World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Chronic kidney disease

Article Id: WHEBN0000714452
Reproduction Date:

Title: Chronic kidney disease  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Acute kidney injury, Nephrology, Mesoamerican nephropathy, Angiomyolipoma, Hypertension
Collection: Kidney Diseases, Organ Failure
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Chronic kidney disease

Chronic kidney disease
Uremic frost on the forehead and scalp of a young man who presented with complaints of chronic anorexia and fatigue with blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels around 100 and 50 mg/dl, respectively
Classification and external resources
Specialty Nephrology
ICD-10 N18
ICD-9-CM 585.9 585.1-585.5 403
DiseasesDB 11288
MedlinePlus 000471
eMedicine article/238798
MeSH D007676

Chronic kidney disease (CKD), also known as chronic renal disease, is a progressive loss in renal function over a period of months or years. The symptoms of worsening kidney function are not specific, and might include feeling generally unwell and experiencing a reduced appetite. Often, chronic kidney disease is diagnosed as a result of screening of people known to be at risk of kidney problems, such as those with high blood pressure or diabetes and those with a blood relative with CKD. This disease may also be identified when it leads to one of its recognized complications, such as cardiovascular disease, anemia, or pericarditis.[1] It is differentiated from acute kidney disease in that the reduction in kidney function must be present for over 3 months.

Chronic kidney disease is identified by a blood test for creatinine, which is a breakdown product of muscle metabolism. Higher levels of creatinine indicate a lower glomerular filtration rate and as a result a decreased capability of the kidneys to excrete waste products. Creatinine levels may be normal in the early stages of CKD, and the condition is discovered if urinalysis (testing of a urine sample) shows the kidney is allowing the loss of protein or red blood cells into the urine. To fully investigate the underlying cause of kidney damage, various forms of medical imaging, blood tests, and sometimes a renal biopsy (removing a small sample of kidney tissue) are employed to find out if a reversible cause for the kidney malfunction is present.[1]

Recent professional guidelines classify the severity of CKD in five stages, with stage 1 being the mildest and usually causing few symptoms and stage 5 being a severe illness with poor life expectancy if untreated. Stage 5 CKD is often called end-stage kidney disease, end-stage renal disease, or end-stage kidney failure, and is largely synonymous with the now outdated terms chronic renal failure or chronic kidney failure; and usually means the patient requires renal replacement therapy, which may involve a form of dialysis, but ideally constitutes a kidney transplant.

Screening of at-risk people is important because treatments exist that delay the progression of CKD.[2] If an underlying cause of CKD, such as vasculitis, or obstructive nephropathy (blockage to the drainage system of the kidneys) is found, it may be treated directly to slow the damage. In more advanced stages, treatments may be required for anemia and renal bone disease (also called renal osteodystrophy, secondary hyperparathyroidism or chronic kidney disease - mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD)). Chronic kidney disease resulted in 956,000 deaths in 2013 up from 409,000 deaths in 1990.[3]


  • Signs and symptoms 1
  • Causes 2
  • Diagnosis 3
    • Etiology 3.1
    • Differential diagnosis 3.2
    • Work-up 3.3
    • Toxins 3.4
    • Screening 3.5
    • Referral to nephrologist 3.6
    • Severity-based stages 3.7
    • NDD-CKD vs. ESRD 3.8
  • Treatment 4
  • Prognosis 5
    • Cancer risk 5.1
  • Epidemiology 6
  • Society and culture 7
  • Research 8
  • References 9
  • External links 10

Signs and symptoms

CKD is initially without specific symptoms and is generally only detected as an increase in serum creatinine or protein in the urine. As the kidney function decreases:

People with CKD suffer from accelerated atherosclerosis and are more likely to develop cardiovascular disease than the general population. Patients afflicted with CKD and cardiovascular disease tend to have significantly worse prognoses than those suffering only from the latter.

painful menstruation and problems with performing and enjoying sex are common.[9]


The most common recognised cause of CKD is diabetes mellitus. Others include idiopathic (ie unknown cause, often associated with small kidneys on renal ultrasound), hypertension, and glomerulonephritis.[10] Together, these cause about 75% of all adult cases.

Historically, kidney disease has been classified according to the part of the renal anatomy involved.


A 12-lead ECG of a person with CKD and a severe electrolyte imbalance: hyperkalemia (7.4 mmol/l) with hypocalcemia (1.6 mmol/l). The T-waves are peaked and the QT interval is prolonged.

Diagnosis of CKD is largely based on the clinical picture combined with the measurement of the serum creatinine level (see above).


