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Cubana de Aviación Flight 455

 

Cubana de Aviación Flight 455

Cubana Flight 455
Bombing summary
Date October 6, 1976
Summary Airliner bombing
Site 8 km west of Seawell Airport, Bridgetown, Barbados
Passengers 68
Crew 5
Fatalities 73 (all)
Aircraft type Douglas DC-8-40
Operator Cubana de Aviación
Registration CU-T1201

Cubana de Aviación Flight 455 was a Cuban flight from Barbados to Jamaica that was brought down on October 6, 1976 by a terrorist bomb attack. All 73 people on board the Douglas DC-8 aircraft were killed. Two time bombs were used, whose explosives have been variously described as dynamite or C-4.

Several CIA-linked anti-Castro Cuban exiles and members of the Venezuelan secret police DISIP were implicated by the evidence. Political complications quickly arose when Cuba accused the US government of being an accomplice to the attack. CIA documents released in 2005 indicate that the agency "had concrete advance intelligence, as early as June 1976, on plans by Cuban exile terrorist groups to bomb a Cubana airliner." Former CIA terrorist operative Luis Posada Carriles denies involvement but provides many details of the incident in his book Caminos del Guerrero (Way of the Warrior).[1][2]

Four men were arrested in connection with the bombing, and a trial was held in Venezuela. Freddy Lugo and Hernán Ricardo Lozano were each sentenced to 20-year prison terms. Orlando Bosch was acquitted and later moved to Miami, Florida, where he lived until his death on April 27, 2011. Luis Posada Carriles was held for eight years while awaiting a final sentence but eventually fled. He later entered the United States, where he was held on charges of entering the country illegally, but was released on April 19, 2007.

Contents

  • Background 1
  • Preparations 2
  • Crash 3
  • Judicial proceedings 4
    • Arrests 4.1
    • Military trial 4.2
    • Civilian trial 4.3
    • Aftermath 4.4
  • FBI and CIA knowledge 5
  • Memorials 6
  • Representations in popular culture 7
  • See also 8
  • References 9
  • External links 10

Background

On June 11, 1976, Dominican Republic. CORU united five anti-Castro Cuban exile groups,[3] including Alpha 66 and Omega 7. For three months prior to the bombing of Flight 455, CORU waged a campaign of violence against links between several Caribbean countries which had established links with Cuba. In July 1977, the same flight was targeted in Jamaica by a suitcase bomb which exploded shortly before being loaded onto the plane.[4] Other bombings in the summer included a number of offices of airlines carrying out business with Cuba, including the offices of the BWIA West Indies Airlines in Barbados; of Air Panama in Colombia; and of Iberia and Nanaco Line in Costa Rica.[3] Other attacks included the murder of a Cuban official in Mexico and two [more (Cuban) officials?] in Argentina;[3] the September assassination of Orlando Letelier in Washington, D.C.; and "a mysterious fire in Guyana [which] destroyed a large quantity of Cuban-supplied fishing equipment."[4]

Preparations

On October 5, 1976, Lugo and Hernán Ricardo Lozano left Caracas for Trinidad, arriving at 1 a.m. The following day, they sought to board Cubana de Aviación's Flight CU-455, which was scheduled to fly from Guyana to Havana, Cuba, via Trinidad, Barbados, and Kingston. They rejected the offer of an earlier flight with British West Indies Airways (BWIA). With a member of the Cuban fencing team waiting for the Cubana flight assisting with interpretation, the pair were able to insist on boarding the later Cubana flight. The pair left the flight at Barbados, and later returned to Trinidad.[5]

Crash

Eleven minutes after takeoff from Barbados‍ '​s Seawell Airport (now Grantley Adams International Airport) and at an altitude of 18,000 feet, two bombs exploded on board. One was located in the aircraft's rear lavatory, and another in the midsection of the passenger cabin. The former ultimately destroyed the aircraft's control cables, while the latter blasted a hole in the aircraft and started a fire.[5]

The plane went into a rapid descent, while the pilots tried unsuccessfully to return the plane to Seawell Airport.[6] The captain, Wilfredo Pérez Pérez, radioed to the control tower: "We have an explosion aboard – we are descending immediately! ... We have fire on board! We are requesting immediate landing! We have a total emergency!" Realizing a successful landing was no longer possible, it appears that the pilot turned the craft away from the beach and towards the Caribbean Sea off porters St James, saving the lives of many tourists. This occurred about eight kilometres short of the airport.

All 68 passengers and 5 crew aboard the plane died: the passengers comprised 57 Cubans, 11 Guyanese, and 5 North Koreans.[5] Among the dead were all 24 members of the 1975 national Cuban

  • Criminal Occurrence description at the Aviation Safety Network
  • PDF Report on the Judicial Proceedings (in Spanish) (Archive)
  • 1998 Barbados Monument located in the parish of Saint James, dedicated to the victims of the aircraft bombing.
  • Picture of the airplane
  • Terrorist Network Operating Openly In The United States by Jane Franklin, ZNET, April 30, 2005
  • The Coddled "Terrorists" of South Florida by Tristram Korten and Kirk Nielsen, Salon Magazine, January 14, 2008
  • Twilight of the Assassins: The 1976 Bombing of Cubana Airlines Flight 455 - video report by Democracy Now!

