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Carchemish

Viceroyalty of Carchemish / Kingdom of Carchemish
Karkamišša

ca. 1321 BC–717 BC
Carchemish among the Neo-Hittite states
Capital Carchemish
Languages Hittite, Hieroglyphic Luwian
Religion Hittite-Luwian religion
Government Monarchy
Historical era Bronze Age, Iron Age
 •  Established ca. 1321 BC
 •  Disestablished 717 BC
Today part of  Turkey
 Syria

Carchemish ( -ified from «kär-kĕm´ĭsh), also spelled Karkemish (Hittite: Karkamiš;[1] Greek: Εὔρωπος; Latin: Europus), was an important ancient capital at times independent but also having been part of the Mitanni, Hittite and Neo Assyrian Empires, now on the frontier between Turkey and Syria. It was the location of an important battle between the Babylonians and Egyptians, mentioned in the Bible (Jer. 46:2). Modern neighbouring cities are Karkamış in Turkey and Jarabulus in Syria (also Djerablus, Jerablus, Jarablos, Jarâblos) [15]; the original form of the modern toponym seems to have been Djerabis or Jerabis, likely derived from Europos, the ancient name of the Hellenistic-Roman settlement.

Contents

  • History 1
  • Archaeology 2
  • Kings of Carchemish 3
  • Notes 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

History

Map of Syria in the second millennium BC, showing the location of Carchemish, or "Karkemish."

The site has been occupied since the Neolithic and Chalcolithic periods[2] (pot burials), with cist tombs from ca. 2400 BC (Early Bronze Age). The city is mentioned in documents found in the Ebla archives of the 3rd millennium BC. According to documents from the archives of Mari and Alalakh, dated from ca. 1800 BC, Carchemish was then ruled by a king named Aplahanda and was an important center of timber trade. It had treaty relationships with Ugarit and Mitanni (Hanilgalbat). In ancient times, the city commanded the main ford in the region across the Euphrates, a situation which must have contributed greatly to its historical and strategic importance.

Pharaoh Thutmose I of the Eighteenth Dynasty erected a stele near Carchemish to celebrate his conquest of Syria and other lands beyond the Euphrates. Around the end of the reign of Pharaoh Akhenaten, Carchemish was captured by king Suppiluliuma I of the Hittites (ca. 14th century BC), who made it into a kingdom ruled by his son Piyassili.

The city became one of the most important centres in the Hittite Empire, during the Late Bronze Age, and reached its apogee around the 11th century BC. While the Hittite empire fell to the Sea Peoples during the Bronze Age collapse, Carchemish survived the Sea People's attacks to continue to be the capital of an important Neo-Hittite kingdom in the Iron Age, and a trading center.[3] Although Ramesses III states in an inscription dating to his 8th Year from his Medinet Habu mortuary temple that Carchemish was destroyed by the Sea Peoples, the city evidently survived the onslaught.[4] King Kuzi-Tesup I is attested in power here and was the son of Talmi-Teshub who was a contemporary of the last Hittite king, Suppiluliuma II.[5] He and his successors ruled a small empire stretching from Southeast Asia Minor to Northern Syria and the West bend of the Euphrates[6] under the title 'Great King.' This suggests that Kuzi-Tesub saw himself as the true heir of the line of the great Suppiliuma I and that the central dynasty at Hattusa was now defunct.[7] This powerful kingdom lasted from c.1175 to 975 BC when it began losing control of its imperial possessions and became a more local city state centered around Carchemish.[8][9]

The patron goddess of Carchemish was Kubaba, a deity of apparently Hurrian origins.[10] She was represented as a dignified woman wearing a long robe, standing or seated, and holding a mirror. The main male deity of the town was Karhuha, akin to the Hittite god Kurunta.

In the 9th century BC, King Sangara paid tribute to Kings Ashurnasirpal II and Shalmaneser III of Assyria. It was conquered by Sargon II in 717 BC, in the reign of King Pisiri. In 2015, for the first time, a reference has been found for Sangara in a hieroglyphic inscription originally coming from the site itself.

In the summer of 605 BC, the Battle of Carchemish was fought there by the Babylonian army of Nebuchadnezzar II and that of Pharaoh Necho II of Egypt and the remnants of the Assyrian army. (Jer. 46:2). The aim of Necho's campaign was to contain the Westward advance of the Babylonian Empire and cut off its trade route across the Euphrates. However, the Egyptians were defeated by the unexpected attack of the Babylonians and were eventually expelled from Syria.

Archaeology

Carchemish is now an extensive set of ruins (90 hectares, of which 55 lie in Turkey and 35 in Syria), located on the West bank of Euphrates River, about 60 kilometres (37 mi) southeast of Gaziantep, Turkey, and 100 kilometres (62 mi) northeast of Aleppo, Syria. The site is crossed by the Baghdad Railway that now forms the Turco-Syrian border. A Turkish military base has been built on the Carchemish acropolis and Inner Town, and access to that part of the site is presently restricted. Most of the Outer Town lies in Syrian territory.

