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Chris McGregor

Christopher McGregor (24 December 1936 – 26 May 1990) was a South African jazz pianist, bandleader and composer born in Somerset West, South Africa.[1]


  • Early influences 1
  • Early career 2
  • The years in exile 3
  • Discography 4
  • References 5
  • Further reading 6
  • External links 7

Early influences

McGregor grew up in the then Transkei (now part of the Eastern Cape Province), where his father was headmaster at a Church of Scotland mission institution called Blythswood. Here McGregor was exposed to the music of the local amaXhosa people.

This music is a rich and varied music which pervaded every aspect of life – from formal rituals to the casual activities and encounters of everyday life, such as herding cattle or just walking home in the evening. Music was everywhere. And this music, as explained in Dave Dargie's seminal book Xhosa Music, is complex. Dargie mentions the following as examples of this complexity which might be seen to have influenced McGregor in his own music, both as composer/arranger and as band leader: "...a great number of style characteristics are to be found: relating not only to harmony and scale, but to melody, structure and phrasing, form, rhythm, instrumentation, singing techniques, and so on."

In his book Chasing the Vibration Graham Lock quotes McGregor saying: "I have this strong imaginative reference to African village music, and the thing I know about that music is that it has a strong centre. It builds up, a lot of people do things together that they know."

Early career

After school and a stint in the merchant navy training academy The General Botha at Gordon's Bay in the Western Cape in 1952–53, McGregor enrolled at the South African College of Music, then headed by Professor Eric Chisholm. Here McGregor was exposed to a different set of influences, during the day Béla Bartók and Arnold Schoenberg, and at night recordings of Duke Ellington and Thelonious Monk, and the live music of local jazz musicians such as Dollar Brand (now Abdullah Ibrahim), Cecil Barnard (now Hotep Idris Galeta), Christopher Columbus Ngcukana, Vincent Kolbe, "Cup-and-Saucers" Nkanuka, Monty Weber, the Schilder brothers, and many others who were active in the vibrant Cape jazz scene at that time, the mid-1950s. The vibrancy and power of this music has led some to designate the music played around Cape Town as a particular jazz genre called "Cape Jazz." (Miller, 2007).

While at the SA College of Music, McGregor studied composition with Stanley Glasser, who later wrote the music for Mr Paljas – a musical that played at the Labia Theatre in Cape Town c. 1962 – Chris McGregor was band leader and pianist in the theatre band, which consisted of Dudu Pukwana and Nick Peterson on alto saxes, Cornelius Kumalo on baritone sax and clarinet, Denis Mpali on trumpet, Blyth Mbityana on trombone, Joe Mal on bass, and Columbus Joya on drums. An LP of the show Mr Paljas was released by Gallotone Records (GALP 1207)

As McGregor's friend and fellow-student Bruce Arnott wrote in the King Kong.

These contacts led in the following year to the formation first of the now-legendary Blue Notes and, secondly, of a big band called the Castle Lager Big Band. The Blue Notes at this stage consisted of Mongezi Velelo (and later Sammy Maritz) on bass, Early Mabuza on drums, Dudu Pukwana on alto and Nikele Moyake on tenor. The great young trumpet player Mongezi Feza joined the group soon after. Johnny Dyani replaced Sammy Maritz on bass and Louis Moholo replaced Early Mabuza soon after and the permanent Blue Notes group was complete.

The Castle Lager Big Band was formed after the 1963 Moroka-Jabavu Jazz Festival. This 17-piece group made the album Jazz: The African Sound, which had six tracks, two compositions by Abdullah Ibrahim, two by Kippie Moeketsi and two by McGregor, all in arrangements by McGregor. Apart from the arrangements, one of the most striking things about the album was the wonderful playing by Moeketsi on clarinet, instead of his usual alto. In the band were musicians who had yet to make names for themselves but would become internationally known. Most notable perhaps was Barney Rachabane, who would go on to, among other achievements, play with Paul Simon on the Graceland tour. Simon would describe Rachabane as the "most soulful sax player in the world".