In many CKD patients, previous renal disease or other underlying diseases are already known. A significant number present with CKD of unknown cause. In these patients, a cause is occasionally identified retrospectively.

Differential diagnosis

It is important to differentiate CKD from acute kidney injury (AKI) because AKI can be reversible. Abdominal ultrasound, in which the size of the kidneys is measured, is commonly performed. Kidneys with CKD are usually smaller (≤ 9 cm) than normal kidneys, with notable exceptions such as in early diabetic nephropathy and polycystic kidney disease. Another diagnostic clue that helps differentiate CKD from AKI is a gradual rise in serum creatinine (over several months or years) as opposed to a sudden increase in the serum creatinine (several days to weeks). If these levels are unavailable (because the patient has been well and has had no blood tests), it is occasionally necessary to treat a patient briefly as having AKI until the renal impairment has been established to be irreversible.


Additional tests may include nuclear medicine MAG3 scan to confirm blood flow and establish the differential function between the two kidneys. Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scans are also used in renal imaging; with both MAG3 and DMSA being used chelated with the radioactive element technetium-99.


In CKD numerous uremic toxins accumulate in the blood. Even when ESKD (largely synonymous with CKD5) is treated with dialysis, the toxin levels do not go back to normal as dialysis is not that efficient. Similarly, after a renal transplant, the levels may not go back to normal as the transplanted kidney may not work 100%. If it does, the creatinine level is often normal. The toxins show various cytotoxic activities in the serum and have different molecular weights, and some of them are bound to other proteins, primarily to albumin. Such toxic protein-bound substances are receiving the attention of scientists who are interested in improving the standard chronic dialysis procedures used today.


Screening those who have neither symptoms nor risk factors for CKD is not recommended.[13] Those who should be screened include: those with hypertension or history of cardiovascular disease, those with diabetes or marked obesity, those aged > 60 years, subjects with indigenous racial origin, those with a history of renal disease in the past, and subjects who have relatives who had kidney disease requiring dialysis. Screening should include calculation of estimated GFR from the serum creatinine level, and measurement of urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) in a first-morning urine specimen (this reflects the amount of a protein called albumin in the urine), as well as a urine dipstick screen for hematuria.[14] The GFR (glomerular filtration rate) is derived from the serum creatinine and is proportional to 1/creatinine, ie it is a reciprocal relationship (the higher the creatinine, the lower the GFR). It reflects one aspect of kidney function: how efficiently the glomeruli (filtering units) work. But as they make up <5% of the mass of the kidney, the GFR does not tell you about all aspects of kidney health and function. This can be done by combining the GFR level with the clinical assessment of the patient (especially fluid state) and measuring the levels of hemoglobin, potassium, phosphate and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Normal GFR is 90-120 mls/min. The units of creatinine vary from country to country.

Referral to nephrologist

Guidelines for referral to a nephrologist vary between countries. Though most would agree that nephrology referral is required by Stage 4 CKD (when eGFR/1.73m2 is less than 30 ml/min; or decreasing by more than 3 ml/min/year); and may be useful at an earlier stage (eg CKD3) when urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio is more than 30 mg/mmol, when blood pressure is difficult to control, or when hematuria or other findings suggest either a primarily glomerular disorder or secondary disease amenable to specific treatment. Other benefits of early nephrology referral include proper patient education regarding options for renal replacement therapy as well as pre-emptive transplantation, and timely workup and placement of an arteriovenous fistula in those patients opting for future hemodialysis

Severity-based stages

CKD Stage GFR level (mL/min/1.73 m2)
Stage 1 ≥ 90
Stage 2 60 – 89
Stage 3 30 – 59
Stage 4 15 – 29
Stage 5 < 15

All individuals with a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 for 3 months are classified as having chronic kidney disease, irrespective of the presence or absence of kidney damage. The rationale for including these individuals is that reduction in kidney function to this level or lower represents loss of half or more of the adult level of normal kidney function, which may be associated with a number of complications such as the development of cardiovascular disease.[1]

The loss of protein in the urine is regarded as an independent marker for worsening of renal function and cardiovascular disease. Hence, British guidelines append the letter "P" to the stage of chronic kidney disease if protein loss is significant.[15]

Stage 1

Slightly diminished function; kidney damage with normal or relatively high GFR (≥90 ml/min/1.73 m2). Kidney damage is defined as pathological abnormalities or markers of damage, including abnormalities in blood or urine tests or imaging studies.[1]

Stage 2

Mild reduction in GFR (60–89 ml/min/1.73 m2) with kidney damage. Kidney damage is defined as pathological abnormalities or markers of damage, including abnormalities in blood or urine tests or imaging studies.[1]

Stage 3

Moderate reduction in GFR (30–59 ml/min/1.73 m2):.[1] British guidelines distinguish between stage 3A (GFR 45–59) and stage 3B (GFR 30–44) for purposes of screening and referral.[15]

Stage 4

Severe reduction in GFR (15–29 ml/min/1.73 m2)[1] Preparation for renal replacement therapy.

