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Cross-country skiing

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Title: Cross-country skiing  
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Subject: Svenska Dagbladet Gold Medal, List of multiple Winter Olympic medalists, November 2011 in sports, Ski-orienteering, Justyna Kowalczyk
Collection: Cross-Country Skiing, Nordic Skiing, Types of Skiing
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Cross-country skiing

Cross-country skiing
Cross-country skiers in western Norway.
Nicknames Cross-country, XC skiing
Type Outdooor winter sport
Equipment Skis, poles, boots, bindings

Cross-country skiing is travel on skis over snow-covered terrain, whereby skiers rely on their own locomotion rather than on ski lifts or other forms of assistance. Modern cross-country skiing shares self-locomotion as a core attribute with the original form of skiing from which all skiing disciplines evolved, including alpine skiing, ski jumping and telemark skiing. It is widely practised as a sport and recreational activity, however some still use it as a means of transportation. Variants of cross-country skiing are adapted to a range of terrain which spans unimproved, sometimes mountainous terrain to groomed courses that are specifically designed for the sport. Skiers propel themselves either by striding forward (classic style) or side-to-side in a skating motion (skate skiing), aided by arms pushing on ski poles against the snow. It is practised in regions with snow-covered landscapes, including Northern Europe, Canada, Russia and Alaska.

Competitive cross-country skiing is one of the Nordic skiing sports. Cross-country skiing and rifle marksmanship are the two components of biathlon, ski-orienteering is a form of cross-country skiing, which includes map navigation along snow trails and tracks.[1]


  • History 1
    • Transportation 1.1
    • Sport 1.2
    • Terminology 1.3
  • Recreation 2
    • Ski touring 2.1
    • Groomed-trail skiing 2.2
  • Competition 3
    • FIS-sanctioned competition 3.1
    • Other sanctioned competition 3.2
  • Techniques 4
    • Classic 4.1
    • Skate skiing 4.2
    • Turns 4.3
  • Equipment 5
    • Skis 5.1
      • Gliding surface 5.1.1
      • Traction surface 5.1.2
    • Boots and bindings 5.2
    • Poles 5.3
  • Gallery 6
  • References 7


Depiction of loyal retainers transporting Prince Haakon IV of Norway to safety on skis during the winter of 1206.

The word ski comes from the Old Norse word "skíð" which means stick of wood or ski.[2] Skiing started as a technique for traveling cross-country over snow on skis, starting almost five millennia ago with beginnings in Scandinavia. It may have been practised as early as 600 BCE in Daxing'anling, in what is now China.[3] Early historical evidence includes Procopius' (around CE 550) description of Sami people as skrithiphinoi translated as "ski running samis".[4] Birkely argues that the Sami people have practiced skiing for more than 6000 years, evidenced by the very old Sami word čuoigat for skiing.[5] Egil Skallagrimsson's 950 CE saga describes King Haakon the Good's practice of sending his tax collectors out on skis.[6] The Gulating law (1274) stated that "No moose shall be disturbed by skiers on private land."[4] Cross-country skiing evolved from a utilitarian means of transportation to being a world-wide recreational activity and sport, which branched out into other forms of skiing starting in the mid-1800s.[7] Early skiers used one long pole or spear in addition to the skis. The first depiction of a skier with two ski poles dates to 1741.[8]


German Reichswehr military patrol on skis training in the Giant Mountains, 1932.

Ski warfare, the use of ski-equipped troops in war, is first recorded by the Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus in the 13th century, who were reportedly able to cover is comparable to that of light cavalry.[9] The garrison in Trondheim used skis at least from 1675, and the Danish-Norwegian army included specialized skiing battalions from 1747—details of military ski exercises from 1767 are on record.[10] Skis were used in military exercises in 1747.[11] In 1799 French traveller Jacques de la Tocnaye recorded his visit to Norway in his travel diary:[12] Norwegian immigrants used skis ("Norwegian snowshoes") in the US midwest from around 1836. Norwegian immigrant "Snowshoe Thompson" transported mail by skiing across the Sierra Nevada between California and Nevada from 1856.[4] In 1888 Norwegian explorer Fridtjof Nansen and his team crossed the Greenland icecap on skis. Norwegian workers on the Buenos Aires - Valparaiso railway line introduced skiing in South America around 1890.[4] In 1910 Roald Amundsen used skis on his South Pole Expedition. In 1902 the Norwegian consul in Kobe imported ski equipment and introduced skiing to the Japanese, motivated by the death of Japanese soldiers during snow storm.[4]


Michal Malák skate-skis at a qualifier for the Tour de Ski, 2007.

