World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Charles S. Morehead

Article Id: WHEBN0006498207
Reproduction Date:

Title: Charles S. Morehead  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Beriah Magoffin, Lazarus W. Powell, Governor of Kentucky, List of Governors of Kentucky, Governors of Kentucky
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Charles S. Morehead

Charles S. Morehead
20th Governor of Kentucky
In office
September 4, 1855 – August 30, 1859
Lieutenant James G. Hardy
Preceded by Lazarus W. Powell
Succeeded by Beriah Magoffin
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Kentucky's 8th district
In office
March 4, 1847 – March 4, 1851
Preceded by Garrett Davis
Succeeded by John C. Breckinridge
Personal details
Born Charles Slaughter Morehead
(1802-07-07)July 7, 1802
Nelson County, Kentucky
Died December 21, 1868(1868-12-21) (aged 66)
Greenville, Mississippi
Political party Whig
Know Nothing
Relations Cousin of James Turner Morehead
Alma mater Transylvania University
Occupation Farmer
Profession Lawyer

Charles Slaughter Morehead (July 7, 1802 – December 21, 1868) was a U.S. Representative from Kentucky, and served as the 20th Governor of Kentucky. Though a member of the Whig Party for most of his political service, he joined the Know Nothing, or American, Party in 1855, and was the only governor of Kentucky ever elected from that party.

Morehead's political service began in the Kentucky House of Representatives in 1828. In 1832, he was appointed state attorney general. He served in this capacity for five years, and later returned to the Kentucky House, where he was chosen Speaker of the House three times. He was elected to Congress in 1848 and served two terms. After his congressional tenure, he joined the Know Nothing Party and was chosen as the party's candidate for governor in 1855. The campaign was marred by anti-immigrant and anti-Catholic rhetoric that touched off the "Bloody Monday" riots in Louisville.

Morehead was a delegate to the Peace Conference of 1861 and the Border States Convention that attempted to stave off the Civil War. Although he favored Kentucky's neutrality, Morehead sympathized with the South and was an open critic of the Lincoln administration. He was imprisoned for disloyalty in September 1861, although no formal charges were ever brought against him. He was released from prison in January 1862, and afterward fled to Canada, Europe, and Mexico. After the war, he returned to the United States and settled on his plantation in Greenville, Mississippi, where he died on December 21, 1868.


  • Early life 1
  • Political career 2
    • Governor of Kentucky 2.1
  • Civil War and later life 3
  • References 4
    • Bibliography 4.1
  • Further reading 5

Early life

Charles Slaughter Morehead was born near Bardstown, Nelson County, Kentucky on July 7, 1802.[1] He was the son of Charles and Margaret (Slaughter) Morehead and a first cousin to Kentucky's twelfth governor, James Turner Morehead.[2] His father served in both houses of the Kentucky General Assembly.[2]

Morehead was educated in the area's public schools, then matriculated to Transylvania University.[1] He earned a bachelor's degree in 1820, graduating with honors.[3][4] After graduation, he became a tutor at the university and earned a Bachelor of Laws degree in 1822.[2] He relocated to Christian County, Kentucky, was admitted to the bar, and commenced practice in Hopkinsville.[1][3] He also worked as a farmer, and owned plantations in Mississippi and Louisiana.[1]

Morehead married Amanda Leavy on July 10, 1823.[5] She died July 5, 1829 at the age of twenty-five.[2] Following her death, Morehead married Margaret Leavy, his first wife's sister, on September 6, 1831.[5] Together they had four children.[5] Charles and Margaret were very fond of music, theater, dances, and parties.[6]

Political career

Morehead was elected as a Whig to the Kentucky House of Representatives in 1828 and was re-elected in 1829.[1][5] Following his second term in the legislature, he moved to Frankfort, Kentucky, believing it provided better opportunities for his legal practice.[7] He was appointed as state attorney general in 1832 and served for five years.[8] In 1834, he co-authored A Digest of the Statute Laws of Kentucky with Mason Brown.[5] He represented Franklin County in the state house from 1838 to 1842 and again in 1844; he was chosen Speaker of the House in 1840, 1841, and 1844.[9]