Stage 5

Established kidney failure (GFR <15 ml/min/1.73 m2), permanent renal replacement therapy,[1] or end-stage kidney disease.


The term "non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease" (NDD-CKD) is a designation used to encompass the status of those persons with an established CKD who do not yet require the life-supporting treatments for transplant), is referred to as the end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Hence, the start of the ESRD is practically the irreversible conclusion of the NDD-CKD. Even though the NDD-CKD status refers to the status of persons with earlier stages of CKD (stages 1 to 4), patients with advanced stage of CKD (stage 5), who have not yet started renal replacement therapy, are also referred to as NDD-CKD.


The presence of CKD confers a markedly increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and people with CKD often have other risk factors for heart disease, such as high blood lipids. The most common cause of death in people with CKD is cardiovascular disease rather than renal failure. Aggressive treatment of hyperlipidemia is warranted.[16]

Apart from controlling other risk factors, the goal of therapy is to slow down or halt the progression of CKD to stage 5. Control of blood pressure and treatment of the original disease, whenever feasible, are the broad principles of management. Generally, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs) are used, as they have been found to slow the progression of CKD in forms of the disease with increased levels of protein in the urine.[17][18] Although the use of ACE inhibitors and ARBs represents the current standard of care for people with CKD, people progressively lose kidney function while on these medications, as seen in the IDNT[19] and RENAL[20] studies, which reported a decrease over time in estimated GFR (an accurate measure of CKD progression, as detailed in the K/DOQI guidelines[1]) in people treated by these conventional methods.

Replacement of erythropoietin and calcitriol, two hormones processed by the kidney, is often necessary in people with advanced disease. Guidelines[21] recommend treatment with parenteral iron prior to treatment with erythropoietin. A target hemoglobin level of 9–12 g/dl is recommended.[22][23] The normalization of hemoglobin has not been found to be of benefit.[24] It is unclear if androgens help with anemia.[25] Phosphate binders are also used to control the serum phosphate levels, which are usually elevated in advanced chronic kidney disease. Although the evidence for them is limited, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors and zinc show potential for helping men with sexual dysfunction.[9]

At stage 5 CKD, transplant.


The prognosis of patients with chronic kidney disease is guarded as epidemiological data have shown that all cause mortality (the overall death rate) increases as kidney function decreases.[26] The leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease is cardiovascular disease, regardless of whether there is progression to stage 5.[26][27][28]

While renal replacement therapies can maintain patients indefinitely and prolong life, the quality of life is severely affected.[29][30] Renal transplantation increases the survival of patients with stage 5 CKD significantly when compared to other therapeutic options;[31][32] however, it is associated with an increased short-term mortality due to complications of the surgery. Transplantation aside, high-intensity home hemodialysis appears to be associated with improved survival and a greater quality of life, when compared to the conventional three-times-a-week hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.[33]

Cancer risk

Patients with ESKD are at increased overall risk for cancer.[34] This risk is particularly high in younger patients and gradually diminishes with age.[34] Medical

  • National Kidney Foundation
  • Dialysis Complications of Chronic Renal Failure at eMedicine
  • The Kidney Foundation of Canada
  • Chronic Renal Failure Information from Great Ormond Street Hospital
  • Renalmed - understand renal medicine