External links

  1. ^ Posada Carriles, Luis 1994 (accessed 4-13-07) Los Caminos del Guerrero. Latin American Studies [5]
  2. ^ a b "Luis Posada Carriles: The Declassified Record". gwu.edu. 
  3. ^ a b c Jean-Guy Allard, Granma, 26 December 2005, The U.S. ignored Costa Rican proposal to extradite Bosch
  4. ^ a b The Guardian, 8 October 1976, Cuban exiles 'bombed jet'
  5. ^ a b c d Phillips, Dion E. (1991), "Terrorism and security in the Caribbean: The 1976 Cubana disaster off Barbados" in Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 14:4, 209—219, p. 211.
  6. ^ Staff writer (26 September 2010). "Ex-airport boss recalls Cubana crash".  
  7. ^ http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/belligerence/caso-avion-cubano-4.pdf
  8. ^ http://www.abc.net.au/26 June 2007
  9. ^ 638 Ways to Kill Castro, Channel 4 Television, 28 November 2006: TV documentary covering the many attempts by the CIA to eliminate Cuban leader Fidel Castro, a segment of which focused upon the Flight 455 bombing.
  10. ^ Push to free convicted Cuban spies reaches D.C., Miami Herald, September 22, 2006 (English)
  11. ^ "Cuban militant's release draws fire". Los Angeles Times. 
  12. ^ No deportation for Cuban militant (BBC)
  13. ^ Author: Anti-Cuba Group Planned 14 Crashes United Press International, October 7, 2009
  14. ^ Declassified FBI report on bombing of Cubana Flight 455, dated 5 November 1976 (Archive)
  15. ^ Declassified CIA document dated October 14, 1976 (Archive)
  16. ^ Former CIA Asset Luis Posada Goes to Trial by Peter Kornbluh, The Nation, January 5, 2011
  17. ^ [6] (Archive)
  18. ^ Staff writer (November 5, 2010). "Cuba a ‘true friend’ to Barbados".  
  19. ^ Rockcliffe, Abena (16 October 2012). "Monument erected to Cubana Air disaster victims".  

References

See also

The incident is dramatized in Stir It Up: The CIA Targets Jamaica, Bob Marley and the Progressive Manley Government, an alternative/historical novel by David Dusty Cupples

Representations in popular culture

A monument was erected at Payne's Bay, Saint James, Barbados, to the memory of the people killed in the bombing. It was visited several times by Fidel Castro and other Cuban[18] and Venezuelan officials, including a visit during the CARICOM meeting in December 2005, during which Cuban officials called for Posada "to be brought to justice so as to bring closure to this egregious incident that caused so much pain to the people of the region." In October 2012, an additional monument to the tragedy was unveiled on the Turkeyen campus of the University of Guyana.[19]

This memorial was erected in recognition of the 73 people who were killed in the crash of Cubana Flight 455 just off the coast of Bridgetown, Barbados, in early October 1976.

Memorials

Documents released by the National Security Archive on May 3, 2007, reveal the links Posada had to the 1976 Cubana airline bombing and other terrorist attacks and plots, including a British West Indian Airways office in Barbados and the Guyanese Embassy in Trinidad. [4] These provide additional proof of Posada's involvement in violent efforts to undermine Castro's socialist government, said George Washington University.

A declassified FBI document dated October 21, 1976, quotes CORU member Secundino Carrera as stating that CORU "was responsible for the bombing of the Cubana Airlines DC-8 on October 6, 1976... this bombing and the resulting deaths were fully justified because CORU was at war with the Fidel Castro regime." Carrera also expressed his pleasure over the attention paid to the United States over the bombing, as it was taking attention off of himself and his associate.[17]

A declassified CIA document dated October 12, 1976, a few days after bombing, quotes Posada as saying, a few days after a plate fund-raising meeting for CORU held around September 15, "We are going to hit a Cuban airliner... Orlando has the details" (Source Comment: The identities of "We" and "Orlando" were not known at the time.)[15]

According to documents, Posada stopped being a CIA asset in 1974, but there remained "occasional contact" until June 1976, a few months before the bombing. CIA had concrete advance intelligence, as early as June 1976, on possible plans by Cuban exile terrorist groups to bomb a Cubana airliner, and the FBI's attaché in Caracas had multiple contacts with one of the Venezuelans who placed the bomb on the plane, and provided him with a visa to the U.S. five days before the bombing, despite suspicions that he was engaged in terrorist activities at the direction of Luis Posada Carriles.[2]

Coordination of United Revolutionary Organizations - CORU), led at the time by Orlando Bosch.