T. E. Lawrence and Leonard Woolley (right) in Carchemish, Spring 1913

Carchemish has always been well known to scholars because of several references to it in the Bible (Jer. 46:2; 2 Chr. 35:20; Isa. 10:9) and in Egyptian and Assyrian texts. However, its location was identified only in 1876 by Circesium, at the confluence of the Khabur River and the Euphrates,[11] while some early scholars thought that Jarabulus could be Hierapolis Bambyce, although that site is actually located at Manbij in Syria.

The site was excavated by the D. G. Hogarth. In 1911 on the field there were D. G. Hogarth himself, R. C. Thompson, and T. E. Lawrence ("Lawrence of Arabia"), from 1912 to 1914 C. L. Woolley and T. E. Lawrence, while a last campaign took place in 1920 with C. L. Woolley and Philip Langstaffe Ord Guy.[12][13][14][15] Excavations were interrupted in 1914 by World War I and then ended in 1920 with the Turkish War of Independence.[16] These expeditions uncovered substantial remains of the Assyrian and Neo-Hittite periods, including defensive structures, temples, palaces, and numerous basalt statues and reliefs with Luwian hieroglyphic inscriptions.

With the completion of mine clearing operations on the Turkish portion of the site, archaeological work was resumed in September 2011.[17] Excavations in the Inner and Outer Towns were carried out by a joint Turco-Italian team from the Universities of Gaziantep Metropolitan Municipality [19]. Financial support has been received by the three Universities mentioned above, by the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs [20], Şahinbey Municipality [21], Sanko Holding [22] and Inta A.Ş.

Archaeological investigations on the Syrian side have been conducted as part of the Land of Carchemish project [23]: investigations of the Outer Town of Carchemish were undertaken in conjunction with the DGAM in Damascus and with the funding and sponsorship of the Council for British Research in the Levant and of the British Academy, under the direction of Professors T. J. Wilkinson and E. Peltenburg.[19] The Outer Town area lying in Syria has been designated an endangered cultural heritage site and labelled “at risk” by the Global Heritage Fund [24], due to the agricultural expansion and, especially, the urban encroachment. The field assessment of the Syrian part of the Outer Town proved that, unfortunately, not only have parts of the modern border town of Jerablus encroached upon the Outer Town, but also since around 2000, a number of houses have been constructed within the agricultural area between the border (demarcated by the so-called Baghdad Railway) and the modern town.[20]

Kings of Carchemish

Yariri (r.) and Kamani (l.), successive rulers of Carchemish
Ruler Proposed reign (BC) Notes
Adni-anda (?) ca. ? to 1786
Aplah-anda I ca. 1786 to 1764 son of Adni-anda
Yatar-Ami ca. 1764 to 1763 son of Aplah-anda I
Yahdun-Lim ca. 1763 to 1745? son of Bin-Ami
Aplah-anda II ca. 1745? to ? son of Yahdun-Lim?
Piyassili or Sharri-Kushukh ca. 1315 son of the Hittite king Suppiluliuma I
[...]sharruma son of Piyassilis
Shakhurunuwa son of Piyassilis
Ini-Teshub I ca. 1230s
Talmi-Teshub ca. 1200
Kuzi-Teshub ca. 1170 claimed the title of "Great King" after the fall of Hatti
Ini-Teshub II ca. 1100
Tudhaliya ca. 1100 either before or after Ini-Teshub II
Sapaziti ca. 1025
Uratarhunda ca. 1000
Suhi I ca. 975
Astuwalamanza ca. 950
Suhi II ca. 925
Katuwa ca. 900
Sangara ca. 870-848
Astiru ca. 830
Yariri (regent) ca. 815
Kamani ca. 790
Sastura ca. 760
Astiru II (?)
Pisiri ca. 730s the last king, defeated in 717 by Sargon II