Norwegian skiing regiments organized military skiing contests in the 18th century, divided in four classes: shooting at a target while skiing at "top speed," downhill racing among trees, downhill racing on large slopes without falling, and "long racing" on "flat ground."[10] An early record of a public ski competition occurred in Tromsø, 1843. In Norwegian, langrenn refers to "competitive skiing where the goal is to complete a specific distance in groomed tracks in the shortest possible time." In Norway, ski touring competitions (Norwegian: turrenn) are long-distance cross-country competitions open to the public, competition is usually within age intervals.[1]

A new technique, skate skiing, was experimented with early in the 20th Century, but was not widely adapted until the 1980s. Johan Grøttumsbråten used the skating technique at the 1931 World Championship in Oberhof, one of the earliest recorded use of skating in competitive cross-country skiing.[13] This technique was later used in ski orienteering in the 1960s on roads and other firm surfaces. Finnish skier Pauli Siitonen developed a precursor to the style in the 1970s, when he would leave one ski in the track and skate to the side with the other in marathon or other endurance events. It became widespread during the 1980s after the success of Bill Koch (USA) in 1982 Cross-country Skiing Championships drew more attention to the skating style. Norwegian skier Ove Aunli started using the technique in 1984, when he found it to be much faster than classic style.[14]


Arctic travelers, Frederick Jackson on Northbrook Island.

While the noun ski originates from the Norwegian language, unlike the English skiing there is no corresponding verb in Norwegian. Fridtjov Nansen, for instance, describes the crossing of Greenland as På ski over Grønland, literally "On skis across Greenland",[15] while the English edition of the report read The first crossing of Greenland. Nansen referred to the activity of traversing snow on skis as Norwegian: skilöbning (he used the term also in the English translation), which may be translated as ski running. Nansen used skilöbning about all forms of skiing, but noted that ski jumping is purely a competitive sport and not for amateurs. He further noted that in some competitions the skier "is also required to show his skill in turning his ski to one side or the other within given marks" at full speed on a steep hill. Nansen regarded these forms (i.e., jumping and slalom) as "special arts", and believed that the most important branch of skiing was travel "in an ordinary way across the country."[16] In Germany, Nansen's Greenland report was published as German: Auf Schneeschuhen durch Grönland (literally On snowshoes through Greenland).[17] The term German: Schneeschuhe was replaced by the Norwegian word Ski in late 19th century.[18] The Norwegian encyclopedia of sports also uses the term ski running (Norwegian: skiløping) about all forms of skiing.[1] Around 1900 the word Skilaufen was used in German in the same sense as Norwegian: skiløping.[18] In modern Norwegian, self-propelled skiing is often referred to as Norwegian: gå på ski (ski hiking) whereas alpine skiing is referred to as Norwegian: stå på ski (literally ski standing, but also translated as skiing).[19][20] Kirkeby translates cross-country skiing as Norwegian: turgåing på ski (literally hiking on skis), whereas cross-country (skiing) race as Norwegian: langrenn.[21]


Ski touring in untracked terrain.

Recreational cross-country skiing includes ski touring and groomed-trail skiing, typically at resorts or in parklands. It is an accessible form of recreation for persons with vision and mobility impairments. A related form of recreation is dog skijoring—a winter sport where a cross-country skier is assisted by one or more dogs.

Ski touring

Norwegian Trekking Association maintains over 400 huts stretching across hundreds of kilometres of trails which are used by hikers in the summer and by skiers in the winter.[23]

Groomed-trail skiing

Groomed ski trails for cross-country in Thuringia, track-set for classic skiing at the sides and groomed for skate skiing in the center.

