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Chlorophyte

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Chlorophyte

Chlorophyta
"Siphoneae" from Ernst Haeckel's Kunstformen der Natur, 1904
Classes[1]
Synonyms
  • Chlorophycophyta
  • Chlorophyllophyceae
  • Isokontae
  • Stephanokontae[2]


Chlorophyta is a division of green algae, informally called chlorophytes. The name is used in two very different senses, so care is needed to determine the use by a particular author. In older classification systems, it refers to a highly paraphyletic group of all the green algae within the green plants (Viridiplantae) and thus includes about 7,000 species[3][4] of mostly aquatic photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms. Like the land plants (bryophytes and tracheophytes), green algae contain chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b and store food as starch[3] in their plastids.

In newer classifications, it refers to one of the two clades making up the Viridiplantae, which are the chlorophytes and the streptophytes. The streptophytes often have two classes ascribed to them the Charophyceae and the Embryophyceae.[5][6] In this sense the Chlorophyta includes only about 4,300 species.[1]

Ecology

Species of Chlorophyta (treated as what is now considered one of the two clades of Viridiplantae) are common inhabitants of marine, freshwater and terrestrial environments.[7][8] Several species have adapted to specialised and extreme environments, such as deserts, arctic environments, hypersaline habitats, marine deep waters and deep-sea hydrothermal vents. [9][10][11] Some groups, such as the Trentepohliales are exclusively found on land.[12] Several species of Chlorophyta live in symbiosis with a diverse range of eukaryotes, including fungi to form lichens, ciliates, forams, cnidarians and molluscs. [8] Some species of Chlorophyta are heterotrophic, either free-living or parasitic.[13][14] Two common species of the heterotrophic green alga Prototheca are pathogenic and can cause the disease protothecosis in humans and animals.[15]

Classifications

Characteristics like type of zoid, mitosis (karyokynesis), cytokinesis, organization level, life cycle, type of gametes, cell wall polysaccharides[16] and more recently genetic data are used for the classification of Chlorophyta.

Leliaert et al. 2012

Simplified phylogeny of the Chlorophyta, according to Leliaert et al. 2012.[8] Note that many algae before classified in Chlorophyta are replaced here in Streptophyta.

  • Viridiplantae
    • Chlorophyta
    • core chlorophytes
        • Ulvophyceae
        • Cladophorales
        • Dasycladales
        • Bryosidales
        • Trentepohliales
        • Ulvales-Ulotrichales
        • Oltmannsiellopsidales
        • Chlorophyceae
        • Oedogoniales
        • Chaetophorales
        • Chaetopeltidiales
        • Chlamidomonadales
        • Sphaeropleales
        • Trebouxiophyceae
        • Chlorellales
        • Oocystaceae
        • Microthamniales
        • Trebouxiales
        • Prasiola clade
        • Chlorodendrophyceae
    • prasinophytes (paraphyletic)
        • Pyramimonadales
        • Mamiellophyceae
        • Pycnococcaceae
        • Nephroselmidophyceae
        • Prasinococcales
        • Palmophyllales
    • Streptophyta
    • charophytes
        • Mesostigmatophyceae
        • Chlorokybophyceae
        • Klebsormidiophyceae
        • Charophyceae
        • Zygnematophyceae
        • Coleochaetophyceae
    • Embryophyta (land plants)

Pombert et al. 2005

A possible classification when Chlorophyta refers to one of the two clades of the Viridiplantae is shown below.[17]

Hoek, Mann and Jahns 1995

Classification of the Chlorophyta, treated as all green algae, according to Hoek, Mann and Jahns 1995.[3]

  • Class Prasinophyceae (orders Mamiellales, Pseudocourfeldiales, Pyramimonadales, Chlorodendrales)
  • Class Chlorophyceae (orders Volvocales, Chlorococcales, Chaetophorales, Oedogoniales)
  • Class Ulvophyceae (orders Codiolales, Ulvales)
  • Class Cladophorophyceae (order Cladophorales)
  • Class Bryopsidophyceae (orders Bryopsidales, Halimedales)
  • Class Dasycladophyceae (order Dasycladales)
  • Class Trentepohliophyceae (order Trentepohliales)
  • Class Pleurastrophyceae (orders Pleurastrales, Prasiolales)
  • Class Klebsormidiophyceae (orders Klebsormidiales, Coleochaetales)
  • Class Zygnematophyceae (order Zygnematales, Desmidiales)
  • Class Charophyceae (order Charales)

Bold and Wynne 1985

Classification of the Chlorophyta (treated as what has since been considered one of the two clades of the Viridiplantae) according to Bold and Wynne 1985.[18]

Smith 1938

Classification of the Chlorophyta according to Smith 1938:

  • Class 1. Chlorophyceae
    • Order 1. Volvocales
        • Family 1. Chlamydomonadaceae
        • Family 2. Volvocaceae
    • Order 2. Tetrasporales
    • Order 3. Ulotrichales
        • Family 1. Ulotrichaceae
        • Family 2. Microsporaceae
        • Family 3. Cylindrocapsaceae
        • Family 4. Chaetophoraceae
        • Family 5. Protococcaceae
        • Family 6. Coleochaetaceae
        • Family 7. Trentepohliaceae
    • Order 4. Ulvales
        • Family 1. Ulvaceae
        • Family 2 Schizomeridaceae
    • Order 5. Schizogoniales
        • Family Schizogoniaceae
    • Order 6. Cladophorales
        • Family 1. Cladophoraceae
        • Family 2. Sphaeropleaceae
    • Order 7. Oedogoniales
        • Family Oedogoniaceae
    • Order 8. Zygnematales
        • Family 1. Zygnemataceae
        • Family 2. Mesotaeniaceae
        • Family 3. Desmidiaceae
    • Order 9. Chlorococcales
        • Family 1. Chlorococcaceae
        • Family 2. Endosphaeraceae
        • Family 3. Characiaceae
        • Family 4. Protosiphonaceae
        • Family 5. Hydrodictyaceae
        • Family 6. Oöcystaceae
        • Family 7. Scenedesmaceae
    • Order 10. Siphonales
        • Family 1. Bryopsidaceae
        • Family 2. Caulerpaceae
        • Family 3. Halicystaceae
        • Family 4. Codiaceae
        • Family 5. Derbesiaceae
        • Family 6. Vaucheriaceae
        • Family 7. Phyllosiphonaceae
    • Order 11. Siphonocladiales
        • Family 1. Valoniaceae
        • Family 2. Dasycladaceae
  • Class 2. Charophyceae
    • Order Charales
        • Family Characeae

References

Further reading

  • Burrows, E.M. 1991. Seaweeds of the British Isles. Volume 2 Chlorophyta. Natural History Museum, London. ISBN 0-565-00981-8
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