDEL: Jacobo Arbenz, President of Guatemala.
  • STARGATE: Investigation of psychic phenomena.
  • STBAILEY: political action and propaganda part of STBARNUM[48]
  • STBARNUM: CIA Tibetan program (covert action in Tibet, 1950s onwards)[49]
  • STCIRCUS: aerial part of STBARNUM[49]
  • STSPIN: Three P-3A Orion aircraft operated from Taiwan in 1966.[50]
  • SYNCARP: The "Junta," Castillo Armas' political organization headed by Cordova Cerna.
  • THERMOS: Unclassified codeword used in lieu of RAINBOW[51]
  • THROWOFF/2: Albanian ethnic agent/radio operator employed by Italian Navy Intelligence/CIA in several early Cold War covert operations against Albania. Was captured, operated radio under communist control to lure CIA agents to capture/death, tried in 1954, death sentence commuted, freed after 25 years. CIA paid his son $40,000 in 1996.[52]
  • OPERATION TILT: The CIA's name for "an operation put together by John Martino, who was fronting for his boss Santo Trafficante and his roommate Johnny Roselli".[53] OPERATION TILT used "some of the same people working on the CIA-Mafia plots in the spring of 1963 ... [and] involved sending a Cuban exile team into Cuba to retrieve Soviet technicians supposedly ready to defect and reveal the existence of Soviety missiles still on the island".[54]
  • TROPIC: Air operations flown over North Korea, China, and the Soviet Union by CAT pilots during the 1950s.[40]
  • VALUABLE: British MI-run Albanian operations 1949 to 1953.
  • WASHTUB: Operation to plant Soviet arms in Nicaragua.
  • WBFISHY: British Foreign Office
  • WSBURNT: Guatemala
  • WSHOOFS: Honduras
  • ZAPATA: Bay of Pigs Invasion 1961.

See also


  1. ^ a b Helms 2003, pp. 378-379
  2. ^ a b c d Final Report of the Assassination Records Review Board, p. 52
  3. ^ Wallace and Melton, pp. 88-102
  4. ^ Helms 2003, p. 216
  5. ^ Helms 2003, p. 197
  6. ^ Weiner 2008, p. 258
  7. ^ a b c d David Wise, Nightmover: How Aldrich Ames Sold the CIA to the KGB for $4.6 Million, HarperCollins Publishers, 1996 p.15
  8. ^ TIME Magazine"Our War" in Angola, May 22, 1978. .
  9. ^ a b Seymour M. Hersh, The Samson Option: Israel's Nuclear Arsenal and American Foreign Policy, New York, Random House, 1991 pp. 5
  10. ^ Friedman, John S. (2005). The Secret Histories: Hidden Truths That Challenged the Past and Changed the World. Macmillan. pp. 278–279.  
  11. ^ a b Kai Bird, The Good Spy: The Life and Death of Robert Ames, Crown Publishing Group, New York, 2014 p. 95
  12. ^ Kenneth Conboy and James Morrison, The CIA's Secret War in Tibet, Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 2002, p. 269
  13. ^ Ronald Kessler, Spy vs. Spy: Stalking Soviet Spies in America, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1988 p. 53
  14. ^ Waldron & Hartmann 2005, p. 878
  15. ^ Escalante, p. 89
  16. ^ Waldron & Hartmann 2009, p. 262
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h Waldron & Hartmann 2009, p. 204
  18. ^ a b Waldron & Hartmann 2005, p. 215
  19. ^ Waldron & Hartmann 2009, p. 38
  20. ^ a b c d Waldron & Hartmann 2005, p. 794
  21. ^ Waldron & Hartmann 2009, p. 35
  22. ^ a b Waldron & Hartmann 2005, p. 216
  23. ^ Waldron & Hartmann 2009 p. 224
  24. ^ Waldron & Hartmann 2009, p. 19
  25. ^ Waldron & Hartmann 2009, p. 13
  26. ^ Waldron & Hartmann 2005, p. 589
  27. ^ David Ignatius, A Big Man To Watch In Baghdad, Washington Post, February 1, 2004
  28. ^ Bob Woodward, Plan of attack
  29. ^ a b Benjamin Weiser, A Secret Life: The Polish Officer, His Covert Mission, and the Price He Paid to Save His Country, New York: PublicAffairs, 2003 p. 344
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h i j The Case of Otto Albrecht Alfred von Bolschwing
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Research Aid: Cryptonyms and Terms in Declassified CIA Files
  32. ^ George Washington University
  33. ^ a b "El espía que impactó a México" (in Spanish). El Universal. Retrieved 2009-08-04. 
  34. ^ a b c d Forging an Intelligence Partnership: CIA and the Origins of the BND, 1949-56
  35. ^ Waldron & Hartmann 2009, pp. 35, 136
  36. ^ Waldron & Hartmann 2005, p. 527
  37. ^ Waldron & Hartmann 2009, p. 709
  38. ^ OBOPUS/BGFIEND, RG263, Various documents, include Vol. 6, Box 47, National Archives, College Park, MD
  39. ^ a b c Sharp 2012
  40. ^ a b c Smith 2003
  41. ^ a b Steve Coll, Ghost Wars, p.372
  42. ^ Waldron & Hartmann 2005, p. 894
  43. ^ David Wise, Molehunt: The Secret Search for Traitors that Shattered the CIA, New York: Random House, 1992 p. 46
  44. ^ Pedlow & Welzenbach, p. 274.
  45. ^ Contracting officer, Change of Project Funds Obligated Under Contract No. SS-100, Convair, San Diego, California, Project CHAMPION, DPD-2827-59, CIA, Washington, DC, 30 April 1959.
  46. ^ Waldron & Hartmann 2005, p. 37
  47. ^ Pedlow & Welzenbach, p. 129.
  48. ^ John B. Roberts II and Elizabeth A. Roberts, Freeing Tibet: 50 Years of Struggle, Resilience, and Hope, New York: AMACOM, 2009 p. 82
  49. ^ a b Kenneth Conboy and James Morrison, The CIA's Secret War in Tibet, Lawrence, Kansas: University Press of Kansas, 2002, p.
  50. ^ Pocock, Chris. The Black Bats: CIA Spy Flights Over China From Taiwan, 1951 - 1969. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer Publishing, 2010. ISBN 978-0-7643-3513-6.
  51. ^ Bissell, Richard M., Jr., "[...] Cable Handling Procedures," SAPC-21143, CIA, Washington, DC, 8 November 1957.
  52. ^ OBOPUS/BGFIEND, AHMET KABASHI, RG263, Name Files, National Archives, College Park, MD
  53. ^ Waldron & Hartmann 2005, p. 471
  54. ^ Waldron & Hartmann 2005, p. 438