  1. ^ a b c Kunnskapsforlagets idrettsleksikon [Encyclopedia of Sports] (in Norwegian). Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget. 1990.  
  2. ^ Editors. "Ski". Merriam-Webster's Dictionary. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2014-10-21. 
  3. ^ "Ancient Ice Sports". Shanghai News and Press Bureau. Retrieved 2012-01-01. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Saur, Lasse (1999). Norske ski: til glede og besvær (Research report). Høgskolen i Finnmark. 
  5. ^ Birkely, Hartvig (1994). I Norge har lapperne først indført skierne. Idut. 
  6. ^ Vaage, Jakob (1955). Milepeler og merkedager gjennom 4000 ar (in Norwegian). Ranheim: Norske Skiloperer Ostlandet Nord Oslo. p. 9. 
  7. ^ Lund, Morten (Winter 1996). "A Short History of Alpine Skiing". Skiing Heritage 8 (1). Retrieved 2012-10-02. 
  8. ^ Hergstrom, P (1748). Beschreibung von dem unter schwedischer Krone gehörigen Lappland (in Deutsch). Leipzig: von Rother. 
  9. ^ Magnus, Olaus. "Historia de Gentibus Septentrionalibus". Retrieved 2012-09-25. 
  10. ^ a b Bergsland, Einar (1946). På ski. Oslo: Aschehoug. 
  11. ^ SKI Magazine’s Encyclopedia of Skiing. New York: Harper & Row. 1979. p. 5. 
  12. ^ de La Tocnaye, Jacques (1801). Promenade d'un Français en Suède et en Norvège (in Français). Brunswick: P.F. Fauche et Cie. 
  13. ^ Bø, Olav (1993). Skiing throughout history. W. Edson Richmond (trans.). Oslo: Samlaget. 
  14. ^ Bengtsson, Bengt Erik. "Cross-country skating: How it started". Skiing History Magazine. International Skiing History Association. Retrieved 2014-10-20. 
  15. ^ Nansen, Fridtjof. Paa ski over Grønland. En skildring af Den norske Grønlands-ekspedition 1888-89. Kristiania: Aschehoug. 
  16. ^ Nansen, Fridtjof (1890). The first crossing of Greenland. London: Longmans, Green and Co. 
  17. ^ Nansen, Fridtjov (1891). Auf Schneeschuhen durch Grönland. Hamburg: autorisirte deutsche Uebersetzung von M. Mann. 
  18. ^ a b Vaage, Jacob (1952). Norske ski erobrer verden. Oslo: Gyldendal. 
  19. ^ "Nynorskordboka og Bokmålsordboka" (database search). Språkrådet (Language Council of Norway) and University of Oslo. Retrieved 2014-10-14. 
  20. ^ Follestad, Sverre (1993). Engelske idiomer. Ord og vendinger fra norsk til engelsk. Oslo: Kunnskapsforlaget. 
  21. ^ Kirkeby, Willy A. (1988). English-Norwegian Dictionary. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget. 
  22. ^ A Complete Guide to Alpine Ski Touring Ski Mountaineering and Nordic Ski Touring Including Useful Information for Off Piste Skiers and Snow Boarders.. Authorhouse. 2014. p. xvii.  
  23. ^ Volken, Martin; Schnell, Scott; Wheeler, Margaret (2007). Backcountry Skiing: Skills for Ski Touring and Ski Mountaineering. Mountaineers Books. p. 12.  
  24. ^ Thomson, Jim (November 2009). "A Technical Manual for the Organization of Cross Country Ski Events". Officials’ Manual Version 3.4. Cross Country Canada. Retrieved 2014-10-21. 
  25. ^ Directors (2012). "Cross Country Sport Committee". USSA Programs. U.S. Ski and Snowboard Association (USSA). Retrieved 2014-11-04. 
  26. ^ Directors (2012). "Rules and Regulations". Cross Country Ski Canada. Retrieved 2014-11-04. 
  27. ^ Editors. "FIS History". About FIS. International Ski Federation. Retrieved 2014-10-23. 
  28. ^ "SWIX Ski Classics". Retrieved 2014-11-05. 
  29. ^ Editors (2012). "What is Worldloppet?". Worldloppet Ski Federation. Retrieved 2014-10-23. 
  30. ^ IBU Congress (2012). "IBU Event and Competition Rules". Rules adopted by the 2012 10th Regular IBU Congress. International Biathlon Union. Retrieved 2014-11-05. 
  31. ^ "Ski Orienteering". The Canadian Orienteering Federation. Retrieved 2008-05-26. 
  32. ^ IPC (2013). "Nordic Skiing Classification". IPC Cross-Country Skiing and Biathlon. International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 2014-10-04. 
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Rees, David (1981). Cross-country skiing: touring and competition (3d ed.). Toronto: Copp C. Pitman.  
  34. ^ Hindman, Steve (December 2008). "Technique & Training: Three steps to skating". Cross Country Skier Magazine. Retrieved 2014-10-20. 
  35. ^ a b PSIA Standards Committee (June 2014). "Cross Country Certification Standards 2014" (PDF). Professional Ski Instructors of America. Retrieved 2014-10-22. 
  36. ^ Fabricant, Florence (26 January 1999). "The Novice; Mastering the Practical Curtsy, on Skis". The New York Times. Retrieved 2014-10-21. 
  37. ^ Hindman, Steve (2003). "Going Downhill". Training & Technique. Cross Country Skier Magazine. Retrieved 2014-10-21. 
  38. ^ "Cross Country Skiing Equipment and History". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2014-10-11. 
  39. ^ "Cross Country Skis (Nordic Skis)". MEC. Mountain Equipment Coop. Retrieved 2014-10-19. 
  40. ^ Bergin, Ron (2008). "Back to Basics: A Quick Look at Paste Waxes, Waxless Ski Preparation and Kick Waxing". Archived from the original on 2 April 2007. Retrieved 2009-01-25. 
  41. ^ XC Ski World. "Equipment: For Classic". Retrieved 2010-05-09. 
  42. ^ Editors (2 September 2013). "How to choose the right ski length". Back Country. Retrieved 2014-10-22. 
  43. ^ Harvey, Ian (9 February 2011). "Information on Fluorinated Waxes". A Michigan Nordic Ski Racer. Retrieved 2014-10-21. 
  44. ^ Swix (22 February 2011). "Information on Fluorinated Waxes". A Michigan Nordic Ski Racer. Retrieved 2014-10-21. 
  45. ^ a b Dzierzak, Lou (November 2008). "Cross country skiers venture off track". On the Wild Side. Cross Country Skier Magazine. Retrieved 2014-10-21. 
  46. ^ Hindman, Steve (February 2004). "Poling Principles". Training & Technique. Cross Country Skier. Retrieved 2014-11-18. 