External links

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i National Kidney Foundation (2002). "K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease". Retrieved 2008-06-29. 
  2. ^ Plantinga LC, Tuot DS, Powe, NR. Awareness of chronic kidney disease among patients and providers. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2010;17(3):225-236
  3. ^ a b GBD 2013 Mortality and Causes of Death, Collaborators (17 December 2014). "Global, regional, and national age-sex specific all-cause and cause-specific mortality for 240 causes of death, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.". Lancet 385 (9963): 117–171.  
  4. ^ a b "Chronic Kidney Disease". medscape. 
  5. ^ Hruska KA, Mathew S, Lund R, Qiu P, Pratt R (2008). "Hyperphosphatemia of chronic kidney disease". Kidney Int. 74 (2): 148–57.  
  6. ^ Bacchetta J, Sea JL, Chun RF, Lisse TS, Wesseling-Perry K, Gales B, Adams JS, Salusky IB, Hewison M (August 2012). "FGF23 inhibits extra-renal synthesis of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D in human monocytes". J Bone Miner Res. 28 (1): 46–55.  
  7. ^ Longo et al., Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 18th ed., p.3109
  8. ^ Adrogué HJ, Madias NE (September 1981). "Changes in plasma potassium concentration during acute acid-base disturbances". Am. J. Med. 71 (3): 456–67.  
  9. ^ a b Vecchio M, Navaneethan SD, Johnson DW, Lucisano G, Graziano G, Saglimbene V, Ruospo M, Querques M, Jannini EA, Strippoli GF (2010). "Interventions for treating sexual dysfunction in patients with chronic kidney disease". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (12): CD007747.  
  10. ^ "United States Renal Data System (USRDS)". 
  11. ^ a b Redmon JH, Elledge MF, Womack DS, Wickremashinghe R, Wanigasuriya KP, Peiris-John RJ, Lunyera J, Smith K, Raymer JH, Levine KE (2014). "Additional perspectives on chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka – lessons learned from the WHO CKDu population prevalence study". BMC Nephrology 15 (1): 125.  
  12. ^ Orantes CM, Herrera R, Almaguer M, Brizuela EG, Núñez L, Alvarado NP, Fuentes EJ, Bayarre HD, Amaya JC, Calero DJ, Vela XF, Zelaya SM, Granados DV, Orellana P (2014). "Epidemiology of chronic kidney disease in adults of Salvadoran agricultural communities". MEDICC Rev 16 (2): 23–30.  
  13. ^ Qaseem A, Hopkins RH, Sweet DE, Starkey M, Shekelle P (22 October 2013). "Screening, Monitoring, and Treatment of Stage 1 to 4 Chronic Kidney Disease: A Clinical Practice Guideline From the Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians.". Annals of internal medicine 159 (12): 835–47.  
  14. ^ Johnson, David (2011-05-02). "Chapter 4: CKD Screening and Management: Overview". In Daugirdas, John. Handbook of Chronic Kidney Disease Management. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. pp. 32–43.  
  15. ^ a b National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. Clinical guideline 73: Chronic kidney disease. London, 2008.
  16. ^ Chauhan V, Vaid M (November 2009). "Dyslipidemia in chronic kidney disease: managing a high-risk combination". Postgrad Med 121 (6): 54–61.  
  17. ^ Ruggenenti P, Perna A, Gherardi G, Gaspari F, Benini R, Remuzzi G (October 1998). "Renal function and requirement for dialysis in chronic nephropathy patients on long-term ramipril: REIN follow-up trial. Gruppo Italiano di Studi Epidemiologici in Nefrologia (GISEN). Ramipril Efficacy in Nephropathy". Lancet 352 (9136): 1252–6.  
  18. ^ Ruggenenti P, Perna A, Gherardi G, Garini G, Zoccali C, Salvadori M, Scolari F, Schena FP, Remuzzi G (July 1999). "Renoprotective properties of ACE-inhibition in non-diabetic nephropathies with non-nephrotic proteinuria". Lancet 354 (9176): 359–64.  
  19. ^ Lewis EJ, Hunsicker LG, Clarke WR, Berl T, Pohl MA, Lewis JB, Ritz E, Atkins RC, Rohde R, Raz I (2001). "Renoprotective effect of the angiotensin-receptor antagonist irbesartan in patients with nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes". N Engl J Med 345 (12): 851–60.  
  20. ^ Brenner BM, Cooper ME, de Zeeuw D, Keane WF, Mitch WE, Parving HH, Remuzzi G, Snapinn SM, Zhang Z, Shahinfar S (2001). "Effects of losartan on renal and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy". N Engl J Med 345 (12): 861–9.  
  21. ^ "Anaemia management in people with chronic kidney disease (CG114)". NICE Clinical Guideline. UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. February 2011. 
  22. ^ Locatelli F, Aljama P, Canaud B, Covic A, De Francisco A, Macdougall IC, Wiecek A, Vanholder R (September 2010). "Target haemoglobin to aim for with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents: a position statement by ERBP following publication of the Trial to reduce cardiovascular events with Aranesp therapy (TREAT) study". Nephrol Dial Transplant 25 (9): 2846–50.  
  23. ^ Clement FM, Klarenbach S, Tonelli M, Johnson JA, Manns BJ (22 June 2009). "The impact of selecting a high hemoglobin target level on health-related quality of life for patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis". Archives of Internal Medicine 169 (12): 1104–12.  
