World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Communications Satellite Act of 1962

Article Id: WHEBN0009343827
Reproduction Date:

Title: Communications Satellite Act of 1962  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: 87th United States Congress, Federal Communications Commission Consolidated Reporting Act of 2013, S/Y Manitou, AmeriCorps VISTA, American University speech
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Communications Satellite Act of 1962

Communications Satellite Act of 1962
Great Seal of the United States
Long title An Act to provide for the establishment, ownership, operation, and regulation of a commercial communications satellite system, and for other purposes.
Acronyms (colloquial) CSA
Enacted by the 87th United States Congress
Effective August 31, 1962
Citations
Public law 87-624
Statutes at Large 76 Stat. 419
Codification
Titles amended 47 U.S.C.: Telegraphy
U.S.C. sections created 47 U.S.C. ch. 6 § 701 et seq.
Legislative history
  • Introduced in the House as H.R. 11040 by Oren Harris (DAR) on April 2, 1962
  • Passed the House on May 3, 1962 (354-9)
  • Passed the Senate on August 17, 1962 (66-11) with amendment
  • House agreed to Senate amendment on August 27, 1962 (372-10, provisions of H.Res. 769)
  • Signed into law by President John F. Kennedy on August 31, 1962

The Communications Satellite Act of 1962 was put into effect in order to deal with the issue of commercialization of space communications. This act was very controversial, and was left very open-ended. The act was signed August 31, 1962 by President John F. Kennedy.[1]

Goals of the act

The act aimed to join together private communication companies in order to make satellites more obtainable.

Disagreement with the passing of the act

Democratic Senator Russell B. Long of Louisiana said of the act, "When this bill first started out I thought it was as crooked as a dog's hind leg. I am now convinced that that would be a compliment. This bill is as crooked as a barrel of snakes." The American Telephone and Telegraph Company argued that using space for communications was just a modern representation of the submarine communications cables currently in use. AT&T proposed joint ownership of all of the communications satellites, with control based on the system facilities, but since AT&T had a majority of world communications this proposition was opposed by other communication companies. The Federal Communications Commission proposed that the ten companies join together in a program, but this was put down with anti-trust legislation.

The compromise allowing the bill to pass was that there would be government regulation on the communication industry. The United States Congress made it so that all companies registered by the FCC had nondiscriminatory access to the satellite systems. This would allow competition to develop among the companies, thus preventing trusts from forming. The United States Government, including the President, NASA, and the FCC, were all to maintain certain duties to monitor the communications satellites. The President was to observe every aspect of the development and operation of the satellite systems. He is also responsible for providing arrangements with foreign participation. NASA was designated as a technical advisor for the FCC and the communications corporation to the extent that would aid the nation. NASA was to receive reimbursement for the services it rendered. The largest burden on regulation falls on the FCC. The FCC was deemed responsible for making sure that competition is present, and that small businesses would be able to participate.

Regulation committees established

The Act created a board of directors to oversee regulation of the act. There are to be 15 members of this board; three appointed by the president, six chosen by public stock holders, and the remaining six chosen by communication carriers that are authorized by the FCC. This board of directors is to control the public satellite systems. Stock shares for this Board were to be sold for $100. This would provide finances for the board.

The completed act

The act was very ambiguous about the responsibilities of the regulators and the direction that the companies were to go; however, the act provided a good start towards a global communications system. Section 301 of the Act provided Congress the right to "repeal, alter, or amend." This would be necessary in order make clear the future regulation done by the committees established by the act.

Comments on the act after passing

The year after the act passed, President Lyndon B. Johnson reported to Congress that, "act is progressing well in light of the complexities of the problem." Yet, at this point little had actually been accomplished. There had been no communication satellites launched and only some research had been conducted to provide moving for moving forward. President Johnson's next report to congress was on March 17, 1967. Here he reported that, "the Communications Satellite Act of 1962 [has] brought mankind to the threshold of a full-time global communications service to which all nations of the world may have equal access." At this point in time much had been accomplished towards a global communications system. COMSAT had been joined by 17 nations for the creation of INTELSAT, International Telecommunications Satellite Consortium (Columbia Encyclopedia). Fifty five nations had joined INTELSAT, which was a consortium established to provide an intergovernmental owning of communications satellites. INTELSAT was created at a time when private companies were unwilling to invest in Satellite technology shortly after the passing of the Communications Satellite act of 1962 (Gruenwald 1998).

References


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
  1. ^

Recommended reading

  • Harvard Law Review. THE COMMUNICATIONS SATELLITE ACT OF 1962 (December 1962). Vol. 76 Issue 2, p156-168, 13p; (AN 15226548)
  • Message to the Congress Transmitting Annual Report on Communications Satellite Activities. April 2, 1968. (01/01/2001). American Reference Library; (AN 9FVPPLBJ050176)
  • Message to the Congress Transmitting Annual Report Under the Communications Satellite Act. March 17, 1967 (01/01/2001). American Reference Library; (AN 9FVPPLBJ040123)
  • Statement by the President Upon Making Public His Report to the Congress on Communications Satellites February 10, 1964 (01/01/2001). American Reference Library; (AN 9FVPPLBJ010181)
  • Remarks Upon Signing the Communications Satellite Act. August 31, 1962 (01/01/2001). American Reference Library; (AN 9FVPPJFK020356)
  • Gruenwald, Juliana. Satellite service privatization gets House panel's approval (3/28/98). Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report. Vol. 56 Issue 13, p816, 1p, 1bw; (AN 442562).
  • “Communications Satellite” The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001–04. www.bartleby.com/65/. [2/2/2007].
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.