Ski poles are used for balance and propulsion. Modern cross-country ski poles are made from aluminum, fiberglass-reinforced plastic, or carbon fiber, depending on weight, cost and performance parameters. Formerly they were made of bamboo. They feature a foot (called a basket) near the end of the shaft that provides a pushing platform, as it makes contact with the snow. Baskets vary in size, according to the expected softness/firmness of the snow. Racing poles feature smaller, lighter baskets than recreational poles. Poles designed for skating are longer than those designed for classic skiing.[46]


  • Standardized system: Boots and bindings have an integrated connection, typically a bar across the front end of the sole of the boot, and platform on which the boot rests. Two families of standards prevail: NNN (New Nordic Norm) and SNS (Salomon Nordic System) Profil. Both systems have variants for skiing on groomed surfaces and in back country. These systems are the most prevalent type of binding.
  • Three-pin: The boot-gripping system comprises three pins that correspond to three holes in the sole of the boot's toe, used primarily for back-country skiing.
  • Cable: A cable secures the free-moving heel and keeps the toe of the boot pushed into a boot-gripping section, used primarily for back-country and telemark skiing.

Bindings connect the boot to the ski. There are three primary groups of binding systems used in cross-country skiing (in descending order of importance):[45]

Ski boots are attached to the ski only at the toe, leaving the heel free. Depending on application, boots may be lightweight (performance skiing) or heavier and more supportive (back-country skiing).[45]

Cross-country ski boot and binding system for classic skiing. The skier clicks the toe of the boot into the binding and releases with the button in front of the boot.