  24. ^ a b Levin A, Hemmelgarn B, Culleton B, Tobe S, McFarlane P, Ruzicka M, Burns K, Manns B, White C, Madore F, Moist L, Klarenbach S, Barrett B, Foley R, Jindal K, Senior P, Pannu N, Shurraw S, Akbari A, Cohn A, Reslerova M, Deved V, Mendelssohn D, Nesrallah G, Kappel J, Tonelli M (November 2008). "Guidelines for the management of chronic kidney disease". CMAJ 179 (11): 1154–62.  
  25. ^ Yang, Q; Abudou, M; Xie, XS; Wu, T (Oct 9, 2014). "Androgens for the anaemia of chronic kidney disease in adults.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 10: CD006881.  
  26. ^ a b Perazella MA, Khan S (March 2006). "Increased mortality in chronic kidney disease: a call to action". Am. J. Med. Sci. 331 (3): 150–3.  
  27. ^ Sarnak MJ, Levey AS, Schoolwerth AC, Coresh J, Culleton B, Hamm LL, McCullough PA, Kasiske BL, Kelepouris E, Klag MJ, Parfrey P, Pfeffer M, Raij L, Spinosa DJ, Wilson PW (October 2003). "Kidney disease as a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease: a statement from the American Heart Association Councils on Kidney in Cardiovascular Disease, High Blood Pressure Research, Clinical Cardiology, and Epidemiology and Prevention". Circulation 108 (17): 2154–69.  
  28. ^ Tonelli M, Wiebe N, Culleton B, House A, Rabbat C, Fok M, McAlister F, Garg AX (July 2006). "Chronic kidney disease and mortality risk: a systematic review". J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. 17 (7): 2034–47.  
  29. ^ Heidenheim AP, Kooistra MP, Lindsay RM (2004). "Quality of life". Contrib Nephrol. Contributions to Nephrology 145: 99–105.  
  30. ^ de Francisco AL, Piñera C (January 2006). "Challenges and future of renal replacement therapy". Hemodial Int 10 (Suppl 1): S19–23.  
  31. ^ Groothoff JW (July 2005). "Long-term outcomes of children with end-stage renal disease". Pediatr. Nephrol. 20 (7): 849–53.  
  32. ^ Giri M (2004). "Choice of renal replacement therapy in patients with diabetic end stage renal disease". Edtna Erca J 30 (3): 138–42.  
  33. ^ Pierratos A, McFarlane P, Chan CT (March 2005). "Quotidian dialysis–update 2005". Curr. Opin. Nephrol. Hypertens. 14 (2): 119–24.  
  34. ^ a b Maisonneuve P, Agodoa L, Gellert R, Stewart JH, Buccianti G, Lowenfels AB, Wolfe RA, Jones E, Disney AP, Briggs D, McCredie M, Boyle P (1999). "Cancer in patients on dialysis for end-stage renal disease: An international collaborative study". Lancet 354 (9173): 93–99.  
  35. ^  
  36. ^ Chertow GM, Paltiel AD, Owen WF, Lazarus JM (1996). "Cost-effectiveness of Cancer Screening in End-Stage Renal Disease". Archives of Internal Medicine 156 (12): 1345–1350.  
  37. ^ "Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and associated risk factors—United States, 1999–2004". MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 56 (8): 161–5. March 2007.  
  38. ^ Morgan T (21 January 2009). "Chronic Kidney Disease (stages 3–5) prevalence estimates using data from the Neoerica study (2007)". Association of Public Health Observatories. 
  39. ^ a b c Appel LJ, Wright JT, Greene T, Kusek JW, Lewis JB, Wang X, Lipkowitz MS, Norris KC, Bakris GL, Rahman M, Contreras G, Rostand SG, Kopple JD, Gabbai FB, Schulman GI, Gassman JJ, Charleston J, Agodoa LY (April 2008). "Long-term effects of renin-angiotensin system-blocking therapy and a low blood pressure goal on progression of hypertensive chronic kidney disease in African Americans". Arch. Intern. Med. 168 (8): 832–9.  
  40. ^ a b c Klag MJ, Whelton PK, Randall BL, Neaton JD, Brancati FL, Stamler J (1997). "End-stage renal disease in African-American and white men. 16-year MRFIT findings". JAMA 277 (16): 1293–8.  
  41. ^ Tangri N (29 July 2013). "MesoAmerican Nephropathy: A New Entity". eAJKD. National Kidney Foundation. 
  42. ^ Wesseling C, Crowe J, Hogstedt C, Jakobsson K, Lucas R, Wegman DH (November 2013). "The epidemic of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology in Mesoamerica: a call for interdisciplinary research and action". Am J Public Health 103 (11): 1927–30.  
  43. ^ Johnson RJ, Sánchez-Lozada LG (October 2013). "Chronic kidney disease: Mesoamerican nephropathy—new clues to the cause". Nat Rev Nephrol 9 (10): 560–1.  
  44. ^ Roncal Jimenez CA, Ishimoto T, Lanaspa MA, Rivard CJ, Nakagawa T, Ejaz AA, Cicerchi C, Inaba S, Le M, Miyazaki M, Glaser J, Correa-Rotter R, González MA, Aragón A, Wesseling C, Sánchez-Lozada LG, Johnson RJ (August 2014). "Fructokinase activity mediates dehydration-induced renal injury". Kidney Int. 86 (2): 294–302.  
  45. ^ Chavkin, Sasha; Greene, Ronnie (12 December 2011). "Thousands of sugar cane workers die as wealthy nations stall on solutions". International Consortium of Investigative Journalists. Retrieved November 26, 2012. 
  46. ^ Orantes CM, Herrera R, Almaguer M, Brizuela EG, Hernández CE, Bayarre H, Amaya JC, Calero DJ, Orellana P, Colindres RM, Velázquez ME, Núñez SG, Contreras VM, Castro BE (October 2011). "Chronic kidney disease and associated risk factors in the Bajo Lempa region of El Salvador: Nefrolempa study, 2009" (PDF). MEDICC Rev 13 (4): 14–22.  