Notes

  1. ^ "Kargamiš." by D. Hawkins in Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Archäologie. Walter de Gruyter (1980).
  2. ^ Langer, William L., ed. (1972). An Encyclopedia of World History (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. p. 9.  
  3. ^ Federico Giusfredi, Sources for a Socio-Economic History of the Neo-Hittite States, Winter Verlag, 2010, pp. 35-51.
  4. ^ Gary Beckman, "Hittite Chronology", Akkadica, pp.119–120 (2000), p.23
  5. ^ K.A. Kitchen, On the Reliability of the Old Testament, William B. Eerdsman Publishing Co, pp.99 & 140
  6. ^ Kitchen, op. cit., p.99
  7. ^ Trevor R. Bryce, The Kingdom of the Hittites, Oxford University Press, p.384
  8. ^ Kitchen, op. cit., p.100
  9. ^ Giusfredi, op.cit., pp. 37-44
  10. ^ Manfred Hutter, “Aspects of Luwian Religion”, in H.C. Melchert (ed.), The Luwians, Brill, 2003, pp. 211-280
  11. ^ CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Circesium
  12. ^ [25] David George Hogarth, Hittite problems and the excavation of Carchemish, H. Frowde, 1911 (Nabu Press, 2010, ISBN 978-1-171-63699-1)
  13. ^ D.G. Hogarth, Carchemish I: Introductory, The British Museum Press, London 1914, repr. 1969
  14. ^ C.L. Woolley, Carchemish II: Town Defences: Report on the Excavations at Jerablus on Behalf of the British Museum, British Museum Press, London 1921, repr. 1969, ISBN 0-7141-1002-7
  15. ^ C.L. Woolley & R.D. Barnett, Carchemish III: Excavations in the Inner Town: Report on the Excavations at Jerablus on Behalf of the British Museum, British Museum Press, London 1952, repr. 1978, ISBN 0-7141-1003-5
  16. ^ H.G. Güterbock, Carchemish, in Journal of Near Eastern Studies 13/2 (1954), pp. 102-114
  17. ^ [26] Ancient city to rise in SE Turkey area cleared of mines. Daily News & Economic Review 31.03.2011
  18. ^ [27] Nicolò Marchetti et al., Karkemish on the Euphrates: Excavating a City’s History, in Near Eastern Archaeology 75.3 (2012), pp. 132-147
  19. ^ Edgar Peltenburg, Euphrates River Valley Settlement: The Carchemish Sector in the Third Millennium BC, Oxbow Books, 2007, ISBN 1-84217-272-7
  20. ^ [28] T.J. Wilkinson and E. Peltenberg. 2010. Carchemish in Context: Surveys in the Hinterland of a Major Iron Age City. Bulletin of the Council for British Research in the Levant, Volume 5, Number 1, November 2010 , pp. 11-20(10)

See also

References

  • Marchetti, N. (2014). Karkemish. An Ancient Capital on the Euphrates. OrientLab 2 (Università di Bologna - Ante Quem ed.). (http://www.orientlab.net/pubs free download)  
  • N. Marchetti et al., Karkemish on the Euphrates: Excavating a City's History, in Near Eastern Archaeology 75/3 (2012), pp. 132–147 (http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5615/neareastarch.75.issue-3)
  • N. Marchetti, "The 2011 Joint Turco-Italian Excavations at Karkemish", in 34. kazı sonuçları toplantısı, 28 Mayıs-1 Haziran 2012, Çorum. 1. cilt, T.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı, Ankara 2013, pp. 349–364 (http://www.kulturvarliklari.gov.tr/Eklenti/7332,34kazi1.pdf?0)
  • N. Marchetti, The 2012 Joint Turco-Italian Excavations at Karkemish, in 35. kazı sonuçları toplantısı, 27–31 Mayıs 2013, Muğla. 3. cilt, T.C. Kültür ve Turizm Bakanlığı, Ankara 2014, pp. 233–248 (http://www.kulturvarliklari.gov.tr/Eklenti/27148,35kazi3.pdf?0)
  • N. Marchetti, Bronze Statuettes from the Temples of Karkemish, in Orientalia 83/3 (2014), pp. 305–320
  • N. Marchetti, Karkemish. New Discoveries in the Last Hittite Capital, in Current World Archaeology 70 (2015), pp. 18–24 (http://www.world-archaeology.com/issue-70/cwa-70.htm)
  • A. Dinçol, B. Dinçol, J. D. Hawkins, N. Marchetti, H. Peker, A Stele by Suhi I from Karkemish, in Orientalia 83/2 (2014), pp. 143–153
  • A. Dinçol, B. Dinçol, H. Peker, An Anatolian Hieroglyphic Cylinder Seal from the Hilani at Karkemish, in Orientalia 83/2 (2014), pp. 162–165
  • G. Marchesi, Epigraphic Materials of Karkemish from the Middle Bronze Age, in Orientalia 83/2 (2014), pp. 166–181
  • J. D. Hawkins, Corpus of Hieroglyphic Luwian Inscriptions I. Inscriptions of the Iron Age. de Gruyter, Berlin 2000, ISBN 978-3-11-010864-4.
  • G. Bitelli, F. Girardi, V. A. Girelli, Digital enhancement of the 3D scan of Suhi I’s stele from Karkemish, in Orientalia 83/2 (2014), pp. 154-161
  • N. Marchetti, H. Peker, A Stele from Gürçay near Karkemish, in Orientalia 83/2 (2014), pp. 182-188
  • H. Peker, A Funerary Stele from Yunus, in Orientalia 83/2 (2014), pp. 189-193
  • S. Pizzimenti, Three Glyptic Documents from Karkemish, in Orientalia 83/2 (2014), pp. 194-201
  • M. Zecchi, A Note on Two Egyptian Seal Impressions from Karkemish, in Orientalia 83/2 (2014), pp. 202-206
  • D. M. Wilson, The British Museum. A history. The British Museum Press, London, 2002.

External links

  • Official website of the Turco-Italian Archaeological Expedition to Karkemish
  • Activities of the joint Turkish-Italian Archaeological Mission (in Italian)
  • Carchemish
  • Carchemish images
  • Ancient city to rise in SE Turkey area cleared of mines
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