Boots and bindings

Skis designed for classic technique, both in track and in virgin snow, rely on a traction zone, called the "kick zone," underfoot. This comes either from a texture designed to slide forward, but not backwards, from applied devices, e.g. climbing skins, or from kick waxes. Kick waxes are classified according to their hardness: harder waxes are for colder and newer snow. An incorrect choice of kick wax may cause slipping (too hard for the conditions) or sticking (too soft for the conditions) of the kick zone.[33] Kick waxes generate grip by interacting with snow crystals, which vary with temperature, age and compaction.[33] Hard kick waxes don't work well for snow which has metamorphosed to having coarse grains, whether icy or wet. In these conditions, skiers opt for a stickier substance, called klister.[33]

Traction surface

Glide waxes enhance the speed of the gliding surface, and are applied by ironing them onto the ski and then polishing the ski bottom. Three classes of glide wax are available, depending on the level of desired performance with higher performance coming at higher cost. Hydrocarbon glide waxes, based on parafin are common for recreational use. Race waxes comprise a combination of fluorinated hydrocarbon waxes and fluorocarbon overlays.[43] Fluorocarbons decrease surface tension and surface area of the water between the ski and the snow, increasing speed and glide of the ski under specific conditions. Either combined with the wax or applied after in a spray, powder, or block form, fluorocarbons significantly improve the glide of the ski and are widely used in cross country ski races.[44]

Gliding surface

  • Classic skis: Designed for skiing in tracks. For adult skiers (between 155 cm/50 kg and 185 cm/75 kg), recommended lengths are between 180 to 210 centimetres (approximately 115% of the skier's height). Traction comes from a “kick zone” underfoot that when bearing the skier’s weight engages either a textured gripping surface or a kick wax. When the skier’s weight is distributed on both skis, the ski’s camber diminishes the pressure of the kick zone on the snow and promotes bearing on the remaining area of the ski, which has the best glide. Accordingly, these skis are classified as "waxable" or "waxless." Recreational waxless skis generally require little attention and are adapted for casual use. Waxable skis, if prepared correctly, provide better grip and glide.[33][40][41]
  • Skate skis: Designed for skiing on groomed surfaces. Recommended lengths are between 170 to 200 centimetres (up to 110% of the skier's height) for adult skiers. The entire bottom of skate skis are prepared for maximum glide. Traction comes from the skier pushing away from the edge of the previous ski onto the next ski.[33]
  • Back country skis: Designed for ski touring on natural snow conditions. Recommended lengths are between 150 to 195 centimeters for adult skiers. Traction may come from a textured or waxed kick zone, as with classic skis, or from ski skins, which are applied to the ski bottom for long, steep ascents and have hairs or mechanical texture that prevents sliding backwards. Touring skis are typically heavier, shorter, and wider than classic and skate skis; they have metal edges for better grip on hard snow. Their greater sidecut helps carving turns.[42]

Skis used in cross-country are lighter and narrower than those used in alpine skiing. Ski bottoms are designed to provide a gliding surface and, for classic skis, a traction zone under foot. The base of the gliding surface is a plastic material that is designed both to minimize friction and, in many cases, to accept waxes.[38] Glide wax may be used on the tails and tips of classic skis and across the length of skate skis.[33][39] Each type of ski is sized and designed differently:

Cross-country ski equipment for skate-skiing (left) and classic-style skiing (right). Note the difference in ski and pole lengths for each. Note also the "kick zone" on the classic skis.


  • Technique, classic vs skate
  • Terrain, which may vary from groomed trails to wilderness
  • Performance level, from recreational use to competition at the elite level[33]

Equipment comprises skis, poles, boots and bindings; these vary according to:


Turns, used while descending or for braking, include the snowplough (or "Wedge Turn"),[35] the stem Christie (or "Wedge Christie"),[35] parallel turn, and the Telemark turn. The step turn is used for maintaining speed during descents or out of track on flats.[36][37]


With skate skiing, the skier provides propulsion on a smooth, firm snow surface by pushing alternating skis away from one another at an angle, in a manner similar to ice skating. Skate-skiing usually involves a coordinated use of poles and the upper body to add impetus, sometimes with a double pole plant each time the ski is extended on a temporarily "dominant" side ("V1") or with a double pole plant each time the ski is extended on either side ("V2"). Skiers climb hills, using these techniques, by widening the angle of the "V" and by making more frequent, shorter strides and more forceful use of poles.[34]