Currently, several compounds are in development for the treatment of CKD. These include the angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) olmesartan medoxomil [citation needed]; and sulodexide, a mixture of low molecular weight heparin and dermatan sulfate [citation needed].


The International Society of Nephrology is an international body representing specialists in kidney diseases.

Kidney Health Australia serves that country.

In the United Kingdom, the UK National Kidney Federation and British Kidney Patient Association (BKPA) represents patients, and the Renal Association represents renal physicians and works closely with the National Service Framework for kidney disease.

In the USA, the American Association of Kidney Patients is a nonprofit, patient-centric group focused on improving the health and well-being of CKD and dialysis patients. The Renal Physicians Association is an association representing nephrology professionals.

Society and culture

A high and so-far unexplained incidence of CKD, referred to as the Mesoamerican nephropathy, has been noted among male workers in Central America, mainly in sugar cane fields in the lowlands of El Salvador and Nicaragua. Heat stress from long hours of piece-rate work at high average temperatures[41][42][43][44] (in the range of 96°F) is suspected, as are agricultural chemicals[45][46] and other factors. In Sri Lanka, another epidemic of CKD of unknown etiology has become a serious public health concern.[11]

Studies have shown a true association between history of chronic kidney disease in first- or second-degree relatives, and risk of disease.[40] In addition, African Americans may have higher serum levels of human leukocyte antigens (HLA).[40] High HLA concentrations can contribute to increased systemic inflammation, which indirectly may lead to heightened susceptibility for developing kidney disease. Lack of nocturnal reduction in blood pressure among groups of African Americans is also offered as an explanation,[40] which lends further credence to a genetic etiology of CKD racial disparities.

CKD is a major concern in African Americans, mostly due to increased prevalence of hypertension. As an example, 37% of ESKD cases in African Americans can be attributed to high blood pressure, compared with 19% among Caucasians.[39] Treatment efficacy also differs between racial groups. Administration of antihypertensive drugs generally halts disease progression in white populations, but has little effect in slowing renal disease among blacks, and additional treatment such as bicarbonate therapy is often required.[39] While lower socioeconomic status contributes to prevalence of CKD, significant differences in CKD prevalence are still evident between African Americans and Whites when controlling for environmental factors.[39]

In Canada, 1.9 to 2.3 million people have CKD.[24] The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that CKD affected an estimated 16.8% of U.S. adults aged 20 years and older, during 1999 to 2004.[37] UK estimates suggest that 8.8% of the population of Great Britain and Northern Ireland have symptomatic CKD.[38]

Chronic kidney disease resulted in 956,000 deaths in 2013 up from 409,000 deaths in 1990.[3]



This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.