  • Agee, Philip. 1975. Inside the Company: CIA Diary. Stonehill Publishing ISBN 0-14-004007-2, p. 48
  • Carl, Leo D. 1990. The International Dictionary of Intelligence. Mavin Books, p. 107
  • DPD Contracting Officer, Change of Project Funds Obligated under Contract No. SS-100. CIA DPD-2827-59, 30 April 1959.
  • Escalante, Fabian. 1995. The Secret War: CIA Covert Operations Against Cuba, 1959-62 ISBN 1-875284-86-9
  • Helms, Richard and Hood, William. 2003. A Look Over My Shoulder: A Life in the Central Intelligence Agency. Random House, pp. 378–379
  • Pedlow, Gregory W. and Welzenbach, Donald E. 1992. The Central Intelligence Agency and Overhead Reconnaissance: The U-2 and OXCART Programs, 1954 - 1974. CIA History Staff
  • Sharp, David (2012). The CIA’s Greatest Covert Operation: Inside the Daring Mission to Recover a Nuclear-Armed Soviet Sub. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. p. 344.  
  • Smith W. Thomas. 2003. Encyclopedia of the Central Intelligence Agency. Checkmark Books ISBN 0-8160-4666-2
  • Stockwell, John. 1978. In Search of Enemies
  • Waldron, Lamar and Hartmann, Thom. 2009. Legacy of Secrecy: The Long Shadow of the JFK Assassination. Counterpoint (LS)
  • Waldron, Lamar and Hartmann, Thom. 2005. Ultimate Sacrifice: John and Robert Kennedy, the Plan for a Coup in Cuba, and the Murder of JFK Carroll & Graf Publishers (US)
  • Wallace, Robert and Melton, H. Keith. 2008. Spycraft: The Secret History of the CIA's Spytechs from Communism to Al-Qaeda. Dutton
  • Weiner, Tim. 2008. Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA. Anchor Books
  • Wise, David. 1992. Molehunt. Random House, p. 19

External links

  • Mary Ferrell CIA Cryptonyms
  • Research Aid: Cryptonyms and Terms in Declassified CIA Files
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