Morehead was elected the Thirtieth and Thirty-first Congresses, serving from March 4, 1847 until March 3, 1851.[1] During the Thirty-first Congress, the Whig caucus considered him as a candidate for Speaker of the House.[10] The voting for speaker began December 3, 1849.[11] The caucus first chose Robert C. Winthrop as their candidate, but after several ballots, Winthrop was still unable to obtain a majority because of sectional rivalries within the caucus.[11] Some Whigs from northern states voted for David Wilmot, a Free Soiler, while five southern Whigs steadfastly voted for Meredith Gentry.[11] The Democrats were similarly unable to muster a majority for their candidate, Howell Cobb.[11]

At their caucus meeting on the night of December 10, the Whigs agreed to continue voting for Winthrop for one more day, and if he was not elected, to switch their support to Morehead, who they believed could hold all of Winthrop's votes and win the votes of the southern Whigs as well as some southern Democrats. They made their intentions known on December 11, and by the end of the day, Morehead reported that he had received commitments of support from twenty southern Democrats. During the day's voting, the five southern Whigs shifted their support from Gentry to Morehead. This shift cost Morehead the support of many northern Whigs who, at the caucus meeting the night of December 11, declared that Morehead's election "would ruin the Whig party in the North",[10] especially if he gained the support of southern Democrats. Rather than further fracture the caucus, Morehead withdrew his name from consideration. Cobb was finally elected on the sixty-third ballot on December 22.[12]

Governor of Kentucky

Following his congressional tenure, Morehead resumed his law practice and management of his plantations.[1] In 1852, he was a

United States House of Representatives
Preceded by
Garrett Davis
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Kentucky's 8th congressional district

1847 – 1851
Succeeded by
John C. Breckinridge
Political offices
Preceded by
Lazarus W. Powell
Governor of Kentucky
Succeeded by
Beriah Magoffin

Further reading


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Charles S. Morehead"
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Powell, p. 50
  3. ^ a b Perrin, p. 89
  4. ^ Kentucky Governor Charles Slaughter Morehead
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Harrison, p. 648
  6. ^ a b c Ramage, p. 75.
  7. ^ Perrin, pp. 89–90
  8. ^ a b Perrin, p. 90
  9. ^ Levin, p. 119
  10. ^ a b Holt, p. 471
  11. ^ a b c d Holt, p. 470
  12. ^ Holt, pp. 471–472
  13. ^ a b c d e Holt, p.936
  14. ^ a b c d e f Ramage, p. 76
  15. ^ Ramage, p. 77
  16. ^ a b Silver, p. 171
  17. ^ a b c d e Silver, p. 172
  18. ^ Hesseltine, p. 40


Morehead returned to his home in Louisville, but feared his refusal to take an oath of allegiance to the Constitution would lead to another arrest.[2] In June 1862, he fled to Canada, then to Europe, and finally to Mexico.[2] Following the war, Morehead returned to the United States and lived on his plantation in Greenville, Mississippi.[1] He died there on December 21, 1868 and was buried on the grounds.[1] On May 31, 1879, he was reburied in the Frankfort Cemetery in Frankfort, Kentucky.[2]

Morehead was later transferred to Fort Warren in Boston Harbor.[2] He complained to his captors about the conditions in the prison; specifically, the difficulty of writing letters when confined with nine other men in a room that measured just ten feet by twenty feet.[18] Petitions for Morehead's release were delivered to President Lincoln, but Lincoln told Secretary of State Seward that Morehead and those arrested with them would be released "when James Guthrie and James Speed [friends of Lincoln's in Kentucky] think they should be".[17] Later, Guthrie told Lincoln that Morehead's arrest had "not been beneficial" to their cause in Kentucky.[17] Morehead was paroled on January 6, 1862, on the condition that he swear an oath not to take part in the Confederate insurgence.[2][17] On March 19, 1862, he was unconditionally discharged from his parole.[2]