The years in exile

McGregor is perhaps best known for his foundation and leadership of The Blue Notes, a South African sextet that included collaborators Dudu Pukwana, Nikele Moyake, Louis Moholo, Johnny Dyani and Mongezi Feza. Equally as notable was McGregor's creation of the Brotherhood of Breath in 1969, which branched out from his work as The Blue Notes. The Brotherhood was a larger group than the Blue Notes, and incorporated leading English improvisors. They made several recordings throughout the 1970s, both studio sessions and live, as well as a final studio session in 1988. McGregor also released three albums of solo piano performances, and continued to be a major force in the music after leaving England to live in the French countryside. He also made a contribution to Nick Drake's Bryter Layter album by performing a piano solo on the track "Poor Boy".


  • Jazz 1962 (African Heritage /Gallo Records)
  • Jazz the African Sound (African Heritage /Gallo Records)
  • The Blue Notes Legacy – Live in South Afrika 1964 (Ogun Records)
  • The Chris McGregor Group: Very Urgent (1968; Fledg'ling)
  • Chris McGregor's Brotherhood of Breath (1971; Fledg'ling)
  • Chris McGregor's Brotherhood of Breath: Brotherhood (1972; Fledg'ling)
  • Chris McGregor Septet: Up to Earth (2008; Fledg'ling CD, Stamford Audio vinyl)
  • Chris McGregor Trio: Our Prayer (recorded 1969, released 2008; Fledg'ling)
  • Brotherhood of Breath: Live at Willisau (Ogun Records)
  • Brotherhood of Breath: Travelling Somewhere (1973; Cuneiform Records)
  • Brotherhood of Breath: Bremen to Bridgwater (1971–75; Cuneiform Records)
  • Brotherhood of Breath: Procession: Live at Toulouse + 3 (Ogun Records)
  • Blue Notes: Before The Wind Changes: Live in Waregem 1979 (Ogun Records)
  • Blue Notes For Mongezi (recorded December 1975, published 1976; Ogun Records)
  • In His Good Time (Ogun Records; solo)
  • Piano Song Vols. 1 and 2 (Musica Records; solo)
  • Sea Breezes (Fledg'ling 3081; solo recorded 1987)
  • Chris McGregor and the South African Exiles: Thunderbolt (Popular African Music)
  • Harry Beckett: Bremen Concert (West Wind Records)
  • Harry Beckett: Les Jardins Du Casino (1993, ITM)
  • Harry Beckett / Courtney Pine: Live Vol II (West Wind Records)
  • Marilyn Mazur / Harry Beckett / Chris McGregor: Grandmothers Teaching (1988, ITM Records)
  • Brotherhood of Breath: Country Cooking (1988; Virgin Records)
  • Chris McGregor's Brotherhood of Breath with Archie Shepp: En Concert a Banlieues Bleues (52 Rue Est)
  • District 6: To Be Free (1987; EG Records)
  • Doudou Gouirand: Mouvements Naturels (1982; Jam – one track)
  • Doudou Gouirand: Islands (1981; Jam)


  1. ^ Lock, Graham (1994). Chasing the Vibration: Meetings with Creative Musicians. Exeter: Stride. p. 62. 

Further reading

  • Philippe Carles, André Clergeat, and Jean-Louis Comolli, Dictionnaire du jazz, Paris, 1994.
  • Maxine McGregor: Chris McGregor and the Brotherhood of Breath: My life with a South African jazz pioneer. Flint, MI: Bamberger Books, 1995; ISBN 0-917453-32-8
  • David Dargie: Xhosa Music. Cape Town and Johannesburg: David Philip, 1988; ISBN 0-86486-102-8
  • Lars Rasmussen: Jazz People of Cape Town. Copenhagen: The Booktrader, 2003. ISBN 87-984539-9-8

External links

  • Chris McGregor Jazz Collection containing articles and photographs at the Cory Library for Historical Research
  • The Cape Jazz Collection (sheetmusic)
  • Colin Miller: "What is Cape Jazz?"
  • Francesco Martinelli, Artist biography at All Music.
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