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Cervical lymph nodes

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Title: Cervical lymph nodes  
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Cervical lymph nodes

Cervical lymph nodes
Regional lymph tissue. (Cervical near top, in green.)⋅
Deep Lymph Nodes
1. Submental
2. Submandibular (Submaxillary)

Anterior Cervical Lymph Nodes (Deep)
3. Prelaryngeal
4. Thyroid
5. Pretracheal
6. Paratracheal

Deep Cervical Lymph Nodes
7. Lateral jugular
8. Anterior jugular
9. Jugulodigastric

Inferior Deep Cervical Lymph Nodes
10. Juguloomohyoid
11. Supraclavicular (scalene)
Details
Latin Nodi lymphoidei cervicales
Anatomical terminology

Cervical lymph nodes are lymph nodes found in the neck.

Contents

  • Structure 1
  • Features of malignancy 2
  • History 3
  • Additional images 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6

Structure

There are approximately 300 lymph nodes in the neck, and they can be classified in many different ways.[1]

Commonly used systems have been devised by the American Academy of Otolaryngology and the American Joint Committee on Cancer.[2]

One system divides the nodes as follows:[3][4]

Features of malignancy

The characterization of neoplastic lymph nodes on CT, MRI or ultrasound is difficult, and usually requires confirmation by further imaging such as PET scans, and ultimately tissue diagnosis by fine needle aspiration, core biopsy, or surgical excision. Indirect features have been extensively researched however, including a ratio of long:short axis of less than 2 (subjectively round as opposed to oval shape),[5] loss of the fatty hilum, necrosis, ill defined margin (implying extra capsular spread), peripherally increased flow on Doppler ultrasound, punctate calcifications in patients with primary papillary thyroid cancer and a reticulated appearance in patients with lymphoma.[6]

History

Henri Rouvière produced an influential classification in 1938.[7] However, this system was based upon anatomical landmarks found in dissection, making it imperfectly suited to the needs of clinicians, which led to new terminology for the lymph nodes that could be palpated.

More recently, classification systems have been proposed organized around what can be observed via diagnostic imaging.[8]

Additional images

References

  1. ^ "I. Classification". Retrieved 2008-02-16. 
  2. ^ Som PM, Curtin HD, Mancuso AA (1999). "An imaging-based classification for the cervical nodes designed as an adjunct to recent clinically based nodal classifications". Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 125 (4): 388–96.  
  3. ^ "Neck Dissection". Retrieved 2008-02-16. 
  4. ^ archotol.ama-assn.org
  5. ^ PMID 26302761 (PubMed)
  6. ^ PMID 26330926 (PubMed)
  7. ^ Rouvière H. Lymphatic system of the head and neck. Tobias M, Translator. Ann Arbor, MI: Edwards Brothers, 1938.
  8. ^ Chong V (2004). "Cervical lymphadenopathy: what radiologists need to know". Cancer Imaging 4 (2): 116–20.  

External links

  • MedEd at Loyola medicine/pulmonar/PD/pstep23.htm
  • http://www.patient.co.uk/showdoc/27000835/
  • anatomy of the cervical lymphatics
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