On September 19, 1861, Morehead, Louisville Courier editor Reuben T. Durrett, and a man named Martin W. Barr were arrested for disloyalty.[16] The three were taken to Indianapolis, Indiana, and the next day, Louisville circuit court judge John Catron issued a writ of habeas corpus for Morehead.[16] On September 24, the officer who had arrested Morehead told Catron that Secretary of War Simon Cameron had already ordered Morehead taken to Fort Lafayette in New York Harbor.[17] Shortly after this, a grand jury was convened but failed to return any charges against Morehead.[17]

Morehead moved to Louisville in 1859 and formed a law partnership with his nephew, Charles M. Briggs.[8] In February 1861, he attended the Peace Conference of 1861 that tried to resolve the sectional differences between the states.[5] In May 1861, he was chosen as a delegate to the Border State Convention, an ultimately futile attempt to avert the Civil War.[2] Morehead refused to sign the final document produced by the convention because he did not agree with all the statements it contained.[2] He was an advocate of Kentucky's position of neutrality, but was personally sympathetic to the South and was an outspoken critic of the Lincoln administration.[5] He condemned Secretary of State William H. Seward for cutting off trade with the South.[2]

Civil War and later life

Early in his term, Morehead approved two new bank charters, but he later vetoed several others, beginning with the proposed Bank of Harrodsburg.[14] Many other proposed bank charters died in the General Assembly.[14] The later years of Morehead's administration were hindered by the financial Panic of 1857.[5] In December 1857, he reported state expenditures of $21,000 for relief of the poor.[14]

The number of prisoners housed in the state penitentiary at Frankfort was also increasing. By 1856, 237 prisoners were detained in the facility which had only 126 cells. Though state law required solitary confinement at night, the statute was impossible to administer due to the space constraints. Morehead cooperated with the legislature and developed a plan to expand the penitentiary to 252 cells. He also renegotiated the state's contract with the warden that was more favorable to the state, and allowed the warden to collect income from convict labor.[15]

Kentucky's school system was expanding rapidly, creating a shortage of qualified teachers in the state; Morehead responded to this need by proposing a bill for state-supported teacher education program at Transylvania University. The state's superintendent, John D. Matthews, lobbied for the bill, claiming that a failure to educate teachers in Kentucky would result in Northern teachers infiltrating the state and corrupting children's minds. The bill passed in 1856, and Transylvania University made the transition from a private institution to a state-supported university. Money raised through school taxes, previously regarded as revenue by the legislature, was diverted to support of Transylvania. Although the teacher education program enrolled seventy-five students, opposition to the plan developed soon after its passage. Many citizens felt that public school money should not be used to support higher education. Governor Morehead defended the plan, but when the legislature convened two years later, it revoked the university's funding.[14]

Morehead's term as governor was an active one. He approved the appropriation of funding for the first Kentucky State Fair, which was seen as a vehicle for encouraging improvements in agriculture.[5] He also approved the formation of the Kentucky State Agricultural Society in 1856.[5] The state geological survey begun under Governor Lazarus W. Powell was completed and published.[5] Internal improvements progressed as well; railroad mileage in the state increased from 242 miles to 568 miles during Morehead's term.[14]

Though Kentucky had only a small population of immigrants and Catholics, much of Morehead's campaign oratory was directed against these groups.[6] Most of the state's immigrant and Catholic population resided in Louisville, and tensions there reached a climax with an anti-foreign riot known as "Bloody Monday" on August 6, 1855.[2] Morehead won the election with 69,816 votes to 65,413 votes for Democrat Beverly L. Clarke.[5] In his inaugural address, Morehead denounced the nullification of the Fugitive Slave Act and despite his campaign rhetoric, proclaimed "perfect equality" for naturalized citizens.[14]

[13] Prior to the dissolution of the party, most had expected the Whigs would nominate Morehead at their own party's convention in April.[13] Accordingly, when the Know Nothing candidate for governor, Judge William Loving, withdrew from the race due to failing health, the influx of ex-Whigs nominated Morehead to replace him for the gubernatorial election of 1855.[13]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.