Declassified FBI report that reads: "Our confidential source ascertained (...) that the bombing of the Cubana Airlines DC-8 was planned, in part, in Caracas, Venezuela, at two meetings attended by Morales Navarrete, Luis Posada Carriles and Frank Castro"[14]

FBI and CIA knowledge

On September 28, 2005, a U.S. immigration judge ruled that Posada could not be deported because he faced the threat of torture in Venezuela.[12]

In 2005, Posada was held by U.S. authorities in Texas on the charge of illegal presence on national territory before the charges were dismissed on May 8, 2007. His release on bail on April 19, 2007, had elicited angry reactions from the Cuban and Venezuelan governments.[10] The U.S. Justice Department had urged the court to keep him in jail because he was "an admitted mastermind of terrorist plots and attacks", a flight risk and a danger to the community.[11]

Freed from Venezuelan charges, Bosch went to the United States, assisted by US Ambassador to Venezuela Jeb Bush, who later became Governor of Florida; this pardon was despite objections by the President's own defense department that Bosch was one of the most deadly terrorists working "within the hemisphere."[9] Although many countries sought Bosch's extradition, he remained free in the United States. The political pressure to grant Bosch a pardon was begun during the congressional campaign run by Ileana Ros-Lehtinen, herself a Cuban American, and overseen by her campaign manager Jeb Bush.

Posada then fled to Panama and to the United States. In April 2005, a new warrant for his arrest in connection with the bombing was issued in Venezuela by the government of Hugo Chávez. However, a U.S. immigration judge ruled that Posada should not be deported to Cuba or Venezuela because he could be subject to torture in those countries. In 2007, Congressman Bill Delahunt and Jose Pertierra, an immigration lawyer representing the government of Venezuela, argued that Posada could be deported on the grounds that the U.S. was making an exception for Posada. Because, they argued, the U.S. practices extraordinary rendition involving the seizure and transportation of suspected terrorists to Syria and Egypt, both of which practice torture, the U.S. could also deport Posada, a terrorist, to Cuba or Venezuela.[8]

A different judge then ordered the case reviewed by a higher court. The Venezuelan government declined to appeal the case any further, and in November 1987 Bosch was freed. He had spent 11 years in jail despite having been acquitted twice. Lugo and Lozano were released in 1993 and continue to reside in Venezuela.

Aftermath

Posada fled from the San Juan de los Morros penitentiary on the eve of the pronouncement of his sentence. He had been confined there following two previous failed escape attempts. Allegations were made that Venezuelan authorities were bribed to help him escape. No verdict was entered against Posada because, according to the Venezuelan Penal Code, judicial proceedings cannot continue without the presence of the accused. The court issued an arrest warrant against him which was still pending as of November 2005.

On August 8, 1985, Venezuelan judge Alberto Perez Marcano of the 11th Penal Court convicted Lugo and Ricardo, sentencing them each to 20 years in prison. The judge reduced the penalty to its lowest limit "due to the extenuating circumstance of no prior criminal records." Orlando Bosch was acquitted, because the evidence gathered by the Barbados authorities during the investigation could not be used in the Venezuela trial, as it was presented too late and had not been translated into Spanish.

The four were then charged with aggravated homicide and treason before a civilian court.

Civilian trial

The prosecutor appealed, arguing that a military court was the wrong forum to try the case for two reasons: none of the men were military personnel in 1976, and the crime of qualified homicide or aggravated homicide cannot be tried by a military tribunal. The Military Court of Appeals agreed and surrendered jurisdiction, rendering the acquittal moot. The Judge ruled that the accused "are civilians and the crimes imputed to them are governed by the penal (and not the military) code... Civilians and common law crimes are not subject to the dispositions of the Code of Military Justice..."

In September 1980, a Venezuelan military judge acquitted all four men.

On August 25, 1977, Judge Delia Estava Moreno referred the case to a military tribunal, charging all four co-conspirators with treason.

Military trial

On October 20, authorities of Trinidad, Cuba, Barbados, Guyana and Venezuela held a meeting in Port of Spain, during which the decision was taken to hold the trial in Venezuela, since the four accused were citizens of that country. Shortly after, Lugo and Lozano were deported to Venezuela.

On October 14, 1976, Posada and Bosch were arrested in Caracas, Venezuela, and the offices of Investigaciones Comerciales e Industriales C.A. (ICICA), a private investigator's company owned by Posada, were raided. Weapons, explosives and a radio transmitter were found. Lozano was an employee of ICICA at the time of the attack, while Lugo worked as a photographer for the Ministry of Mines and Hydrocarbons.

Lugo and Lozano confessed, and declared they were acting under the orders of Luis Posada Carriles, a CIA operative. Their testimony, along with other evidence, implicated Posada and fellow CIA operative Orlando Bosch, an anti-Castro Cuban living in Venezuela.

Hours after the explosions, Trinidad authorities arrested Freddy Lugo and Hernan Ricardo Lozano, two Venezuelan men who had boarded the plane in Trinidad and checked their baggage to Cuba, but who had exited the plane in Barbados and flown back to Trinidad. Lozano had been traveling with a false identity under the name of José Vázquez García.

Arrests

Judicial proceedings

and the young wife of a Guyanese diplomat. The five Koreans were government officials and a cameraman. [5] The 11 Guyanese passengers included five travelling to Cuba to study medicine,[7]

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