Skate skiing

The classic style is often used on prepared trails (pistes) that have pairs of parallel grooves (tracks) cut into the snow. It is also the most usual technique where no tracks have been prepared. With this technique, each ski is pushed forward from the other stationary ski in a striding and gliding motion, alternating foot to foot. With the "diagonal stride" variant the poles are planted alternately on the opposite side of the forward-striding foot; with the "kick-double-pole" variant the poles are planted simultaneously with every other stride. At times, especially with gentle descents, double poling is the sole means of propulsion.[33] On uphill terrain, techniques include the "side step" for steep slopes, moving the skis perpendicular to the fall line, the "herringbone" for moderate slopes, where the skier takes alternating steps with the skis splayed outwards, and, for gentle slopes, the skier uses the diagonal technique with shorter strides and greater arm force on the poles.[33]


Both poles can be used simultaneously ("double-poling"), or alternating, in classic the alternating technique is most common (the "diagonal stride") while in the skating technique double poles are more common.[33]

Cross-country skiing has two basic propulsion techniques, which apply to different surfaces: classic (undisturbed snow and tracked snow) and skate skiing (firm, smooth snow surfaces). The classic technique relies on a wax or texture on the ski bottom under the foot for traction on the snow to allow the skier to slide the other ski forward in virgin or tracked snow. With the skate skiing technique a skier slides on alternating skis on a firm snow surface at an angle from each other in a manner similar to ice skating. Both techniques employ poles with baskets that allow the arms to participate in the propulsion. Specialized equipment is adapted to each technique and each type of terrain.[33] A variety of turns are used, when descending.

Skiers employing step turns, while descending during a 2006 FIS World Cup Cross Country competition in Otepää, Estonia.


Paralympic cross-country ski competition is an adaptation of cross-country skiing for athletes with disabilities. Paralympic cross-country skiing includes standing events, sitting events (for wheelchair users), and events for visually impaired athletes under the rules of the International Paralympic Committee. These are divided into several categories for people who are missing limbs, have amputations, are blind, or have any other physical disability, to continue their sport.[32]

Ski orienteering is a form of cross-country skiing competition that requires navigation in a landscape, making optimal route choices at racing speeds. Standard orienteering maps are used, but with special green overprinting of trails and tracks to indicate their navigability in snow; other symbols indicate whether any roads are snow-covered or clear. Standard skate-skiing equipment is used, along with a map holder attached to the chest. It is one of the four orienteering disciplines recognized by the International Orienteering Federation. Upper body strength is especially important because of frequent double poling along narrow snow trails.[31]

Biathlon combines cross-country skiing and rifle shooting. Depending on the shooting performance, extra distance or time is added to the contestant's total running distance/time. For each shooting round, the biathlete must hit five targets; the skier receives a penalty for each missed target, which varies according to the competition rules.[30]

Cross-country ski marathons—races with distances greater than 40 kilometers—have their own cup series called Swix Ski Classics, which started in 2011.[28] Skiers race in classic or free-style (skating) events, depending on the rules of the race. Notable ski marathons, include the Vasaloppet in Sweden, Birkebeineren in Norway, the Engadin Skimarathon in Switzerland, the American Birkebeiner, the Tour of Anchorage in Anchorage, Alaska, and the Boreal Loppet, held in Forestville, Quebec, Canada.[29]

Other sanctioned competition

The FIS Nordic World Ski Championships have been held in various numbers and types of events since 1925 for men and since 1954 for women. From 1924 to 1939, the World Championships were held every year, including the Winter Olympic Games. After World War II, the World Championships were held every four years from 1950 to 1982. Since 1985, the World Championships have been held in odd-numbered years.[27] Notable cross-country ski competitions include the Winter Olympics, the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships, and the FIS World Cup events (including the Holmenkollen.

Swede Anna Haag with classic technique in the women's 10 km classic race at the 2011 FIS Nordic World Ski Championships in Oslo, Norway.

FIS-sanctioned competition

Cross-country ski competition encompasses a variety of formats for races over courses of varying lengths according to rules sanctioned by the U.S. Ski and Snowboard Association[25] and Cross Country Ski Canada.[26] It also encompasses cross-country ski marathon events, sanctioned by the Worldloppet Ski Federation, cross-country ski orienteering events, sanctioned by the International Orienteering Federation, and Paralympic cross-country skiing, sanctioned by the International Paralympic Committee.



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